• Volume 2 || Issue 5 || versions 1 || May 2013
    Paper Id :: 23159
    Paper Title :: Empirical Study of Internet Use by Undergraduates in Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko
    Author Name :: Akintomide O. A. ||Ademodi D. T.
    Page Number :: 01-15
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/025101015
    The objective of the study was to analyze internet use among undergraduates in Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko. A total of five hundred (500) questionnaires were raised out of which four hundred and twenty eight (428) representing 84.8% were returned and used for the study. The questionnaire sought to elicit responses on frequency of internet use, where and how access is gained to the internet, what resources are used, level of satisfaction with the use of internet resources, preferred source of information as well as challenges encountered in using the internet. These responses were analyzed using simple percentages and results were presented in tables. The study revealed that a great number of respondents made use of the internet on a daily basis for mostly assignments and social networking purposes. It also revealed that quite a number of respondents, above 50% in most faculties, gained access to the internet via their phones and from their homes with very few making use of internet access platforms provided by the university. The most common internet resource used were search engines and level of satisfaction of most respondents was average. On challenges encountered, most respondents indicated fluctuating network as their greatest challenge. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations made to enhance effective use of internet resources by undergraduates in the university.
    Keywords: Internet, Network, ARPANET, ICT, Infrastructure
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Akintomide O. A. and Ademodi D. T.},
    title = {Empirical Study of Internet Use by Undergraduates in Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {01-15},
    month = {May}
    }
    Paper Id :: 24134
    Paper Title :: Various Scheduling Algorithms for Resource Allocation In Cloud Computing
    Author Name :: Swarupa Irugurala || Dr.K.Shahu Chatrapati
    Page Number :: 16-24
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0251016024
    To provide services to customers SaaS providers utilize resources of internal data centers or rent resources from a public Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) provider. In-house hosting can increase administration and maintenance costs whereas renting from an IaaS provider can impact the service quality due to its variable performance. To overcome these limitations, we propose innovative admission control and scheduling algorithms for SaaS providers to effectively utilize public Cloud resources to maximize profit by minimizing cost and improving customer satisfaction level. Furthermore, we conduct an extensive evaluation study to analyze which solution suits best in which scenario to maximize SaaS provider's profit. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithms provide substantial improvement over reference ones across all ranges of variation in QoS parameters.
    Keywords: resource control, cloud computing, scheduling algorithm
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Swarupa Irugurala and Dr.K.Shahu Chatrapati},
    title = {Various Scheduling Algorithms for Resource Allocation In Cloud Computing},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {16-24},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24187
    Paper Title :: Neuro-Fuzzy System for Livestock Feed Formulation (African Poultry)
    Author Name :: G. A. Aderounmu ||E. O. Omidiora ||B. O. Adegoke ||T. A. Taiwo
    Page Number :: 25-32
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0251025032
    This paper develops a neuro-fuzzy algorithm for African poultry feed formulation. The algorithm employs an artificial neural network method for fine-tuning the proportion of individual ingredients in the formulated feed. The algorithm was trained with African feed ingredients composition on MATLAB 2009 platform. Outputs from the system were compared with some available standards and the data analyzed on NCSS 2000. It was discovered that output of the algorithm produced a correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.93 for broilers and chick major feed components. At significant level of 0.05 chicks amino acid contents, it produced an f ratio of 0.31 and p value of 0.74 while for layers amino acid content, it produce an f-ratio of 4.66 and p- value of 0.016. A further analysis of output of layer amino acid gave p value of 0.0000037 and T of 4.80978 and p-value 0.11379 and T-value of 1.6273 against the two standards used as bench marks for its validation.
    Keywords: Feed, Neuro-Fuzzy system, Livestock, Nutrients, Digestible Nutrients.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {G. A. Aderounmu and E. O. Omidiora and B. O. Adegoke and T. A. Taiwo},
    title = {Neuro-Fuzzy System for Livestock Feed Formulation (African Poultry)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {25-32},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25007
    Paper Title :: Assessing First Stage Primary School Students' Achievement Level of Specific Objectives in English Courses
    Author Name :: Senem Seda Şahenk Erkan
    Page Number :: 33-41
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0251033041
    The problem statement of this survey is 'How far are the specific objectives of English courses achieved by the first stage state primary school students (4-5 grades) recently in Istanbul?' "Does the first stage state primary school students' achievement level of the specific English courses differ according to students' personal characteristics? Survey method was used in this study. Data collection instrument was a Personal Information Form with 6 items (gender, grade, mother's and father's education level, family income level, existence of a family member who can speak English) developed by Lect. Dr. Senem Seda SAHENK ERKAN. 'Assessing First Stage Primary School Students' Achievement Level of Specific Objectives In English Courses' was prepared by the researcher, Lect. Dr. Senem Seda SAHENK ERKAN. A 5-point Likert-type scale (Strongly disagree (1), Disagree (2), Slightly agree (3), Agree (4), Strongly Agree (5)) was used. This scale, which tests the specific objectives of the English courses that students study at the first stage of state primary school, included 30 items. The results of this study and recommendations will be provided in the full text.
    Keywords: Teaching English at the first stage of primary schools, Specific English course objectives.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Senem Seda Şahenk Erkan},
    title = {Assessing First Stage Primary School Students' Achievement Level of Specific Objectives in English Courses},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {33-41},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24243
    Paper Title :: Effect Of Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O) Film Thickness On The Efficiency Of The Copper-Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O/Cu) Solar Cell
    Author Name :: Ohajianya, Anthony C.||Abumere, Oamen E.
    Page Number :: 42-47
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0251042047
    Copper-Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O/Cu) Backwall solar cells were fabricated using thermal oxidation method for the Cu2O thin film deposition. By connecting the cells in an experimental circuit and varying the load resistance from 0Ω to ∞, the short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and maximum power point were determined for each of the cell samples. The fill-factor and efficiency of the Cu2O/Cu solar cells were determined after which the thickness of the Cu2O film layer was measured for each of the samples using the gravimetric (weight loss) method. The dependence of efficiency of Cu2O/Cu solar cell on the oxide film thickness was established. The efficiency was found to increase as the oxide film-thickness decreases, up to a limiting thickness of 26.30μm after which the efficiency decreases with decrease in the oxide film-thickness.
    Keywords: efficiency, fill factor, maximum power point, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, solar cell
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ohajianya, Anthony C. and Abumere, Oamen E.},
    title = {Effect Of Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O) Film Thickness On The Efficiency Of The Copper-Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O/Cu) Solar Cell},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {42-47},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24241
    Paper Title :: Customer Trust as Relationship Mediation Between Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty At Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) Southeast Sulawesi
    Author Name :: Dr. Rahmat Madjid
    Page Number :: 48-60
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0251048060
    The purpose of this study is to explore and test the influence of customer satisfaction and trust towards customer loyalty. More specific purpose is to test the role of customer satisfaction as a mediator of relationship between customer trust and towards customer loyalty. The design of this study used the survey method with data collection through questionnaire. A total of 150 respondents are selected using convenience sampling at customer BRI Kendari Southeast Sulawesi, one of the leading government bank in Indonesia. Data are analyzed by using variance-based SEM with Partial Least Square analysis (PLS). The results showed that customer satisfaction has significant influence toward customer trust and loyalty. Furthermore, customer trust has positive and significant influence toward customer loyalty.Customer trust as partial mediation link between the customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The practical implications of these studies provide knowledge and information for customer BRI Kendari Southeast Sulawesi in an attempt to improve customer loyalty through the application of the concept of relationship marketing. Satisfaction and customer trust were both measured by a single item. Although they show high face validity, the findings should be replicated using a multiple-item approach. Future research should also consider distinguishing between transaction-specific satisfaction and cumulative satisfaction. Originality of research can prove the test configuration model of integrated relationship between the customer satisfaction and trust to increased customer loyalty. The role of mediation of customer satisfaction proved significant influence on increasing customer loyalty.
    Keywords: Satisfaction, Trust, Loyalty, Banking Industry (BRI).
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Rahmat Madjid},
    title = {Customer Trust as Relationship Mediation Between Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty At Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) Southeast Sulawesi},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {48-60},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24223
    Paper Title :: Effect of Tractor Forward Speed on Metering Efficiency and Evenness of Planting of a Device for Mechanized Yam Sett Planting
    Author Name :: J.O. Awulu || I.N. Itodo || V.I. Umogbai
    Page Number :: 61-67
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0251061067
    A tractor mounted yam (Dioscorea spp) metering device was designed and fabricated and its performance evaluated. The device was designed to minimize the clogging of yam setts at the throat of the hopper, a problem that has adversely affected mechanization of yam planting. The main features of the developed device are the hopper, the metering mechanism, delivery chute, and frame and land wheel. The metering device was evaluated on a flat field at forward speeds of 2.8, 3.8, 5.7 and 7.5 km/h. The field evaluation determined the evenness of dropping at the various forward speeds. The theoretical field capacity (ha/h), effective field capacity (ha/h) and field efficiency (%) were determined. The dropping rate of the device was determined and compared with manual rate of planting yam setts using the traditional "hoe-and machete" technology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P ≤ 0.05 was used to determine if speed had any significant effect on metering efficiency and evenness of dropping. Results obtained show that the highest metering efficiency of 73% was obtained at the forward speed of 2.8 km/h. The metering efficiency decreased with increasing forward speeds. The ANOVA showed that speed had a significant effect on the metering efficiency and the spacing between dropped yam setts. The yam setts were dropped at a mean spacing of 1.2 m apart with evenness of dropping of 88%. Similarly the theoretical field capacity, effective field capacity and field efficiency of the device decreased with increasing speed. The manual planting rate was 144 yam setts per hour which is equivalent to 1152 setts for a farmer working at 8 h per day. Correspondingly, the device dropped 782 setts per hour, which is equivalent to 6255 setts if the device also works at 8 h per day. When the device runs for 13.2 h, it is capable of doing what a farmer working at 8 h per day can do in 10 working days. The device cannot be operated in reverse direction and is recommended to be operated at a forward speed of 2.8 km/h. This device can, therefore be used to enhance the mechanization of yam planting when opener and covering mechanisms are attached.
    Keywords: WEfficiency, Mechanized, Metering, Planting, Sett, Speed, Tractor and Yam
    @article{key:article,
    author = {J.O. Awulu and I.N. Itodo and V.I. Umogbai},
    title = {Effect of Tractor Forward Speed on Metering Efficiency and Evenness of Planting of a Device for Mechanized Yam Sett Planting},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {61-67},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24222
    Paper Title :: Swine Flu and Its Herbal Remedies
    Author Name :: Avani Shah || R. Krishnamurthy
    Page Number :: 68-78
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0251068078
    Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Folk (Tribal) medicines are the major systems of indigenous medicines. Unlike many diseases, this can be attributed to the life style of modern man. Swine flu is a disease of the respiratory system. It is caused by the H1N1 virus. It has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. People who used to have direct contact with pigs were observed to get swine flu in the past. But, H1N1 virus is a new swine flu virus and it contains the genetic material of swine, bird and human influenza virus. Swine flu can produce a number of symptoms in both adults and children. Swine flu natural remedies and swine flu herbal remedies are better treatment options, and they are free of side effects. Ayurvedic medicines and plant based medicines are using for swine flu; it has less side effect ,it is very safe for human beings. More than 700 plants like Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum) etc are using for many types of disease including swine flu. These plants have lot of antibiotic property.
    Keywords: Ayurveda, Natural herbs, Medicinal plant, swine flu
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Avani Shah and R. Krishnamurthy},
    title = {Swine Flu and Its Herbal Remedies},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {68-78},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24201
    Paper Title :: Piezoelectric Power Generation Under Quasistatic And Dynamic Conditions
    Author Name :: Raunaq Shah || Rahul Khandelwal || Vishnukumar A ||Prof Sudha R
    Page Number :: 79-83
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0251079083
    In the case of the PPG(Piezoelectric Pulse Generator, the most commonly used method to generate electrical power), the piezoelectric crystalline material consists of a zirconia titanate material providing a method to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. A pulse conditioning stage is also included in the generator. Although the energy density of the generator is not extremely high in comparison to batteries, its durability, compactness, and long shelf-life are advantageous in certain applications. The piezoelectric generator consists of commercially available piezoelectric elements arranged in a stack and electrically connected in parallel. The piezoelectric generator is, at most, 50% efficient due to its internal capacitance. In this study paper we shall review two methods of exciting a piezoelectric generator namely static and dynamic stress in both theoretical and practical applications.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Raunaq Shah and Rahul Khandelwal and Vishnukumar A and Prof Sudha R},
    title = {Piezoelectric Power Generation Under Quasistatic And Dynamic Conditions},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {79-83},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24178
    Paper Title :: Strength of Ternary Blended Cement Concrete Containing Corn Cob Ash and Pawpaw Leaf Ash
    Author Name :: L. O. Ettu || J. I. Arimanwa || K. C. Nwachukwu || C. T. G. Awodiji ||A. P. C. Amanze
    Page Number :: 84-89
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0251084089
    This work investigated the compressive strength of ternary blended cement concrete containing corn cob ash (CCA) and pawpaw leaf ash (PPLA). 105 concrete cubes of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm were produced with OPC-CCA binary blended cement, 105 with OPC-PPLA binary blended cement, and 105 with OPC-CCA-PPLA ternary blended cement, each at percentage OPC replacement with pozzolan of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. Three cubes for each percentage replacement of OPC with pozzolan and the control were tested for saturated surface dry bulk density and crushed to obtain their compressive strengths at 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 50, and 90 days of curing. The 90-day strengths obtained from ternary blending of OPC with equal proportions of CCA and PPLA were 27.30N/mm2for 5% replacement, 26.30N/mm2 for 10% replacement, 25.10N/mm2 for 15% replacement, 23.70N/mm2 for 20% replacement, and 22.40N/mm2 for 25% replacement, while that of the control was 24.40N/mm2. The results show that OPC-CCA-PPLA ternary blended cement could be used in producing concrete with high strength values at 50 days of hydration and above. Thus, OPC-OPBA-PLA ternary blended cement concrete could be used for various civil engineering and building works.
    Keywords: Binary blended cement, ternary blended cement, concrete, pozzolan, corn cob ash, pawpaw leaf ash.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {L. O. Ettu and J. I. Arimanwa and K. C. Nwachukwu and C. T. G. Awodiji and A. P. C. Amanze},
    title = {Strength of Ternary Blended Cement Concrete Containing Corn Cob Ash and Pawpaw Leaf Ash},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {84-89},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24122
    Paper Title :: Conceptualization of an Integrated Positioning & Time Synchronization System for GPS/INS Using VHDL/FPGA Tools for Marine Applications
    Author Name :: S. Sajithra Varun ||Cdr.Vijay Singh ||Dr.R.Nagaraj
    Page Number :: 90-96
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/025109096
    The synchronization of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) can overcome the defects of INS or GPS standalone systems. This scheme implemented conceptualize, a far more flexible, platform based time synchronization system using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. The biggest advantage of the FPGA-based system is that all the hardware and software components of the system are field re-programmable without any hardware changes. After successful software simulation and testing, the same can be implemented in real-time on a suitable FPGA hardware.This reprogrammable hardware configuration represents a system design methodology of lower risk. It has maximum flexibility with the integration of a wide range of GPS and INS sensor packages. A new solution for time synchronization using GPS receiver signals as reference is proposed. In order to improve the accuracy of time synchronization, we utilize IPPS (Pulse Per Second) signal from GPS receiver as a synchronization reference, and tag time stamp on the serial data package from IMU.
    Keywords: GPS/INS, Time synchronization, 1PPS, FPGA
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. Sajithra Varun and Cdr.Vijay Singh and Dr.R.Nagaraj},
    title = {Conceptualization of an Integrated Positioning & Time Synchronization System for GPS/INS Using VHDL/FPGA Tools for Marine Applications},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {90-96},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24085
    Paper Title :: Streamflow Models of Imo River for Regional Water Resources Allocation
    Author Name :: Okoro B. C. || Uzoukwu R. A.
    Page Number :: 97-103
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02510970103
    Developed Streamflow Models for Imo River is presented based on the statistical method of least squares. Four streamflow models of Imo River are developed to assist allocation of water resources within the South-East region of Nigeria mostly concern by the river basin, using streamflow data from Umuna, Obigbo, Umuopara and Ndimoko streamflow gauging stations. The models represent nonlinear relationship between annual maximum discharge and annual maximum stage. High and positive values of correlation coefficients (r) ranging between 0.953 to 0.998 and coefficients of determination (r2) ranging between 0.908 to 0.997 were obtained indicating good curve fitting. The models developed will serve the useful purpose of predicting streamflow events and in turn flood prediction, erosion and sedimentation control, drainage, water resources allocation and management, design and operation of hydraulic structures, irrigation, habitat protection, recreational use of water, and pollution abatement. The four streamflow models of Imo River can also be used to predict similar river characteristics with that of Imo River. The research will play an important role in ensuring that future allocation of water resources in the localities are scientifically based and efficiently used so as to satisfy the needs of both human and natural systems.
    Keywords: Streamflow, Stage, Discharge, Water Resources Allocation, Correlation Coefficient, Coefficients of Determination and Standard Error Estimate.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Okoro B. C. and Uzoukwu R. A.},
    title = {Streamflow Models of Imo River for Regional Water Resources Allocation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {97-103},
    month = {May}
    }
    Volume 2 || Issue 5 || versions 2 || May 2013
    Paper Id :: 24030
    Paper Title :: Effects Of Process Factors On The Synthesis Of Bioethanol From Cassava Tubers Using H2S04 As Catalyst
    Author Name :: Echegi,U. S. C. ||Ejikeme, P. C. N.|| Ejikeme, Ebere . M
    Page Number :: 01-09
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02520109
    The Separate hydrolysis and fermentation method of ethanol production from cassava tubers using sulfuric acid as catalyst for the hydrolysis reaction was studied. Dry milling process was specifically used for the flour activation prior to the hydrolysis process. Two level full factorial design was used to study the effects of three process factors on the ethanol yield. The factors studied were fermentation time (days), particle size (μm) and strength of acid (M). It showed that fermentation time and particle size had significant effects on the yield with effect of strength of acid being marginal. The diagnosed linear model obtained showed that it can explain the process well. The optimum condition was obtained at fermentation time of five days, particle size of 300μm and strength of acid of 1M with predicted response of 25.3945%V/V of ethanol concentration at the desirability of one.
    Keywords: ANOVA. Cassava, Ethanol, Factorial design, Optimization .
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Echegi,U. S. C. and Ejikeme, P. C. N. and Ejikeme, Ebere . M},
    title = {Effects Of Process Factors On The Synthesis Of Bioethanol From Cassava Tubers Using H2S04 As Catalyst.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {01-09},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24227
    Paper Title :: HMM Based Super Resolution of Geospatial Images For Flora Classification
    Author Name :: Prof.Prashant Khandale || Prof.Venkatesh Gaddime
    Page Number :: 10-13
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0252010013
    Identification of tree crowns from remote sensing requires detailed spectral information and sub meter spatial resolution imagery. Traditional pixel-based classification techniques do not fully exploit the spatial and spectral characteristics of remote sensing datasets. We propose a contextual and probabilistic method for detection of tree crowns in urban areas using a wavelet based super resolution and classification of the tree area. First the image is converted to super resolution image by using DWT, then we segment the image based on spectral information with green markers on the vegetation area. Segmentation with thresholding is considered as direct marker for the forest area.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prof.Prashant Khandale and Prof.Venkatesh Gaddime},
    title = {HMM Based Super Resolution of Geospatial Images For Flora Classification},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {10-13},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25018
    Paper Title :: Development and Testing Of Wheel Bearing Preloading Machine for Off-Highway Trucks
    Author Name :: Sunil Dambhare ||Pranav Deshpande ||Kapil Taskar || Sanket Inamdar || Indrajit Mehendale
    Page Number :: 14-25
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0252014025
    Preloading of a bearing is an essential method to make sure that the bearing runs perfectly well under its dynamic working conditions. Preloading value of a bearing is decided upon forces applied on it in its working condition. When the preload is applied correctly, it reduces all possible causes of bearing failure. This paper deals with the development of a bearing preloading machine for heavy duty OHT's (Off Highway Truck's) wheel bearing. As the working conditions and load carrying capacities of OHT's are extreme, wheel bearing becomes the major cause of onsite failures and it leads to repairs, rework and wastage of man hours and cost. In order to overcome these failures, the bearing preloading machine perfectly ensures required preload on each wheel bearing, which reduces the onsite bearing failures by about 30% – 40%. As precision of applying preload is very accurate and process is automated to avoid human errors, which give excellent results in short time period.
    Keywords: Bearing, Preload, Automation, Precision.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sunil Dambhare and Pranav Deshpande and Kapil Taskar and Sanket Inamdar and Indrajit Mehendale}
    title = {Development and Testing Of Wheel Bearing Preloading Machine for Off-Highway Trucks},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {14-25},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24127
    Paper Title :: Enterprise Architecture – A Tool for Business Innovation Realization in the Enterprise
    Author Name :: Mgbeafulike Ike||Okonkwo Obikwelu R
    Page Number :: 26-29
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0252026029
    Enterprises globally are undergoing business transformation. Organisations and corporate world have been searching for ways to enhance their businesses in order to be agile and how development in information technology (IT) can help them achieve this in today's unstable economic climate. Large-scale changes in the business affect operations, which in turn impact business systems. Changes in the underlying technology infrastructure are often needed to enable business transformation. The study carried out shows that architecture is the key to managing complexity and scale of change in the business. The method used is the integration of the processes for strategic, business, operations, systems and technology planning in a way that also integrates with other business and technology governance processes. Enterprise Architecture provides a framework to describe, manage and align the various elements of an organisation such as business processes, information, applications and technology and enables to understand the relationships between these elements and their environment to better facilitate change. This article proposes enterprise architecture (EA) as an effective Tool to Business Innovation Realization in the Enterprise.
    Keywords: Enterprise Architecture (EA), Business Innovation, information system, information technology (IT), strategic planning, business agility, technology planning, integration.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mgbeafulike Ike and Okonkwo Obikwelu R},
    title = {Enterprise Architecture – A Tool for Business Innovation Realization in the Enterprise},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {26-29},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24207
    Paper Title :: Ethical Relations Among Parties In Scientific Research
    Author Name :: Johnmark Erigbe
    Page Number :: 30-39
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0252030039
    Engagement in scientific research is guided by standard principles which regulate the behavior of the individuals involved. This article is a re-consideration of the ethical principles that provide the platform for acceptable norms to generate acceptable behavior and result in a research situation. The aim of the article is to re-enact and bring to the fore the ethical principles and laws which researchers must abide by. Problems of human rights abuses, lack of validity of research results, dishonesty and poor treatment/lack of respect for human research subjects arise out of non-adherence to research ethics. Advancement in Computer Science and use of the Internet has equally thrown up more challenges for researchers with the various cyber laws. The researcher adopted case examination and the review of literature as methodology. Irrespective of the area of research, the researcher is bound to be familiar with the laws and ethics which govern handling of research resources and relationship with others in the conduct of research. For future research, meta-analysis of unethical practices within the scope of Information Communication Technology and cyber research is suggested.
    Keywords: Ethics, jurisdiction, infringement, parties, subjects
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Johnmark Erigbe},
    title = {Ethical Relations Among Parties In Scientific Research},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {30-39},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24228
    Paper Title :: A Comparison Between The Old And New Indian Codes For Concrete Mix Design
    Author Name :: Price Arulraj .G ||Sruthi Rajam C.M
    Page Number :: 40-49
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0252040049
    Mix design is the process of determining the appropriate proportions of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and admixtures if any which will satisfy the requirements of compressive strength, workability and durability. Many established methods are reported in the literature for the design of concrete mixes. IS 10262 - 1982 is the relevant code for the design of Concrete mixes. Bureau of Indian Standards has revised this code in the year 2009. The parameters to be considered in the mix design based on the guidelines given in IS 10262 - 2009 are maximum size of aggregates, type of cement, grade of concrete, zone of sand, specific gravity of fine aggregate, specific gravity of coarse aggregate, specific gravity of cement, workability, durability and quality control. An attempt has been made to determine the effect of revision on the proportioning concrete the mixes. Concrete of grades M20, M25, M30, M35, M40 were designed by varying all the parameters as per the old code and new codes. For each grade of concrete, four slump values (25mm,50mm, 75mm and 125mm), four zones of sand (zone 1, zone 2, zone 3, zone 4, two grades of cement (43 grade and 53 grade), five values of specific gravity of fine aggregate (2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8 ,3), four values of specific gravity of coarse aggregate (2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9) and three sizes of aggregates (10mm,20mm,40mm) were considered. Nineteen thousand two hundred mixes were designed. The materials requirements for each grade of concrete were compared and the results are presented in the paper.
    Keywords: compressive strength, workability, durability
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Price Arulraj .G and Sruthi Rajam C.M},
    title = {A Comparison Between The Old And New Indian Codes For Concrete Mix Design},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {40-49},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25008
    Paper Title :: Overview of Information Technology Enabled Services for Efficiency and Effectiveness of Central Government Sponsored Schemes. Mgnrega In Kashmir A Case Study
    Author Name :: Mohammad Asif Naqshbandi
    Page Number :: 50-56
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0252050056
    World IT spending in 2012 touched three thousand five hundred million US dollars and is expected to reach four thousand million this year. This amount is pintsized when compared to the value IT complements to the organisation through increased efficiency effectiveness and transparency. However government processes worldwide are still like a blue ocean where potential of information technology enabled solution have not been exploited yet. And the problem is more intense when it comes to diversified nations like India. All of us are witness to the fact that despite the availability of money, potential and other required resources our governance have never been able to achieve optimal levels of efficiency and effectiveness due to outcome of several factors like redundancy, improper time management, effective supply chain management and many more. MGNAREGA being one of the pioneering innovative and liberal schemes by government of India is suffering efficiency, effectiveness and transparency deficit. Even a one percent increase in efficiency would mean several thousand days of employment to unemployed and infrastructure up gradation. This research work will look forward to outline information technology services for effective and efficient MGNREGA in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mohammad Asif Naqshbandi},
    title = {Overview of Information Technology Enabled Services for Efficiency and Effectiveness of Central Government Sponsored Schemes. Mgnrega In Kashmir A Case Study},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {50-56},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25012
    Paper Title :: Labour Productivity Variability Among Labour Force – A Case Study
    Author Name :: Anu V. Thomas || J. Sudhakumar
    Page Number :: 57-65
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0252057065
    Observations on daily productivity of subcontract labour and directly employed labour engaged in masonry works on a project were made to determine the variability in productivity among the labour force and the causes of the inefficiencies. Productivity plots and statistical tests revealed the productivity of the subcontract labour to be significantly higher than the productivity of the directly employed labour. The subcontract labour achieved on an average 33% higher productivity than the directly employed labour. Benchmarking measures of performance ratio, waste index and coefficient of productivity variability were also applied to illustrate the productivity differences between the two types of labour. The study results confirm the applicability of benchmark measures for comparing crew performance. Investigating the reasons for productivity differences between the two groups revealed that the directly employed labour experienced greater number of disruptions and were constantly on an overtime schedule which has contributed to their poorer performance. A regression equation was also developed to quantify the impact of the disruptions and overtime on labour productivity. The productivity problems observed on the project arise as a result of managerial inefficiencies, and emphasize the need for the management to improve to achieve productivity enhancement.
    Keywords: Benchmarking, Construction labour productivity, Regression, Variability
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anu V. Thomas and J. Sudhakumar},
    title = {Labour Productivity Variability Among Labour Force – A Case Study},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {57-65},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25015
    Paper Title :: Comparison of Biodiesel and Petrodiesel Particulate Emission
    Author Name :: Luchis Rubianto || Sudarminto Setyo Yuwono || Atikah ||Soemarno
    Page Number :: 66-69
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0252066069
    Petrodiesel is non renewable fuel and causing air pollution. It must be replaced by biodiesel that can be made from waste frying oil (WFO). Combustion of biodiesel in a boiler burner emits particulates and gases which should be lower than those of petrodiesel.The particulates are collected using a trap then analyzed gravimetrically and compared to emission of petrodiesel combustion. At composition up to B10, particulatesemission is lower than petrodiesel emission with reduction almost 30%. +
    Keywords: WFO, biodiesel, petrodiesel, particulate, emission
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Luchis Rubianto and Sudarminto Setyo Yuwono and Atikah and Soemarno },
    title = {Comparison of Biodiesel and Petrodiesel Particulate Emission},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {66-69},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 5 || versions 3 || May 2013
    Paper Id :: 25023
    Paper Title :: Performance of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme with Special Reference to Hugli District Of West Bengal
    Author Name :: SOURAV DAS
    Page Number :: 01-05
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02530105
    Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act enshrines the legal right of one hundred days of paid employment to any household, on demand. Though its scope is national, there have been wide interstate as well as inter district variation in the achievement of the objectives of the act. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) enacted by legislation on August 25, 2005 and it was renamed as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) on 2nd October 2009. The act aims eradication of extreme poverty and at making villages self sustaining through productive assets creation. In this paper an attempt has been made to focus some lights on the measures of performance of MGNREGS IN Hugli district of West Bengal. This paper investigates the status of MGNREGS in Hugli district after the implementation of the programme. However the paper finds interblock variation in some important indicators like average person days generated per household, the proportion of works completed to works taken up and the proportion of local fund spent.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {SOURAV DAS},
    title = {Performance of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme with Special Reference to Hugli District Of West Bengal},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {01-05},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25035
    Paper Title :: Effect of Resistance Exercice on Linear Accleration
    Author Name :: Dr. Subhabrata kar || Mr. Subir Das
    Page Number :: 06-13
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/025306013
    Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills concept and rules. The field of training and development changed significantly during the 1990s and early 2000s, reflecting both its role and importance in achieving higher employee performance and meeting organizational goals..The benefits of resistance training are well –documented and ongoing research continue to prove that it is an important activity for games and sports to be engaged in. Acceleration is the crucial to winning performance across numerous sports. Forget for speed alone. Athletes that can increase their speed more rapidly than their rivals can gain an incredible and often unassailable performance advantage.The investigator was interested to determine the effect of various resistance exercises on linear acceleration ability of the university level students. For the purpose of the present study thirty six ( N = 24 ) male students from B.P.Ed, section in the year of 2010 and 2011 of UCT College, Berhampore, in the district of Murshidabad, West Bengal, India were selected as the subject of the present project. The age of the subjects were ranged from (21- 30) years. The students were chosen randomly from a total no of 97 populations.In the present study multiple equated group design were used. For the purpose of the study the subjects were divided into two equated groups viz. control group (CG) and experimental group (EG). Prior the implementation of treatment the initial test (test and re-test) had been conducted related to linear acceleration. Then after implementation of treatment for the periods of six weeks, the final test had been conducted on test re-test basis according to the requirement of the study. The timing of the athlete for sprinting in the linear path were measured. The time was taken nearest to 0.01sec. For each distance interval the average of the two timers were taken as time data. Results of the present study confirmed that the acceleration of each of the group continues up to 30-40m in case of linear motion. The acceleration rapidly increased for first 30m and then the acceleration goes to a saturation value i.e. the change of velocity with respect to time minimises. It had also been observed that there is no statistically significant difference between the acceleration data taken at the time of pre and post treatment for control group for each and every distance interval in linear motion. In case of experimental group it is found that the acceleration for certain intervals are statistically significant between the pre and post treatment.The treatment procedure (resistance training) may be considered as a significant tools or way for developing linear as well as angular acceleration.
    Keywords: Resistance exercise, Linear acceleration, Linear velocity, Sprint running, Sports Training.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Subhabrata kar and Mr. Subir Das},
    title = {Effect of Resistance Exercice on Linear Accleration},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {06-13},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25038
    Paper Title :: Incorporation Of A Reliability Centred Maintenance Strategy Into An Existing Fixed Time Maintenance Strategy With The View To Improve Availability Performance
    Author Name :: Kumbi Mugwindiri || Ignatio Madanhire || Isheunesu Hlavati
    Page Number :: 14-23
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0253014023
    This research study investigates implementable reliability improvement opportunities available in a sugar manufacturing plant that can produce an increase in availability performance. It recommends different maintenance policies for different equipment based on the operating context of the equipment. The Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) methodology is followed and results are compared to world class sugar manufacturing industry benchmarks. The study can be a useful resource to plant managers seeking to heighten plant availability.
    Keywords: maintenance, reliability, availability-performance, maintainability, plant
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kumbi Mugwindiri and Ignatio Madanhire andIsheunesu Hlavati},
    title = {Incorporation Of A Reliability Centred Maintenance Strategy Into An Existing Fixed Time Maintenance Strategy With The View To Improve Availability Performance},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {14-23},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25027
    Paper Title :: Review And Study The Feasibility Of Creating A Cross-Border Market
    Author Name :: Hassan houshyar
    Page Number :: 24-27
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0253024027
    The border areas have enjoys special features due to contact with the various external environments, On the other hand there is between the border areas and immigration and the development of a relationship, bilateral. Accordingly, the present study is discussed to examine the nature of development – functional and comparative research and analysis to evaluate Dezli boundary frontier market to establish with the preparation of a questionnaire and the Pearson correlation coefficients. The study results show that, in terms of employment, the average respondent, at an average level to high in terms of economic prosperity, the average respondent, at an average level, regarding the potential environmental, respondents point average, at an average level, and total index the average respondent commented, are at an average level to high. As a result, the area under study, there are a significant relationship between creation marketplace, regarding indicators, economic - environmental, with the rate of expansion and migration. So that, by creating a marketplace, increases employment levels and the potential environmental benefits.
    Keywords: the feasibility - cross-border market - Marivan - Dezli.
    @article{key:article,
    author = Hassan houshyar},
    title = {Review And Study The Feasibility Of Creating A Cross-Border Market},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {24-27},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25002
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of Handling, Transportation and Storage Methods of Desma (Novella Pentadesma) Seed in Sixteen Communities Of Edo State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: O. A. Fabunmi, ||Z. D. Osunde ||B. A. Alabadan ||A. A. Jigam
    Page Number :: 28-34
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0253028034
    The handling, transportation and storage methods of Desma seeds in sixteen communities of Ovia North-East and South-West local government areas of Edo state was evaluated in this study. Questionnaires to be filled were given to respondents who could read and write. The information obtained from the administered questionnaires was analyzed using descriptive statistics of quantitative variables. The results showed that a very excellent collection points were observed in Igoshodi and Iguoshode communities of Ovia North-East and South-West in each case. The road linking Iguoshode community and the study site was also in good condition, thus Desma seed growers see this as opportunity to transport their harvested seeds. The storage facility at Okabegbe community is excellent with moderately good access road and collection points. Improvements are urgently needed in Arah, Uhoague, Ofunwengbe, Iguesagban and Neikpemaba communities with either poor or very poor collection points, road access and storage facilities. The quantity of Desma seed loss due to the rodent (56% and 61%) attack was more than those associate with insect attack (23% and 20%) or deterioration (21% and 19%) in Ovia North-East and South East, respectively.
    Keywords: processing, storage, transportation, communities, Desma seed
    @article{key:article,
    author = {O. A. Fabunmi and Z. D. Osunde and B. A. Alabadan and A. A. Jigam},
    title = {Evaluation of Handling, Transportation and Storage Methods of Desma (Novella Pentadesma) Seed in Sixteen Communities Of Edo State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {28-34},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24164
    Paper Title :: Analysis of Detent Torque in Hybrid Stepping Motors
    Author Name :: Jonathan U Agber
    Page Number :: 35-41
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0253035041
    Detent or cogging torque plays an important role in the hybrid stepping motor. This torque is a useful feature in applications where the rotor position must be preserved during stoppage or power failure. It contributes to the static and dynamic characteristics of the hybrid stepping motor. Prediction of detent torque is, therefore, desirable, especially now that the hybrid stepping motors are widely used in office and industrial automation. This paper formulates a method for predicting detent torque of the 1.8o hybrid stepping motor using measured flux-linkage data. It assumes a linear magnetic circuit, where the magnetic stored energy and coenergy are numerically equal. Detent torque is calculated as the differential of the magnetic coenergy with respect to rotor angular position at constant rotor excitation. Validation of the detent torque equation is performed by comparing results obtained from the proposed method with laboratory test results. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured.
    Keywords: Detent torque, Cogging torque, Stepping motor, Hybrid stepping motor, Incremental motion control
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jonathan U Agber},
    title = {Analysis of Detent Torque in Hybrid Stepping Motors},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {35-41},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24166
    Paper Title :: A Stochastic Investigation Of Rainfall Variability In Relation To Legume Production In Benue State-Nigeria
    Author Name :: Enokela, O. S.||Seini, S. A
    Page Number :: 42-48
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0253042048
    Production of legumes in relation to variability in rainfall in Benue State was investigated for period of twenty one years between 1988 and 2008. Rainfall data and annual Legumes production output were generated from metrological unit of Nigeria Air Force Makurdi and Benue Agricultural and Rural Development Authority respectively. Statistical tool of correlation and regression were used to investigate the possible relationship between the two variables. A low correlation and regression coefficients of 0.0332 and 0.1375 were recorded respectively. The assumption of the parabolic relationship between rainfall and legume output recorded 86.25% of unexplained variation. The unexplained variation is largely due to influencing factors of production such as abiotic, farm management practices, land development, socioeconomic and catastrophic factors.
    Keywords: Stochastic, Rainfall variability, Legume Production, Benue state.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Enokela, O. S. and Seini, S. A},
    title = {A Stochastic Investigation Of Rainfall Variability In Relation To Legume Production In Benue State-Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {42-48},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13127
    Paper Title :: Knowledge Models, current Knowledge Acquisition Techniques and Developments
    Author Name :: Subiksha
    Page Number :: 49-54
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0253049054
    The development of intelligent healthcare support systems always requires a formalization of medical knowledge. Artificial Intelligence helps to represent the knowledge in various ways which is a very important part in developing any systems, which in turn leads to precise understanding of knowledge representations. This helps to obtain the solution to the problem very easily. Knowledge engineers make use of a number of ways of representing knowledge when acquiring knowledge from experts. These are usually referred to as knowledge models. Knowledge acquisition includes the elicitation, collection, analysis, modelling and validation of knowledge for knowledge engineering and knowledge management projects. This paper presents an overview of available knowledge models, current knowledge acquisition techniques and also the recent developments to improve the efficiency of the knowledge acquisition process.
    Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Healthcare, Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Models
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Subiksha},
    title = {Knowledge Models, current Knowledge Acquisition Techniques and Developments},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {49-54},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24209
    Paper Title :: Ethnomedicinal Investigation of Medicinal plants of Sovva panchayat, Dumbriguda Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh
    Author Name :: S. B. Padal, B. ||Sandhyasri
    Page Number :: 55-61
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0253055061
    An ethnomedicinal survey was conducted among the tribal community residing in Sovva panchayat, Dumbriguda Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. Although the tribe is fast losing their traditional customs, their traditional medicinal practitioners still exist although the traditional medicinal wisdom of the Sovva tribes has not been previously documented. In the present ethnomedicinal survey, it was observed that sovva tribal traditional medicinal practitioners use medicinal plant parts for treatment of ailments. A total of 124 plants were used by the tribal healers in their medicinal formulations. These plant species were distributed into 43 families. Of the 124 plants the ailments treated with medicinal plants by the tribal healers were quite limited. A review of the available scientific literature suggests that many of the medicinal plants used by the tribals can be validated scientifically in their traditional uses based on reported pharmacological activities present in those plants. It would be of interest to examine the plants parts used by the tribal healers in a scientific manner towards discovery of useful drugs.
    Keywords: Ethnomedicinal investigation, medicinal plants, tribal people of sovva panchayat, dumbriguda Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. B. Padal, B. andSandhyasri},
    title = {Ethnomedicinal Investigation of Medicinal plants of Sovva panchayat, Dumbriguda Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {55-61},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24219
    Paper Title :: Inventory Of Abandoned Mine Ponds/Dams On The Jos-Bukuru North-Central Nigeria Using G.I.S And Remote Sensing Technique
    Author Name :: EDUN, E.O ||DAVOU, D. D
    Page Number :: 62-71
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0253062071
    Between 1904 and the 1970s, intense mining was carried out on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria leaving behind its devastating effect both on human lives and its socio-economic values. An understanding of the aftermath environmental effect of mining should be considered both at mine planning stage and during the exploitaion years of any exploration company. GIS and Remote Sensing was used in mapping out all abandoned ponds around the Jos-Bukuru area. A total of 100 major ponds and 80 minor ponds were mapped out all spread across the area of study. A proper evaluation of past mineral exploration and exploitation using GIS and remote sensing as a tool and from both Spot 5 and Land Sat images observations were drawn out for each of these ponds. These open ponds are scattered in almost all the mineralised areas of the Jos Plateau. With a good knowledge of GIS and accurate interpretation of satellite imagery, challenges in environmental issues, mineral exploration and mine planning would be a thing of the past. This paper recommends that mining activities without plans for reclamation should be discouraged and thorough ground work should be conducted on the Jos plateau to fully explore unreclamed and partially reclaimed mine site as many of these ponds are located in places people would not really suspect.
    Keywords: Remote Sensing, Inventory, Abandoned Mine, Reclamation, Mining Pond
    @article{key:article,
    author = {EDUN, E.O and DAVOU, D. D},
    title = {Inventory Of Abandoned Mine Ponds/Dams On The Jos-Bukuru North-Central Nigeria Using G.I.S And Remote Sensing Technique},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {62-71},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24229
    Paper Title :: Brushless DC Motor: Construction and Applications
    Author Name :: Rithvik Gambhir || Akshay Kumar Jha
    Page Number :: 72-77
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0253072077
    Conventional dc motors are highly efficient and their characteristics make them suitable for use as servomotors. However, their only drawback is that they need a commutator and brushes which are subject to wear and require maintenance. When the functions of commutator and brushes were implemented by solid-state switches, maintenance-free motors were realised. These motors are now known as brushless dc motors. This paper deals with the construction, working principle and various applications of the Brushless DC Motor (BLDC). The Brushless DC Motor is also compared with the conventional DC motor and AC Induction motor.
    Keywords: Brushless DC Motor, AC Machines, DC Machines, Hall Effect.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rithvik Gambhir and Akshay Kumar Jha},
    title = {Brushless DC Motor: Construction and Applications},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {72-77},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24233
    Paper Title :: Design of Xilinx (8.1) FPGA Based Five Level (Multilevel) PWM Single Phase Inverter
    Author Name :: Mr. Tamboli J. I. || Prof. Jagtap S. R.|| Mr. Sutar Amol,
    Page Number :: 78-84
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0253078084
    In this paper a Xilinx 8.1 FPGA Based Five Level PWM Single Phase Inverter was constructed by control and power circuit with addition of MOSFETS and in bridge topology and VLSI programming used for the generation PWM pulses. The inverter can produce five different output voltage levels across the load. Xilinx FPGA is a programmable logic device developed by Xilinx 8.1 which is considered as an efficient hardware for rapid prototyping. It is used as a PWM generator to apply the appropriate signals to the inverter switches. In addition to Xilinx FPGA software was used for simulation and verification of the proposed circuit before implementation. Simulation and experimental results show that both are in close agreement.
    Keywords: Modulation index, PWM, System Clock, Harmonics
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mr. Tamboli J. I. and Prof. Jagtap S. R. and Mr. Sutar Amol},
    title = {Design of Xilinx (8.1) FPGA Based Five Level (Multilevel) PWM Single Phase Inverter},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {78-84},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    olum
    Volume 2 || Issue 5 || versions 4 || May 2013
    2 || Isuue 5 || versions 2 ||ay 2013 
    Paper Id :: 24108
    Paper Title :: Influence of Polybasic Acid Type on the Physicochemical and Viscosity Properties of Cottonseed Oil Alkyd Resins
    Author Name :: Ibanga O. Isaac||Edet W. Nsi
    Page Number :: 01-14
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/025401014
    Three medium oil alkyd resins (50% oil length) were synthesized with cottonseed oil using different polybasic acids [phthalic anhydride (I), maleic anhydride (II) and succinic acid (III)] according to the alcoholysis process. Dilute solution viscosity measurements were carried out on the alkyd resins in acetone and in toluene. The effect of polybasic acid type on dilute solution viscosity characteristics of the alkyd samples were investigated by determining the following parameters: viscosity number (ηrv), intrinsic viscosity [η] and Huggins constant (KH). Also, the effect of polybasic acid type on properties such as colour, solid content, specific gravity, adhesion, drying time, chemical resistance and hardness was evaluated by formulating the alkyds into white gloss paints. (III) and (I) respectively had the lowest and highest (ηrv) in both acetone and toluene, while that of (II) was intermediate. The [η] values of the alkyd samples in acetone were found to vary in the order: (I) > (II) > (III) in acetone and (II) > (I) > (III) in toluene. Generally, the [η] values were found to be larger in acetone than in toluene. The KH of the alkyd resins on the other hand, were found to be larger in toluene than in acetone. The phthalic and maleic anhydrides alkyd paint samples possessed the best hardness and drying time, while succinic acid alkyd resins produce coatings with very soft film. All the alkyd paint samples were highly resistant to 5% NaCl(aq) and poorly resistant to 0.1 moldm-3 KOH. Succinic acid alkyd paint sample was poorly resistant to distilled water. Also, standard soybean alkyd resin was used separately to formulate white gloss paints and the properties of phthalic and maleic anhydrides alkyds were found to be comparable with the standard alkyd samples.
    Keywords: Alcoholysis, Alkyd resins, cottonseed oil, Phthalic anhydride, Viscosity
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ibanga O. Isaac and Edet W. Nsi},
    title = {Influence of Polybasic Acid Type on the Physicochemical and Viscosity Properties of Cottonseed Oil Alkyd Resins},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {01-14},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24131
    Paper Title :: Engineering Geological and Foundation Characteristics of Granite Derived Subsoils at Ibuji Area, South Western Nigeria
    Author Name :: Jegede, Oluwabusayo Gabriel || Olaleye, Boluwaji Muriana
    Page Number :: 15-17
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0254015017
    Engineering geological and foundation characteristics of granite derived subsoils at Ibuji area was investigated. The rock out-crops of the area were mapped. The dominant rock in the area is granite and the area generally falls within the precambrian basement rock terrain of Nigeria. Structural features in the rocks include micro joints, veins and minor fractures. Laboratory test results of the disturbed soil samples collected showed a natural moisture content ranging from 30.06% to 35.02%, liquid limit from 40% to 55%, linear shrinkage from 8.5% to 9.4% and specific gravity from 2.60 to 2.65. The dominant subsoils are clay and sands with good foundation properties.
    Keywords: foundation characteristics, subsoil, properties, interrelationship
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jegede, Oluwabusayo Gabriel and Olaleye, Boluwaji Muriana},
    title = {Engineering Geological and Foundation Characteristics of Granite Derived Subsoils at Ibuji Area, South Western Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {15-17},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24132
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of Engineering Geological and Geotechnical
    Properties of Sub Grade Soils along the Re-Aligned Igbara-Odo
    Ikogosi Highway, South Western, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Jegede, Oluwabusayo Gabriel ||Olaleye, Boluwaji Muriana
    Page Number :: 18-21
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0254018021
    Geotechnical properties of the subsoil along a section of a realigned Igbaraodo-Ikogosi highway were investigated. Field mapping revealed an underlying basement rock suite. The road was realigned as a result of the windy nature of the road along a particular section in order to prevent frequent motor accidents. The geotechnical test results of subsoils in the new alignment showed good soil geotechnical properties. The liquid limit range from 24% to 66% while the soil is well graded silty sandy clay. The specific gravity values range from 2.60 to 2.65, the maximum dry density range from 1850 kg/m3 to 2040 kg/m3, the linear shrinkage values are below 7 while kaolinite predominate the soil clay mineral.
    Keywords: geotechnical properties, subsoil, mapping, road, realignment
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jegede, Oluwabusayo Gabriel andOlaleye, Boluwaji Muriana},
    title = {Evaluation of Engineering Geological and Geotechnical Properties of Sub Grade Soils along the Re-Aligned Igbara-Odo Ikogosi Highway, South Western, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {18-21},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25021
    Paper Title :: Statistical Analysis of Wind Energy Resource Potentials For Power Generation In Jos, Nigeria, Based On Weibull Distribution Function
    Author Name :: G.M.Argungu ||E.J.Bala ||M.Momoh ||M.Musa ||K.A.Dabai ||U.Zangina ||B.A.Maiyama
    Page Number :: 22-31
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0254022031
    Statistical analysis of wind speed data for Jos location in North Central, Nigeria was conducted based on monitored wind speed data, which was monitored at thirty minute interval using cup anemometer mounted at 10m height, for a period of three years (2008 – 2010). The measurement was conducted using automatic weather measuring instrument data logger model Weather Link 5.7.1. Assessment of wind energy resource potentials for the site was performed using Weibull probability distribution functions. It was discovered that the measured average monthly wind speed of Sokoto vary from 3.93 m/s in the month of September to 7.38m/s in the month of March for the whole years. While, monthly mean wind speed and monthly average power densities predicted by Weibull probability density function at same height were found to vary from 3.61 m/s to 6.91m/s and 51.92 W/m2 to 309.04W/m2, for same period. Furthermore, the statistical parameters obtained from the results has shown that the coefficient of determination , 2 R  2 and RMSE, between the actual measured wind speeds and the Weibull predicted values were in agreement, with the best correlation fit found in the month of October and least correlation fit in the month of March, as can be seen from the highest values of , 2 R and lowest values of  2 andRMSE obtained for the month of October and March respectively (0.84 to 0.96, 0.087 to 0.019 and 0.074 to 0.013) respectively. This implies that Weibull distribution function can be use with acceptable accuracy for predicting of preliminary wind energy output for design and assessment of wind power applications.
    Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Weibull distribution function. Mean wind speed, Wind power density, Weather link, Jos, Nigeria, Assessment, Resource potentials, and measurement.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {G.M.Argungu and E.J.Bala andM.Momoh and M.Musa and K.A.Dabai andU.Zangina andB.A.Maiyama},
    title = {Statistical Analysis of Wind Energy Resource Potentials For Power Generation In Jos, Nigeria, Based On Weibull Distribution Function},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {22-31},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24162
    Paper Title :: Predicting Stock Prices Returns Using Garch Model
    Author Name :: Arowolo, W.B
    Page Number :: 32-37
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0254032037
    This study focus on forecasting properties of Linear GARCH model for daily closing stocks prices of Zenith bank Plc in Nigeria stocks Exchange. The Alaike and Bayesian Information Criteria (AIC $ BIC) techniques was used to obtain the order of the GARCH (p,q) that best fit the Zenith Bank Returned series . GARCH (1,2) was identified as the models. The results of statistical properties obtained supported the claim that the financial data are Leptokurtic. We therefore concluded that the Optimal values of p and q GARCH (p,q) model depends on location, the types of the data and model order selected techniques being used.
    Keywords: Linear GARCH, AIC, BIC, Leptokurtic.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Arowolo, W.B},
    title = {Predicting Stock Prices Returns Using Garch Model},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {32-37},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25025
    Paper Title :: In Shooting Pool, Part III : Where Does The Object Ball Go ? - And Then, Where Goes The Cue Ball ?
    Author Name :: Ronald L. Huston
    Page Number :: 38-46
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0254038046
    In this third part of the paper series, we provide answers to the most important questions in shooting pool: Will the shot be successful? And if so, how favorable will the next shot be? These are the title questions. We answer these questions by developing the post-collision kinematics of the object ball and then the cue ball. We present a generalized algorithm for simple, procedural computation of the kinematics. Effects of friction between the balls and of ball-table friction are included. We conclude with a few simple strategic principles.
    Keywords: pocket billiards, pool shooting, rolling/sliding spheres, impact on sphere dynamics
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ronald L. Huston},
    title = {In Shooting Pool, Part III : Where Does The Object Ball Go ? - And Then, Where Goes The Cue Ball ?},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {38-46},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25042
    Paper Title :: Optimization And Production Of Xanthan Gum By Xanthomonas Campestris NRRL-B-1449 From Sugar Beet Molasses
    Author Name :: A. V. Gomashe ||P.G. Dharmik ||P.S. Fuke
    Page Number :: 52-55
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0254052055
    Xanthan gum is a natural polysaccharide having an industrial importance. It is commonly called as heteropolysaccharide which is produced by Xanthomonas campestris. In the present investigation Xanthan gum fermentation by local isolates of Xanthomonas campestris NRRL-B-1449 from sugar beet molasses using different nitrogen sources were studied in both batch and fed-batch fermentation. The results of the study revealed that the production of Xanthan gum is influenced by using different nitrogen sources. Xanthan production increased with the increased yeast extract concentration, probably due to facilitated nitrogen uptake. The optimum pH was found to be 7.0 and sufficient supply of oxygen was needed for the Xanthan gum production.
    Keywords: Xanthan gum, Xanthomanas campestris
    @article{key:article,
    author = {A. V. Gomashe and P.G. Dharmik and P.S. Fuke},
    title = {Optimization And Production Of Xanthan Gum By Xanthomonas Campestris NRRL-B-1449 From Sugar Beet Molasses},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {52-55},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25055
    Paper Title :: In Shooting Pool, Part II: Where Does The Cueb All Go?
    Author Name :: Ronald L. Huston
    Page Number :: 56-64
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0254056064
    This second, of a three-part paper series, describes the movement of a cue ball immediately after it is struck by the cue stick, and then, consequently, the subsequent movement of the ball. The analysis shows that immediately after the impact the ball center moves either on a normally intended straight line or on a slight parabolic curve. The curve motion is the result of either shooter error or the intentional introduction of vertical spin ("English") on the ball. Immediately after impact the ball typically slides either along the line or the curve. After sliding stops the ball rolls either along the line or on a line extension of the curve. The paper presents the geometric parameters of the lines, the curve, and the rolling initiation point. The paper quantifies how even slight shooter error produces increasingly unintended ball movement as the shot length increases.
    Keywords: pocket billiards, pool shooting, rolling/sliding spheres, impact on sphere dynamics
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ronald L. Huston},
    title = {In Shooting Pool, Part II: Where Does The Cueb All Go?},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {56-64},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25056
    Paper Title :: In shooting pool, Part I: How Does the Cueb All Go?
    Author Name :: Ronald L. Huston,
    Page Number :: 65-75
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0254065075
    In shooting pool, as with any ball sport, seemingly minor nuances in the shot can result in significant changes in the subsequent ball dynamics. In addition to variation in shooting kinematics and kinetics, there are numerous popular notions about how to obtain desired results. In this first of a three-part series we address the title question by quantifying the interactive effects of: 1) the location of the point of impact between the cue stick and the cue ball; 2) the cue stick orientation; 3) the impulsive force magnitude; and 4) the friction between the ball and table surfaces. The analysis is based upon the solution of eight simultaneous equations obtained using classical mechanics principles. Various specific cases are then considered, illustrated, and discussed.
    Keywords: Modulation pocket billiards, pool shooting, rolling/sliding spheres, impact on sphere dynamics
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ronald L. Huston},
    title = {In shooting pool, Part I: How Does the Cueb All Go?},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {65-75},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31056
    Paper Title :: Estimation Of The Production Of A Solar Still
    Author Name :: E.O. Osafile ||O.D. Ojuh
    Page Number :: 76-80
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0254076080
    A set of operating parameters of a solar still such as outer glass temperature To, inner glass temperature Tg, ambience temperature Ta and water temperature Tw can be regarded as signals. The transfer function of the solar still can then be obtained using Discrete Fourier transform. The performance of the still is estimated by convolution of another set of operating conditions. The result gives a good prediction as compared with the measured value for day 1 and day 2.
    Keywords: Solar still, Discrete Fourier transform, Operating Parameters
    @article{key:article,
    author = {E.O. Osafile and O.D. Ojuh},
    title = {Estimation Of The Production Of A Solar Still},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {76-80},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 5 || versions 5 || May 2013
    Paper Id :: 25093
    Paper Title :: Effects of Cryogenic Treatment, Hardening and Multiple Tempering On Wear Behavior of D6 Tool Steel
    Author Name :: R.H.Naravade||S.B.Belkar ||R.R.Kharde
    Page Number :: 01-15
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/025501015
    This experimental work intended to investigate the effects of cryogenic treatment on the wear behavior of D6 tool steel. For this purpose, the temperature was used -185oC as deep cryogenic temperature. The effects of cryogenic temperature (deep), cryogenic time (kept at cryogenic temperature for 36 hr) on the wear behavior of D6 tool steel were studied. The findings showed that the cryogenic treatment decreases the retained austenite and hence improves the wear resistance and hardness. Due to more homogenized carbide distribution as well as the elimination of the retained austenite, the deep cryogenic treatment demonstrated more improvement in wear resistance and hardness compared with the conventional heat-treatment. By increasing the keeping time at cryogenic temperatures, more retained austenite was transformed into martensite; thus, the wear resistance was improved and further hardness were observed.This experimental work also intended to investigate the role of multiple tempering before and after cryogenic treatment on friction and wear behaviour of D6 tool steel as classified by American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). D6 tool steel is used for measuring tools, blanking dies, forming dies, coining dies, long punches, forming rolls, edging rolls, master tools, extrusion dies, drawing dies, moulds for pressing abrasive powders etc.The different combination of heat treatments like hardening (at 1020°C) for one hour, tempering (at 210°C) for two hours and deep cryogenic treatment (at -185°C) for 36 hours was done on D6 tool steel. Wear test were performed using pin-on-disc wear tester to which two different normal loads (3.1Kg and 5.1Kg) and two different velocities (1.5m/s and 2.5m/s) were applied. Hardness of specimens was measured by using Rockwell Hardness tester. Microstructural characterizations of the differently heat treated specimens have been done by image analyzer software with inverted microscope.The findings show that the cryogenic treatment improves the wear resistance and hardness of D6 tool steel. The results indicate that, in HCT specimens there was large reduction in the wear rate and markedly enhancement in wear resistance of the D6 tool steel.
    Keywords: AISI D6 tool steel, cryogenic treatment, wear rate and wear resistance
    @article{key:article,
    author = {R.H.Naravade,S.B.Belkar ,R.R.Kharde},
    title = {Effects of Cryogenic Treatment, Hardening and Multiple Tempering On Wear Behavior of D6 Tool Steel},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {01-15},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25100
    Paper Title :: Dry Sliding Wear Analysis of D5 Tool Steel at Different Heat Treatments
    Author Name :: Swadesh S. Dixit ||S.R. Nimbalkar|| R.R. Kharde
    Page Number :: 16-26
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0255016026
    Wear test using pin-on-disc machine was used to investigate the role of different heat treatments on AISI D5 tool steel. For this purpose, the hardening (at 1020°C) for one hour, multiple tempering (at 210°C) for two hours and soft tempering(at 100°C)for one hour treatments along with intermediate deep cryogenic treatment(at -185°C) for 36 hours selected. Microstructural characterizations of the differently treated specimens have been done by image analyses of optical micrographs software with inverted microscope. Wear tests were performed at two different loads (3.1 kg and5.1 kg) and two different velocities (1.5 and 2.5 m/s) were applied. Whereas wear behavior has been characterized by wear rate and wear resistance. Hardness of specimens was measured by using Rockwell Hardness tester.The findings shows that the cryogenic treatment decreases the retained austenite and hence improves the wear resistance and hardness, due to more homogenized carbide distribution as well as the elimination of the retained austenite, the deep cryogenic treatment demonstrated more improvement in wear resistance and hardness compared with the conventional heat-treatment. The results indicate that, in HCT specimens there was large reduction in the wear rate and markedly enhancement in wear resistance of D5 tool steel.
    Keywords: AISI D5 tool steel, cryogenic treatment (CT), Wear behavior, Design of Experiment (DOE), Wear rate, Wear resistance, retain austenite, Martensite
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Swadesh S. Dixit , S.R. Nimbalkar , R.R. Kharde},
    title = {Dry Sliding Wear Analysis of D5 Tool Steel at Different Heat Treatments},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {16-26},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25104
    Paper Title :: Mainstreaming Inclusion In Teacher Education In Zimbabwe
    Author Name :: O. Mafa ||,E. Makuba
    Page Number :: 27-32
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0255027032
    The basic education philosophy has invariably altered the academic profile of pupils populating Zimbabwe's public primary schools. Teachers are having difficulties handling inclusive classes. Similarly, most pupils' individual needs are hardly addressed in mainstream classes. Teachers do not seem to posses the necessary skills to effectively teach inclusive classes. Most if not all, aim their teaching at the presumed average pupil, meaning that the gifted pupils are not cultivated to their academic potential while pupils having learning disabilities and other educational needs are lost in the academic maze. In the face of all these didactic problems, questions have been raised regarding the suitability of the country's teacher education programme. This study explores the challenges experienced by lecturers as they attempt to equip teacher trainees with inclusive teaching skills and suggest strategies that teachers' training colleges can adopt in order to mainstream Inclusion in teacher development. The study adopted a qualitative approach, where focus group discussions were used to generate data from lecturers from one of Zimbabwe's primary teachers' training colleges. Data were transcribed, verified, segmented, coded and analysed using thematic content analysis. Major findings were that: lecturers were aware of the meaning of inclusive education; they knew the skills that needed to be inculcated in teacher trainees when preparing them for inclusive teaching; lecturers were not mainstreaming inclusion in teacher development because of a number of challenges, inter alia the lecturers' limited knowledge and skills in inclusion and lack of pro-inclusion policies on teacher development. Recommendations to facilitate the mainstreaming of inclusion in teacher education include: enactment of clear pro-inclusion policies to guide teacher development in the country; staff development of lecturers and reconceptualisation of the type of a teaching graduate that Zimbabwe needs in the context of inclusion.
    Keywords: Mainstreaming, Inclusion, Teacher Education, Zimbabwe
    @article{key:article,
    author = {O. Mafa (PhD) ,E. Makuba},
    title = {Mainstreaming Inclusion In Teacher Education In Zimbabwe},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {27-32},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25116
    Paper Title :: Fuzzy Logic For Controlling Speed Of DC Motor
    Author Name :: Miss. Vaishali Munde || Prof. Mrs. V. S. Jape
    Page Number :: 33-39
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0255033039
    The paper deals with controlling the speed of dc motor accurately and efficiently. The paper gives idea of designing the high current driver circuit and an efficient algorithmic based control (Fuzzy Logic) to track the velocity.The motor driver circuit can be constructed using the MOSFET and employing the H- bridge circuit due to its simplicity. The control system uses the concept of FUZZY SET to control the error signal fed back to the system, which can be obtained by employing optical encoder as a speed sensor. Unlike the traditional analog PID control system, where OPAMPs are used, the paper utilizes the concept of the discrete control system by employing the controlling algorithm in the FPGA. The VHDL can be used to describe the digital system. In summary, this paper gives the capability of Fuzzy Logic in designing a control system for speed controller of DC Motor.
    Keywords: Controlling algorithm in FPGA, Discrete Control System, Driver circuit for DC motor , Fuzzy logic controller, Fuzzy Controller using FPGA and VHDL, Speed control of DC motor
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Miss. Vaishali Munde , Prof. Mrs. V. S. Jape},
    title = {Fuzzy Logic For Controlling Speed Of DC Motor},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {33-39},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25115
    Paper Title :: Experimental Investigation on Silica Fume aspartial Replacement of Cement in High Performance Concrete
    Author Name :: T.Shanmugapriya ||Dr.R.N.Uma
    Page Number :: 40-45
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0255040045
    With increased environmental awareness and its potential hazardous effects, utilization of industrial byproducts has become an attractive alternative to disposal. Silica fume(SF), which is byproduct of the smelting process in the silicon and ferrosilicon industry. Silica fume is very effective in the design and development of high performance concrete.This paper presents the results of an experimental investigations carried out to find the suitability of silica fume in High Performance concrete. The concrete used in this investigation was proportioned to target a mean strength of 60 MPa and designed as per ACI 211.4R-08.The water binder ratio (W/B) adopted was 0.32 and the Super Plasticizer used was CONPLAST SP 430.Specimens such as cubes, beams and cylinders were cast for various mix proportions and tested at the age of 7,14and 28 days. The investigation revealed that the partial replacement of cement by silica fume will develop compressive strength, flexure strength and split tensile strength sufficient for construction purposes. The optimum dosage of silica fume found to be 7.5% (by weight), when used as partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement .Its use will lead to a reduction in cement quantity required for construction purposes and hence sustainability in the construction industry as well as economic construction.
    Keywords: Compressive strength,Flexure strength, High Performance Concrete, Silica fume,Split Tensile strength
    @article{key:article,
    author = {T.Shanmugapriya , ,Dr.R.N.Uma},
    title = {Experimental Investigation on Silica Fume aspartial Replacement of Cement in High Performance Concrete},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {40-45},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25011
    Paper Title :: A New Jpeg Image Scaling Algorithm Based on the Area Pixel Model
    Author Name :: Sourabh Jain MTech ||,Prof D. Suresh
    Page Number :: 46-56
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0255046056
    Image scaling is a very important technique and has been widely used in many image processing applications. In this paper, we present an edge-oriented area-pixel scaling processor. To achieve the goal of low cost, the area-pixel scaling technique is implemented with a low-complexity VLSI architecture in our design. A simple edge catching technique is adopted to preserve the image edge features effectively so as to achieve better image quality. Compared with the previous low-complexity techniques, our method performs better in terms of both quantitative evaluation and visual quality. The seven-stage VLSI architecture of our image scaling processor contains 10.4-K gate counts and yield a processing rate of about 200 MHz by using TSMC 0.18- m technology.
    Keywords: ------------------------
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sourabh Jain MTech ,Prof D. Suresh},
    title = {A New Jpeg Image Scaling Algorithm Based on the Area Pixel Model},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {46-56},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25063
    Paper Title :: CONTROL OF POST HARVEST BACTERIAL DISEASES OF TOMATO IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA
    Author Name :: Opara Emma||Njoku Theresa|| Ogbonna Ucheoma
    Page Number :: 57-64
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0255057064
    A laboratory experiment was conducted at Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria to assess the effect of pre-heat treatments and some plant extracts in the control of bacterial soft rot (Erwinia carotovora) and fruit spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria), the two major post harvest bacterial diseases of tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Nigeria. The design of the experiment was a randomized completely randomized block design (CRD) with 4 replicates. A batch of tomato fruits was subjected to hot water bath at different temperatures and time duration: 50, 60 and 700C at different time duration; 10, 20 and 30mins with cold water as the control. While another batch was treated with cold and hot water plant extracts consisting of; Azadirachta indica seed, Garcinia kola, Zingiber officinale, Piper guineense seed and Myristica fragrans seed at different concentrations (10, 20, 30%). Data obtained showed that subjecting tomato fruit to a temperature of 500C for 10mins recorded the longest shelf life (storage period) and was significantly different (P=0.05) from the control experiment. Increase in temperature regime above 500C to 70oC resulted to decrease in shelf life/storage period. At higher temperatures and longer time duration of 600C to 700C for 30mins, the fruits became physiologically unstable accompanied with skin crumpling and cracks with leakage leading to rapid rot and decay of the fruits. Results also showed that all the five plant extracts were effective in inhibiting the growth of bacterial spot pathogen and the soft rot diseases of tomato in vitro (P<0.05) when compared with the untreated control. However, cold water extracts of A. indica, Z. officinale, P. guineense significantly inhibited bacterium growth by 76.26-78.92 % more than the hot water extracts.
    Keywords: Pre storage treatment, plant extracts, fruit ro
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Opara Emma, Njoku Theresa,Ogbonna Ucheoma},
    title = {CONTROL OF POST HARVEST BACTERIAL DISEASES OF TOMATO IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {57-64},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25086
    Paper Title :: Design of Adaptive Heterodyne Filters for Digital Receivers
    Author Name :: G P Kadam || Maheshkumar Patil
    Page Number :: 65-70
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0255065070
    Modern broad-band communication systems as well as complex systems and high-quality audio often require the removal of narrow-band interferences through an adaptive band-stop filter with highly linear phase throughout its pass-band. In this paper we study different techniques of adaptive tunable filters, which use complex heterodyne process to tune the filter fully over the range DC to the Nyquist frequency. All the techniques rely on rotating of poles and zeros in the Z-plane like a simple combination lock: clockwise once, counterclockwise twice, then clockwise once. A simple detection circuit is proposed to identify the interference signal to be attenuated and a numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) is proposed to interface between the detection circuit and tunable complex heterodyne notch filter. The filters are built using blocks of SIMULINK and simulation results are represented in the paper.
    Keywords: Adaptive tunable filter, LMS, MATLAB, NCO, SIMULINK
    @article{key:article,
    author = {G P Kadam ,Maheshkumar Patil},
    title = {Design of Adaptive Heterodyne Filters for Digital Receivers},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {5},
    pages = {65-70},
    month = {May}
    }