• Volume 2 || Issue 1 || January 2013
    Paper Id :: 12179
    Paper Title :: Computational Intelligence Based Technique in Optimal Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review
    Author Name :: M.H. Hussain||I. Musirin||S.R.A. Rahim|| A.F. Abidin
    Page Number :: 01-09
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021001009
    This paper presents an overview on optimal overcurrent relay coordination in protection system and protective relays. Efforts have been made to include all methods used for the coordination of overcurrent relays. It includes techniques, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Nature Inspired Algorithm (NIA) as well as other conventional methods used for overcurrent protection. A brief review is made on conventional methods while more prominence is given on the application of AI and NIA for the protection of overcurrent relays. This paper presents a review of previous works on optimal overcurrent relay and its relevant issues. Numerous papers have been reviewed for this purpose. In addition, the results of these techniques also provided in the respective references.
    Keywords: overcurrent relay coordination; protection system; protective relays; artificial intelligence; nature inspired algorithm
    @article{key:article,
    author = {M.H. Hussain and I. Musirin and S.R.A. Rahim and A.F. Abidin},
    title = {Computational Intelligence Based Technique in Optimal Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {01-09},
    month = {January}
    }
    Paper Id :: 13053
    Paper Title :: Understanding Mechatronics Engineering Using a School Project
    Author Name :: Philip Adesola ADEWUYI
    Page Number :: 10-17
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021010017
    One of the approaches of teaching mechatronics engineering is discussed in this paper. Due to lack of proper awareness regarding mechatronics engineering in Nigeria, a means of creating awareness and interest in the subject using laboratory works and experimenting with the first set of students in Bells University of Technology, Nigeria, as a case study, was investigated and satisfactory results was obtained. Student's curiosity increased and the subject is easier to teach. Procurement of training equipment is fast-tracked by the school management as the programme enrolment increases on a yearly basis. Popularity of the subject increases as more institutions are seeking ways to start the programme too. The laboratory project used for analysis in this paper is a branch of mechatronics engineering, that is, sensing and control systems, whose principles was adapted to control home appliances using GSM modem, a microcontroller, a mobile phone, and electronic switches.
    Keywords: Mechatronics, microcontroller, modem, GSM, automation
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Philip Adesola ADEWUYI},
    title = {Understanding Mechatronics Engineering Using a School Project},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {10-17},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13097
    Paper Title :: Computer Aided Detection (CAD) System for Automatic Pulmonary NoduleDetection in lungs in CT Scans
    Author Name :: Veeresh Biradar||Upasana Patil
    Page Number :: 18-21
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021018021
    The main motto of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the Automated CAD for Lung Nodule Detection using CT Scans. The CAD system is applied to CT scans collected in a Screening program for lung cancer detection. Each scan consists of a sequence of about 400 slices stored in DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) format. All malignant nodules were detected and a very low false positive detection rate was achieved. The performance is evaluated as a fully automated computerized method for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography (CT) scan in the identification of lung cancers that may be missed during visual interpretation.
    Keywords: Computer Assisted Diagnosis, CT, Lung Cancer, Pulmonary nodules
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Veeresh Biradar and Upasana Patil},
    title = {Computer Aided Detection (CAD) System for Automatic Pulmonary NoduleDetection in lungs in CT Scans},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {18-21},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13109
    Paper Title :: Integrated Random noise source using 45nm VLSI Technology
    Author Name :: Sathyanarayana R
    Page Number :: 22-24
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021022024
    The word "noise" is in everyday use, is any unwanted sound that can be heard. Electrical noise has significantly different meaning. Electrical noise is a current or voltage signal that is unwanted in an Electrical / Electronic circuit. The real time signal is sum of unwanted noise and desired signal. The noise can be of two types. Discrete and random. Each noise can be generated with various techniques and methods. But, the random noise source has many useful applications in Electronic test and measurement, embedded systems, computing and Communication systems Design and implementation of integrated random noise source (IRNS) is based on the concept, random noise source can be a resistor. The true random noise can be generated due to random movement of electrons. This noise amplitude is very small. This noise is being amplified by an amplifier like Operational amplifier and then comparator compares the amplified noise signal and generates digital signal, which is true random. This true random noise can be used to generate random numbers, which can be used applications such as cryptography. In this project, a random noise source is developed using 45nm technology. Design and implementation of Resistor, Operational amplifier and Comparator is done and integrated them. The integrated IRNS is tested by simulation. The layout of each component is done and integrated & tested to complete IRNS 45nm .
    Keywords: IRNS, OP. Amp, comparator, simulation.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sathyanarayana R},
    title = {Stability of a System of Electrical Power using a Fuzzy Control},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {22-24},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13114
    Paper Title :: Comparison and Simulation of Full Bridge and LCL-T Buck DC-DC Converter Systems
    Author Name :: A Mallikarjuna Prasad||S Sivanagaraju
    Page Number :: 25-29
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021025029
    The DC-DC Converter topologies have received increasing attention in recent years for Low power and high performance applications. The advantages DC-DC buck converters includes increased efficiency, reduced size, reduced EMI, faster transient response and improved reliability. The front end LCL-T in a buck converter is connected in sequence manner to improve the electrical performances and to reduce the switching losses. It futures several merits such as multi output capability and also will associate with one or two capacitors so has to improve resonant operations. This paper compares conventional buck converter and LCL-T type converter designed for low voltage and low power applications and simulation results are compared for both converters.
    Keywords: DC-DC Converter, Buck converter, LCL-T type converter and Full-Bridge Converter
    @article{key:article,
    author = {A Mallikarjuna Prasad and S Sivanagaraju},
    title = {Comparison and Simulation of Full Bridge and LCL-T Buck DC-DC Converter Systems},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {25-29},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13126
    Paper Title :: Macrocyclic Cobalt (III) Dioximes By Microwave Assisted Synthesis And Characterization And 13&14-Membered Coordination Complexes
    Author Name :: S.Senthami||Selvi||A.Dayalan
    Page Number :: 30-38
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021030038
    The ligand 3,8-dimethyl-5,6-benzo-4,7-diazadeca-3,7-diene-2,9-dione dioxime [(DOH)2 bzo] has been synthesized by the condensation of O-phenylene diamine with diacetyl monoxime in 1:5 mole ratio.These complexes have been alkylated using ethanol,actone,DMSO and DMF in the presence of pyridine,imidazole,benzimidazole and pyridoxine(vitB6) to obtain corresponding macrocyclic organo cobalt complexes. The parent cobalt complexes and their alkyl derivates have been characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity data, UV, IR, 1HNMR spectral data and electrochemical behavirour of these complexes has been studied by yclic voltammetry.
    Keywords: Macrocyclic cobalt (III) complexes; Schiff base; Coordination template synthesis; Cyclic Voltammetry.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S.Senthami|| Selvi||A.Dayalan},
    title = {Macrocyclic Cobalt (III) Dioximes By Microwave Assisted Synthesis And Characterization And 13&14-Membered Coordination Complexes},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {30-38},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13137
    Paper Title :: Dynamics of Fluid Flow around Aerofoil, and Submarine: Effect of Winglets
    Author Name :: A.YashodharaRao||A.Sarada Rao|| Appajosula S. Rao
    Page Number :: 39-46
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021039046
    The continued increase in the hydrodynamic interactions between the layers of a flowing fluid leads to the formation of complex flow patterns. The shape and location of these patterns determine the stability of underwater vehicular systems. In order to understand the dynamics of flow around an aerofoil, and a submarine this investigation was undertaken. The aerofoil and the submarine were investigated in water tunnel at water speed up to 16kmph. The results suggest that the fluid flow around the aerofoil produces rotational flow and above a critical flow speed, "shed vortex" is formed. The airplane and submarine suffer from drag that is produced as a result of the vortex formed behind them. The center of the vortex formed behind the submarine corresponds to the mid-plane of the submarine. In order to shift the plane of the center of the vortex, the submarine models were augmented with winglets to the aerofoil shapes located at the rear section of the submarine model. The results suggested that the winglets have shifted the plane of the vortex away from the mid plane of the submarine. A simple calculation of the viscous drag on the submarine with winglets at 30o angle suggests that the winglets will reduce the drag by about 3.4%.
    Keywords: Model Submarine, winglets, drag reduction
    @article{key:article,
    author = {A.YashodharaRao and A.Sarada Rao and Appajosula S. Rao},
    title = {Dynamics of Fluid Flow around Aerofoil, and Submarine: Effect of Winglets},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {39-46},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13020
    Paper Title :: Satellite Image Edge Detection Using Fuzzy Logic
    Author Name :: Mrs.R.Shenbagavalli||Dr.K.Ramar
    Page Number :: 47-52
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021047052
    In this paper Edge detection is developed for satellite image using fuzzy logic concept. Fuzzy logic helps to find and highlight all the edges associated with an image by checking the relative pixel values .Scanning of an image using the windowing technique takes place which is subjected to a set of fuzzy conditions for the comparison of pixel values with adjacent pixels to check the pixel magnitude gradient in the window. After the testing of fuzzy conditions the appropriate values are allocated to the pixels in the window under testing to provide an image highlighted with all the associated edges.
    Keywords: Introduction, Image pre-processing, Edge Enhancement, Fuzzy Logic, Experimental Results.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mrs.R.Shenbagavalli and Dr.K.Ramar},
    title = {Satellite Image Edge Detection Using Fuzzy Logic},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {47-52},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13120
    Paper Title :: Open Sensing Platform for HomeEnergy Monitoring in the Internet of Things
    Author Name :: Faycal Bouhafs||Davood Rajabi
    Page Number :: 53-61
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021053061
    Currently our homes are equipped with many electronic devices and appliances that consume an important amount of electricity daily. The energy consumed by households could be decreased significantly by increasing consumers' awareness about their appliances energy usage. In this paper we present an energy monitoring system that offers consumers the possibility to monitor the energy utilization of their appliances. The proposed system is built over a wireless sensor network's open platform that provides the possibility to extend its functionality and offers compatibility with other solutions and applications.By designing the energy monitoring system using an open sensing platform, we aim at adhering to the vision of the Internet of Things where control devices and management systems share and combine that control data to improve their performances and increase users' awareness.
    Keywords: Internet of Things, Smart Grid, Wireless Sensor Networks
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Faycal Bouhafs and Davood Rajabi},
    title = {Open Sensing Platform for HomeEnergy Monitoring in the Internet of Things},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {53-61},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13140
    Paper Title :: Proposed Phishing mail detection using fuzzy classification methods
    Author Name :: Ami k. Trivedi||G.J.Sahani
    Page Number :: 62-64
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021062064
    Phishing is an attack that deals with social engineering methodology to illegally acquire and use someone else's data on behalf of legitimate website for own benefit If. Even a few victims fall for the pitch, the effort is profitable. Phishing mail misrepresent true sender and steal personal and financial account credentials. Most of the detection techniques use decision tree, machine learning algorithms, genetic algorithm, clustering techniques. In these techniques crisp logic is used. They classify email as spam and Not-spam email. Crisp logic is often failed because it does not provide sharp boundaries. Several Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques including neural networks and fuzzy logic [7-9] are successfully applied to a wide variety of decision making problems in real world. Up to our knowledge, there was not developed any system to the phishing mail detection based on fuzzy classification method. In this work we would like to build a fuzzy rule generation system to detect phishing mail. It classifies email into different category like very legitimate, legitimate, suspicious, phishy, very phishy etc. The main advantage of fuzzy rule-based classification systems is that they do not require large memory storage, their inference speed is very high and the users can carefully examine each fuzzy if-then rule.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ami k. Trivedi and G.J.Sahani},
    title = {Proposed Phishing mail detection using fuzzy classification methods},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {62-64},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13146
    Paper Title :: Phytochemical Analysis of Some Medicinal Plants from Yavatmal District (Ms) India
    Author Name :: P. G. Dhawale
    Page Number :: 65-66
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021065066
    The preliminary phytochemical analysis of seven medicinal plants from Yavatmal District (MS) was done. The plants were Argimone Mexicana L ., Carea arborea Roxb ., Caesalpinia pulcherima (L.) Swart ., Mimosa pudica L ., Ocimum canum Sims ., Phyllanthus emblica L . and Zizipus jujube L Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plants confirms the presence of various phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoid. The presence of these phytochemicals can be correlated with medicinal potential of these plants.
    Keywords: Medicinal plants, Phytochemical analysis, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoid.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {P. G. Dhawale},
    title = {Phytochemical Analysis of Some Medicinal Plants from Yavatmal District (Ms) India},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {65-66},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13150
    Paper Title :: Detection of Routing Attacks in Disruption Tolerant Networks
    Author Name :: Sangeetha.R||Krishnammal.N
    Page Number :: 67-75
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021067075
    Disruption tolerant networks (DTN) differ from other networks in such a way that they provide inconsistent connectivity between the nodes in order to exchange the data. Due to the inconsistent connectivity the data is exchanged only when the nodes come in contact with each other. DTN performs store-carry-forward method. When a node receives a packet it stores the packet first in the buffer and then carries until it contacts another node. After the two nodes are in contact the packet is forwarded to the next node. This system detect the packet dropping and to limit the traffic flowing to the misbehaving node. To detect the packet dropping in DTN the distributed scheme is introduced in which a node is selected that contains the signed contact records of its previous contact. Based on this record the next node in contact can detect the node that had dropped the packet. Also a node that is compromised may misreport a false record so that the packet dropping cannot be detected. In order to avoid this, the contact record is distributed to few witness nodes which then can detect the node that has dropped the packet. SimBet is a forwarding-based algorithm where a packet only has one replica. A packet is forwarded to a node if that node has higher metric than the current node. Delegation is a replication-based algorithm where a packet may have multiple replicas. The packet is replicated based on the usage of the neighbour node. The communication cost can be reduced. Such routing misbehavior can increase the packet delivery ratio and does not waste system resources such as power and bandwidth.
    Keywords: Disruption tolerant network, Routing , Attacks, Security, Detection.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {1Sangeetha.R and Krishnammal.N},
    title = {Detection of Routing Attacks in Disruption Tolerant Networks},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {67-75},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13151
    Paper Title :: Impact of Natural Resource on Socio-economic Status of Sagar Island. West Bengal, India
    Author Name :: Manas mondal||Satyabrata Mandal
    Page Number :: 76-80
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021076080
    This paper deals with impact of natural resources on socio-economic status of Sagar Island, West Bengal, India . It conceived through the integration of various factors like available land & water resources, existing agricultural production, soil fertility & climatic factors influence socio-economic status of the inhabitants in our study area. Here we have tried to discuss major parameters, which directly or indirectly controlled socio-economic condition of this island. In rural area maximum no of peoples are depends on existing natural resources. This area is also dependent on natural resources. Agriculture, Soil & Water resources are the prime indicators of socio-economic condition of our study area. The growing population has been exerting tremendous pressure as well between 2002 to 2011, the land available for aman agriculture had sunk from 14700 to 14170 hectares with the rise in population settlements have also increased from 28398 to 42382 (Census of India 2001 & 2011).Therefore total population are also increasing in rapid way. In 2001 total population was 180408.It converted to 206801 in 2011.The average land holding is 0.82 hectare per family & about 0.084 hectare per capita. The national average of operational land holding is 1.33 hec per capita. Naturally agriculture is no longer a prefer livelihood option for the younger generation. The assets created by the father has little value for the son, who has to start his struggle all over again. For this he either has to migrate or get trained in a skill that will help him earn a livelihood. They have little freedom to choose from available career options. The range of soil PH belongs to 6.3 to 8.2 in normal temperature (22 ºc). EC varies from 0.34 to 1.75 (dsm-1).Therefore org.c (%) varies from 3 to 12.2. However soil fertility is also discussed here to understand the productivity of soil. In entire region range of clay belongs to 32.1 -48.3. N varies from 156 to 292 (Kg ha-1 ). P2O5 varies from 22 to 79. k2o goes through 442 to 936.Available potassium (kg ha-1) range is 8.5 to 32.2. Available sulphur (mg kg-1 ) varies from 5.5 to 37.2.Available zinc (mg kg-1) range is 2.5 to 10.2. . Ponds & internal canals are only variable source of irrigation in this island, which cover 7.51% & 14.25% of total cultivable upland & midland respectively. Studies of quality of irrigation water indicate that saline irrigation water is the major problem in this study area. Lowest EC value ( 0.43-0.91 dsm-1) is obtained for pond water followed by internal canal water (EC 12.24 to 19.36 dsm-1) and river water (EC 16.09 to 21.96 dsm-1). The higher EC value of river water might be due to its close connection with the sea. Low EC value of pond water (≤0.92 dsm-1) indicates that it would not lead to soil salinization if used for irrigation purposes.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Manas mondal and Satyabrata Mandal},
    title = {Impact of Natural Resource on Socio-economic Status of Sagar Island. West Bengal, India},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {76-80},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13149
    Paper Title :: Environmental Awareness among Rural Folks of Hamirpur District, H.P.
    Author Name :: Dr. Sanjay Kumar
    Page Number :: 81-84
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021081084
    Environment constitutes a very important part of our life. To understand life without studying the impact of environment is almost impossible. We use renewable and non-renewable resources in our day to day life. We have to be more careful in using resources especially non-renewable which will vanish as we use them. All human activities have impact on environment. This impact is increasing day by day as the population in the recent times have increased rapidly. Thus there is need for the awareness about the environmental issues. In the present study the status of environmental awareness of rural folks of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh is studied. A total of twenty five villages were selected and the population were asked question about the different issues of the environment and the level of their awareness is studied.
    Keywords: Environment, renewable, awareness.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Sanjay Kumar},
    title = {Environmental Awareness among Rural Folks of Hamirpur District, H.P.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {81-84},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13157
    Paper Title :: Mimo-Ofdm Systems with Papr Reduction and Ici Canceller
    Author Name :: P.Sasikala||Dr. T.Pearson
    Page Number :: 85-92
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021085092
    In this paper, efficient method for ICI cancellation based on factor graph and PAPR reduction using precoder by estimating CFO and channel parameters in MIMO-OFDM based wireless communication systems is proposed. By exchanging messages both in space domain and frequency domain, the proposed algorithm can suppress ICI and reduce PAPR iteratively and progressively. The performances of PPIC, both in perfect channel estimation and imperfect channel estimation cases, are compared with the standard PIC architecture and the ICI self-canceller. The joint scheme of CFO and channel estimation in the MIMO-OFDM systems with the MSE based precoder for reducing PAPR. First, a MSE based precoding matrix to reduce the PAPR of OFDM signals is designed. The CFO and CIR estimators based on the EM algorithm with an iterative scheme are developed to execute the estimations. To reduce computational complexity, a simpler coarse CFO estimator is carried out before the fine estimation so that a more accurate and faster convergent estimate can be attained. It is very suitable for VLSI implementation and it is a potential candidate for data detection/decoding in future high data rate, high mobility wireless communication systems.
    Keywords: EM algorithm, factor graph, ICI cancellation, MIMO-OFDM, PAPR.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {1P.Sasikala and Dr. T.Pearson},
    title = {Mimo-Ofdm Systems with Papr Reduction and Ici Canceller},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {85-92},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13162
    Paper Title :: Studies on Mobility Indicators and the Effect of Congestion Reduction Measures on the Movement of Vehicular Traffic along G-6 Bus Route in Bangalore City using Micro Simulation Software
    Author Name :: Harish H.S||Dr.Suresha S.N
    Page Number :: 93-96
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021093096
    Bangalore is one of the most important cities in India as it has rapid growth in the IT sector. As a direct result of rising population, the number of vehicles in the city has been increasing considerably. What adds to the traffic pressure in Bangalore is that there is very little scope for expansion of roads. This has led to massive congestion in the arterial roads of the city. The ill effects of congestion may reach highly undesirable proportions very rapidly. Traffic congestion is characterised by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased queuing. The main objective of the present study is to estimate the travel time and travel delay along the selected bus route i.e. BIG10 route number G6 - from Shantinagar bus stop (SNBS) to Kengeri satellite town bus stop (KSTBS) and analyse improvements to same through several congestion reduction measures using traffic micro simulation modelling and mobility indicators. The information and data necessary for making improvements in vehicular movement along this corridor is gathered together and considered. This data includes traffic volume data, road inventory data, travel times for various modes of travel and signal timings of all signalized intersections. The data so collected is used to simulate the vehicular flow using micro-simulation software. Changes with respect to road infrastructure, signal timings and various other possible solutions to reduce congestion is simulated and a cost benefit analysis is conducted.
    Keywords: Transportation, Congestion, Travel time, Travel delay, VISSIM.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Harish H.S and Dr.Suresha S.N},
    title = {Studies on Mobility Indicators and the Effect of Congestion Reduction Measures on the Movement of Vehicular Traffic along G-6 Bus Route in Bangalore City using Micro Simulation Software},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {93-96},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13166
    Paper Title :: Impact of Certification Program on Supplier Selection to Reduce Quality Cost
    Author Name :: S.N.Teli||Lokpriya Gaikwad||Pravin Mundhe||Nilesh Chanewar
    Page Number :: 97-102
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0210970102
    The supplier certification program has been expanding in recent years in industries, as they attempt to gain a competitive edge in the world market. The supplier certification program seeks to improve quality and on-time delivery, to share technology, to establish a long-term and stable relationship with a few suppliers, and to reduce cost of quality. This study investigates whether the supplier certification program is effective or not. Any supplier should be capable to meet the objectives of the buying organization and that have the capability of providing the products or service of most importance to the organization. At this point, however, these suppliers have not undergone a thorough evaluation of their capabilities and objectives by the buying organization. The buying organization must continue to be wary of the products and services provided by its suppliers unless some verification of the capabilities of their internal and external processes has been completed. This approach is referred to as supplier certification. The supplier certification program has been expanding in recent years in industries, as they attempt to gain a competitive edge in the world market. The supplier certification program seeks to improve quality and on-time delivery, to share technology, to establish a long-term and stable relationship with a few suppliers, and to reduce cost of quality. This study investigates whether the supplier certification program is effective or not.
    Keywords: Buyer-supplier partnering, Supplier audit, Supplier certification, Quality cost.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S.N.Teli and Lokpriya Gaikwad and Pravin Mundhe and Nilesh Chanewar},
    title = {Impact of Certification Program on Supplier Selection to Reduce Quality Cost},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {97-102},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13174
    Paper Title :: Optimization of Different Performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate & Material Removal Rate with the Selection of Various Process Parameters Such as Speed Rate, Feed Rate, Specimen Wear , Depth Of Cut in CNC Turning of EN24 Alloy Steel – An Empirical Approach
    Author Name :: Ashish Bhateja||Jyoti Bhardwaj||Maninder Singh ||Sandeep Kumar Pal
    Page Number :: 103-113
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101030113
    This project is based upon the empirical study which means it is derived from experiment and observation rather than theory. For the fulfillment of objective our first motive is selection of cutting tool & work tool material & geometry, selection of various process and performance parameters after parameter selection aims to study various techniques for the optimization for that purpose literature review and industrial survey is conducted. After this next objective is to study the process and machining parameters for the performance characteristics of turning operation on CNC using different grades of Tungsten Carbide and with varying properties & surface roughness testing of work piece material to be carried out after machining. After testing optimization and compare the Effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness of different selected geometry on EN-24 alloy steel by using empirical approach i.e. Taguchi Analysis using Statistical Software. In the end also aims to calculate Tool Wear Rate (TWR) & Material Removal Rate (MRR) related with the performance parameters based upon the experimental investigation. Thus this study helps to compare the results in terms of effectiveness of the performance of different grades of Tungsten Carbide by varying process parameters.
    Keywords: Cutting Tool, Turning, Surface Roughness, MRR, TWR, Tool Steels, EN-24, Taguchi
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ashish Bhateja and Jyoti Bhardwaj and Maninder Singh and Sandeep Kumar Pal},
    title = {Optimization of Different Performance Parameters i.e. Surface Roughness, Tool Wear Rate & Material Removal Rate with the Selection of Various Process Parameters Such as Speed Rate, Feed Rate, Specimen Wear , Depth Of Cut in CNC Turning of EN24 Alloy Steel – An Empirical Approach},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {103-113},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13090
    Paper Title :: Learner- Centered English Language Teaching (An Observation: Public & Private Teachers' Training Systems At Primary Level)
    Author Name :: Dr. Mubasher Nadeem
    Page Number :: 114-120
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101140120
    The study aimed to observe public and private sectors teachers' training systems for the teaching of English at primary level. Considering the parameters of learner centered teaching style, eighty public and private sectors' trainees were observed during the training sessions at two training centers by applying observation checklist. The results of the study reflect training that at the government sector training center focuses classical approach to train teachers for teaching English by using mother tongue whereas private sector training incorporates learner-centered techniques as demonstrated by both the trainers and trainees. They practically involve learners in the process of teaching/learning English language, use English as medium of instruction and classroom language, promote discussion and questions and make low cost teaching aids for facilitating teaching and learning of English at primary level. The observation of these two training systems highlights the need to follow private sector training system to ensure the teaching of English at primary level aiming at maximum learner involvement to develop grade appropriate communicative competence. Hence the study recommends not only the revamping of public sector training system in light of paradigm shift from teacher-centered to learner-centered pedagogy, but also the possibility of training the government school teachers with the assistance of private sector's teacher training resource to achieve better results in the enhancement of pedagogical skills of primary school teachers for the teaching of English at primary level.
    Keywords: Learner centered, collaborative learning, language teaching, teachers' training, learner's involvement, L1.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Mubasher Nadeem},
    title = {Learner- Centered English Language Teaching (An Observation: Public & Private Teachers' Training Systems At Primary Level)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {114-120},
    month = {January}
    }
    Paper Id :: 12133
    Paper Title :: Importance of Self-Employment and Microfinance in Rural Development- A Case Study on Jari Embroidery Industry of Hooghly in India
    Author Name :: Utpal khara || Biplab Das
    Page Number :: 121-125
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101210125
    Rural development is a holistic approach of development. There are so many item to analyze the rural development issue. Here two items ( self-employment and micro-finance) have chosen to elaborately discuss about it. Self-employment and micro-finance closely related with each other in the rural development aspect. It's a case study on Jari embroidery industry which is non- agricultural base. Methodology of the study followed simple random sample techniques for survey within jari workers family and units. Major findings are mainly rural women are involved in this work in family and joint sectors but in unit sectors young male are engaged. Working female also connected with SHGs to enhance their livelihood.
    Keywords: Self-employment, Micro-finance, Jari embroidery, SHGs
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Utpal khara and Biplab Das},
    title = {Importance of Self-Employment and Microfinance in Rural Development- A Case Study on Jari Embroidery Industry of Hooghly in India)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {121-125},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13073
    Paper Title :: Adult Voice Recognition System using Text Variable Phoneme Model and Coarse Speaking Fundamental Frequency Characteristics
    Author Name :: Preeti Sharma
    Page Number :: 126-132
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101260132
    Speech recognition is a fascinating application of Digital Signal Processing and has many real-world applications. In this paper, a speech recognition system is developed for isolated spoken words using Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWT) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Speech signals are one-dimensional and are random in nature. This paper investigates Automatic Speech Recognition of gender from speech segments using digital speech processing and pattern recognition techniques. Speaker recognition is an automatic process of recognizing the user on the basis of unique information carried by speech waves. The voice of the speaker is used to verify his or her identity and provide control for access to various services such as, voice dialing, banking by telephone, telephone shopping, database access services, information services, voice mail, security control for confidential information areas, and remote access to computers using Speaker recognition technique. Acoustic coefficients were used to form test and reference templates for vowels, voiced and unvoiced fricatives. The effects of different distance measures were comparatively assessed to determine their effectiveness for the task of gender recognition from speech segments. Daubechies wavelets are and a multi-layer neural network trained with back propagation training algorithm is used for classification purpose.
    Keywords: DWT, Speaker identification, ANN
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Preeti Sharma},
    title = {Adult Voice Recognition System using Text Variable Phoneme Model and Coarse Speaking Fundamental Frequency Characteristics)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {126-132},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13130
    Paper Title :: Synthesis and Charaterization of Poly (Flouroaniline)/Mwcnt Composites
    Author Name :: Bijaya kumar Parija || Chita Ranjan Biswal || Prasanna Kumar Sahoo || Matru Prasad Dash1, Munesh Chandra Adhikary || P.L.Nayak
    Page Number :: 133-140
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101330140
    Polyfluoroaniline(poly(FAn))/carboxylic acid-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c- MWCNTs) nanocomposites were prepared by insitu polymerization method using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an oxidant.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that a tubular layer of Poly(FAn) was coated on the surface of carbon nanotubes with a thickness of 10–20 nm.Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy(UV-vis) and Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provided an evidence for the formation of nanocomposites. The thermal stability of nanocomposites was improved by addition of c-MWCNTs as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD spectra showed that the crystalline nature of Poly(FAn) was not affected much by the addition of c-MWCNTs. As the content of c-MWCNTs was increased, the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites increased due to the interaction between polymer and nanotubes that enhances electron delocalization.
    Keywords: Fluoroaniline; multi-walled carbon nanotube; nanocomposite; oxidative polymerization.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Bijaya kumar Parija and Chita Ranjan Biswal and Prasanna Kumar Sahoo and Matru Prasad Dash and Munesh Chandra Adhikary and P.L.Nayak},
    title = {Synthesis and Charaterization of Poly (Flouroaniline)/Mwcnt Composites},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {133-140},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13131
    Paper Title :: Synthesis and characterization of poly (o-methyl aniline) – MMT (Cloisite30B) nanocomposites for corrosion protection
    Author Name :: Prasanna Kumar Sahoo || Dillip Kumar Behera || Matru Prasad Dash || Bijaya Kumar Parija || Munesh Chandra Adhikari || and P.L.Nayak
    Page Number :: 141-148
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101410148
    In the present research program, the synthesis and characterization of poly(o-methyl aniline) has been carried out by blending it with MMT ( Cloisite 30B).The composites were characterized by using Uv-visible, SEM, and XRD studies, The conductive and corrosion resistance of the composites have also been investigated. In situ UV−vis spectroscopy of OMPANI−MMT nanocomposites indicates that electrochromic behaviour of OMPANI in the nanocomposite is retained. The larger interlayer spacing observed in X−ray diffraction studies confirms the intercalation of anilinium ions. It also shows that electro polymerization of o-methyl aniline inside the clay tactoids yielding highly stereo regular conducting OMPANI as d−spacing of OMPANI−MMT is close to that of anilinium-MMT.The electrical conductivity as well as the corrosion resistance of the nanocomposites have been investigated.
    Keywords: Orthomethyl aniline, polymerization. Conducting polymers, MMT, Composites
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prasanna Kumar Sahoo and Dillip Kumar Behera and Matru Prasad Dash and Bijaya Kumar Parija and Munesh Chandra Adhikari and P.L.Nayak},
    title = {Synthesis and characterization of poly (o-methyl aniline) – MMT (Cloisite30B) nanocomposites for corrosion protection)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {141-148},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13135
    Paper Title :: Bluetooth Remote Home Automation System Using Android Application
    Author Name :: R.A.Ramlee || M.H.Leong || R.S.S.Singh || M.M.Ismail || M.A.Othman || H.A.Sulaiman || M.H.Misran || M.A.Meor Said
    Page Number :: 149-153
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101490153
    This paper presents the overall design of Home Automation System (HAS) with low cost and wireless remote control. This system is designed to assist and provide support in order to fulfill the needs of elderly and disabled in home. Also, the smart home concept in the system improves the standard living at home. The main control system implements wireless Bluetooth technology to provide remote access from PC/laptop or smart phone. The design remains the existing electrical switches and provides more safety control on the switches with low voltage activating method. The switches status is synchronized in all the control system whereby every user interface indicates the real time existing switches status. The system intended to control electrical appliances and devices in house with relatively low cost design, user-friendly interface and ease of installation.
    Keywords: Home automation, Smart home, home appliances, Bluetooth,Android
    @article{key:article,
    author = {R.A.Ramlee and M.H.Leong and R.S.S.Singh and M.M.Ismail and M.A.Othman and H.A.Sulaiman and M.H.Misran and M.A.Meor Said},
    title = {Bluetooth Remote Home Automation System Using Android Application)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {149-153},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13147
    Paper Title :: Analysis and Improvement by the Application of Network Analysis (Pert/Cpm)
    Author Name :: Paritosh Tamrakar
    Page Number :: 154-159
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101540159
    Purpose: The aim of this paper is showing the PERT/CPM methodology. In this paper it was introduced the way of implementing the PERT/CPM in the project base company. Design/ methodology/approach: In the frames of own research it has been analyzed and implemented the PERT/CPM in the live project. Findings: On the basis of the own research it can be stated, that implementing the PERT/CPM techniques bring the great changes in the company, for example: process improvement by time & cost reduction, increasing of effectiveness and efficiency in the processes, proceedings according to decisions, better control, utilization of resources. Research limitations/implications: The CPM/PERT techniques permit to analyze the processes and control the activities in the project. The CPM/PERT is the methodology of creation and maintaining well organized, well controlled, and high effective project work. Practical implications: Own research clearly showed, that very essential thing is to divide activities and define the best way or path to perform these activities. Originality/value: PERT/CPM improves project management and provides better control over activities and project time.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Paritosh Tamrakar},
    title = {Analysis and Improvement by the Application of Network Analysis (Pert/Cpm))},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {154-159},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13179
    Paper Title :: Design and Analysis of Composite/Hybrid Drive Shaft for Automotives
    Author Name :: Parshuram D || Sunil Mangsetty
    Page Number :: 114-120
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101600171
    The main concept of our project is to reduce the weight of automotive drive shaft with the utilization of composite material. Composite materials have been used in automotive components because of their properties such as low weight, high specific stiffness, corrosion free, ability to produce complex shapes, high specific strength and high impact energy absorption etc .As the automotive drive shaft is a very important component of vehicle. The modeling of the drive shaft assembly was done using CATIA software. A shaft has to be designed to meet the stringent design requirements for automotives. In automobiles the drive shaft is used for the transmission of motion from the engine to the differential. An automotive propeller shaft, or drive shaft , transmits power from the engine to differential gears of rear wheel-driving vehicle. In present work an attempt has been to estimate deflection, stresses under subjected loads & natural frequencies using FEA.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Parshuram D and Sunil Mangsetty},
    title = {Design and Analysis of Composite/Hybrid Drive Shaft for Automotives)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {160-171},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13183
    Paper Title :: Suitability / Un-Suitability of Soil under Command Area of Irrigation Gomal Zam Dam Multipurpose Project
    Author Name :: Naveed Akhtar
    Page Number :: 172-178
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101720178
    The main objective of this soil survey study is to locate as far as possible the future irrigation on the best soils of the project area and identify the areas which are unsuitable for irrigation due to salinity/sodicity. The land classes suitable for irrigation were worked out by considering the data regarding texture, salinity, lime and soil series, soil depth, slope and drainage. It was revealed that very some study area (8.23% samples) had highly suitable (class-I) soils. The largest parts of the study area (61.17% samples) were classified as moderately suitable (class-II) lands but marginally suitable (class-III) land units also occupied a fairly large area (25.88% samples). Some areas (4.7% samples) were classified as unsuitable (class-IV, V, VI) mainly due to physical soil limitations like rough broken and stony lands, stony lands and badlands. The chemical factors like salinity and CaCO3 were almost not limiting factors. Maps illustrating different classes of various parameters like salinity/ sodicity, texture, lime, soil series and classes of land suitability for irrigation were also prepared. In saline soils, ridge sowing and growing of salt tolerant crops are suggested. Moreover frequent heavy irrigations will also flush down the soluble salts below root zone provided the soils have better permeability. Presence of fine clayey stratification or hard pan and bedrock at shallow level may pose problem of perched water table development. The growers should be educated about the judicious use of water and cultivation of low delta crops in those areas.
    Keywords: Clay, Loams, Gomal Zam Dam Multipurpose Project, Silt, Sand
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Naveed Akhtar},
    title = {Suitability / Un-Suitability of Soil under Command Area of Irrigation Gomal Zam Dam Multipurpose Project},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {172-178},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13186
    Paper Title :: The influence of welding conditions on mechanical properties of 9% Ni steel welded joints of Liquefied Natural Gas tank.
    Author Name :: Abd El Fattah Mustafa Khourshid || Mohamed Ahmed A. Ghanem
    Page Number :: 179-185
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101790185
    The risk assessment of using LNG especially with little thickness storage tank to be more economy become need more research to get grantee to use this technology with new imagine . The only way to enhanced the mechanical properties of welded joint by controlling the parameters of using welding process. From the main variables of the arc welding process are the heat input and interpass temperature where the two variables control the thermal cycle of welding process. But there are limitations on the heat input and interpass temperature. The limitations of the welding parameters are greater as the strength of the parent metal increases. Where using the too high heat input as well as high interpass temperature that produce welded joint with low tensile strength, low hardness and low toughness mechanical properties. Although the low heat input or low interpass temperature increase the susceptibility of existing hydrogen crack. The combination of welding parameters, notably interpass temperature, are identified for SMAW process of a 9% Ni steel plates to improve the zones of welded joint strength and toughness properties. Results showed that for thin test specimen , the heat input range from 1.4 to 2 Kj/mm and controlling interpass temperature within 80° C give high tensile strength and improve the toughness properties of welded joint and reduce the probability of brittle fracture happened .
    Keywords: 9%Ni steel plate ,LNG tank , Heat Input ,Mechanical properties ,Toughness, Tensile strength, SMAW.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Abd El Fattah Mustafa Khourshid and Mohamed Ahmed A. Ghanem},
    title = {The influence of welding conditions on mechanical properties of 9% Ni steel welded joints of Liquefied Natural Gas tank.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {179-185},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13188
    Paper Title :: Review and Survey of Optimum Clustered Pilot Sequence for Of dm Systems under Rapidly Time-Varying Channel
    Author Name :: Neha Gupta || Prof.Dinesh Kumar Saxena || Gaurav Bhandari
    Page Number :: 186-190
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101860190
    As channel time-variation increases, orthogonality among subcarriers in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbol can be destroyed because of the relatively long symbol period, whereupon intercarrier interference (ICI) appears. The grouping pilot tones into a number of equally Spaced clusters can yield better channel estimation against the doubly selective channel than placing each pilot tone in an equally spaced manner. To enhance the better channel estimation various techniques are engaged. This review paper demonstrates some commonly engaged techniques to fabricate OFDM with reduce ICI and high performance since last few decades.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Neha Gupta and Prof.Dinesh Kumar Saxena and Gaurav Bhandari},
    title = {Review and Survey of Optimum Clustered Pilot Sequence for Of dm Systems under Rapidly Time-Varying Channel},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {186-190},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13201
    Paper Title :: Effect of Scaling On Operation of Low Voltage OTA
    Author Name :: Anjali Vijay Khare || Dipak Dahigaonkar
    Page Number :: 191-193
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101910193
    The increasing demand for higher data rate contributes in enhancing overall growth of digital systems. However, an analog system continues to be a vital part of electronics sensor circuits. Thus every DSP consists of both analog and digital sections. The need to lower down the power consumption in these systems has led to a scaling down of most technologies. The Current-mode design techniques in analog circuits results in the enhancement of bandwidth and linearity. One of the important building blocks in current-mode analog signal processing is the OTA, which is basically a voltage to current converter. This paper deals with design and analysis of single output Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) in submicron CMOS process technology (which was earlier done in 350nm technology). Simulations have been carried out in Hspice- Synopsys and Awanwaves. This paper also covers effects of scaling on various parameters such as power dissipation, total harmonic distortion , bandwidth etc. of the single output OTA in various CMOS process technology.
    Keywords: Operational Transconductance Amplifier, Total Harmonic Distortion, CMOS, CMOS process technology, Low voltage/ Low power.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anjali Vijay Khare and Dipak Dahigaonkar},
    title = {Effect of Scaling On Operation of Low Voltage OTA},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {191-193},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13208
    Paper Title :: An Experimental Study of Automotive Disc Brake Vibrations
    Author Name :: Amr M. M. Rabia || Nouby M. Ghazaly || M. M. M. Salem || Ali M. Abd-El-Tawwab
    Page Number :: 194-200
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02101940200
    Friction-induced vibration of disc brakes is a topic of major interest and concern for the automotive industry. Customer complaints result in significant warranty costs yearly. In the present paper, a detailed experimental study of the disc brake vibration is performed on a simplified brake dynamometer. The preliminary brake dynamometer consists of three subsystems, namely driving unit, braking unit and measurement facilities. There are approximately twenty seven vibration tests are conducted at various operating conditions such as different brake-line pressure and disc speeds. It is observed that the peak value of the pad vibration amplitude emanates from all tests are dominant at frequency of 4.4 kHz. It is also found that the vibration level decreases with the increase of sliding speed. Moreover, it is observed that the vibration level decreases with the increases of applied pressure.
    Keywords: Brake dynamometer, friction induced vibration, automotive disc brake.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Amr M. M. Rabia and Nouby M. Ghazaly and M. M. M. Salem and Ali M. Abd-El-Tawwab},
    title = {An Experimental Study of Automotive Disc Brake Vibrations)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {194-200},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13217
    Paper Title :: Remote Village Electrification through Renewable Solar energy: a Case Study of Sagar Island, West Bengal, India
    Author Name :: Manas Mondal || Satyabrata Mandal
    Page Number :: 201-205
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102010205
    This paper deals with the study of rural electrification scenario through Photo Voltaic cell systems of Sagar island which is isolated from main land mass of West Bengal state by river Hugli (width of river ~3Km). Photovoltaic (P.V) put in place by the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA) have clearly brought benefits to many of the residents of Sagar island.. The highly-touted community management system governing the projects has been successful at instilling local pride and overcoming the traditionally thorny problem of tariff no collection. There are ten solar-powered stations which installed in between 1996 to 2006 at different remote sides of the Island. Kamalpur is the village where solar-powered station first installed in 1996 with power generation capacity of 26 (kW). After two years (1998) another solar-powered station was installed in the village of Mritunjoynagar with the same capacity as the previous project. In 1999 three solar-powered stations installed, namely Khasmahal, Gayenbazar, and Mahendraganj solar projects with capacity of 25(kW) each. Natendrapur and Uttar Haradhanpur solar-power stations developed in 2000 having 28.5 & 32.5 (kW) power generation capacity. In 2001, only one solar-powered station is installed at Mandirtala, with power generate capacity of 28.5 (kW). Koylapara & Rudranagar Hospital solar-power stations are installed in 2006.Their power generate capacity was 120 & 20 (kW) respectively.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Manas Mondal and Satyabrata Mandal},
    title = {Remote Village Electrification through Renewable Solar energy: a Case Study of Sagar Island, West Bengal, India},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {201-205},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 12105
    Paper Title :: Effect of the Role of Teacher in EFL Teaching through Interactive Approach at Public Sector Schools
    Author Name :: Dr. Mubasher Nadeem
    Page Number ::

    209-215

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102090215
    The idea of a teacher in the guise of a friend, mentor, guide, inspiration, source of knowledge, and a role model is not the product of modern thought rather; it has been there for centuries. However, expecting the incarnation of this idea in all the modern teachers and especially the teachers of EFL classes is becoming the need of the hour as the methodology of teaching English is no more lecture oriented through and through, rather it's become imperative for the teachers to follow the interactive mode of teaching in order to teach and enhance communicative competence of learners of English as Foreign Language, and also to maximize the effects of their teaching. In response if a teacher wins respect, love and prestige from students then nothing like that. These are the findings of the study based on the responses of 200 public sector secondary school students who feel that there is a marked difference between the interactive and traditional (teacher centered) teaching in an EFL class at secondary level. To them the person responsible for such environment in the class is no other than the teacher. Interactive teaching may be called the second name of friendly teaching in Pakistani context where teachers traditionally follow teacher-centered teaching in EFL class that offers little room to students to learn English language actively. The subjects favor interactive teaching in EFL class and friendlier way of teaching English language is better for learning English language skills. The study recommends the adoption of interactive mode of teaching in all EFL levels especially at the public sector schools.
    Keywords: EFL (English as a foreign language), Interactive, communicative competence, teacher centered
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Mubasher Nadeem},
    title = {Effect of the Role of Teacher in EFL Teaching through Interactive Approach at Public Sector Schools},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {209-215},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 12090
    Paper Title :: Quality Attributes of Yam Flour (Elubo) As Affected By Blanching Water Temperature and Soaking Time
    Author Name :: Adejumo B. A.|| Okundare, R. O.|| Afolayan, O. I. ||Balogun, S. A.
    Page Number ::

    216-221

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02102160221
    Yam is a tuber crop which belongs to the family Dioscorea spp. It is a semi perishable class of food diet due to its high moisture content. Yam flour (elubo) is a fine powder made from the processing of yam tuber. The process of obtaining yam flour from yam tuber involves sorting, peeling slicing, blanching, drying and milling. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of blanching water temperature and soaking time on some quality attributes of yam flour. Fresh yam tubers (Dioscorea rotundata) without rot and decay was selected peeled, cut into cubes of 25mm + 2mm thickness, blanched, soaked, dewatered and oven dried. The dried samples were milled, sieved and packaged for analysis. The experiment was carried out at three blanching temperatures (40, 50 and 60oC) and three soaking time (12, 24, 48 hours) at three replicates (3x3x3=27replicates). The unbalanched and unsoaked samples were used as control. All the samples were stored separately for further analysis. The physical and proximate qualities of yam flour samples were determined using standard methods. Data collected was analyzed statistically to determine the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the means separated. The result shows that the blanching water temperature and soaking time has significant effects (p ≤ 0.05) on the moisture content, protein, carbohydrate, loose bulk density, packed bulk density, swelling capacity, foaming capacity and water absorption capacity of yam flour. However these processing parameters have no significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) on the fat and ash contents of yam flour. The blanching and soaking of fresh yam cubes before the yam flour production resulted in significantly higher protein content, carbohydrate content, swelling capacity, foaming capacity, and bulk density (loose and packed) compared to the control sample. The yam flour produced from blanched and soaked yam cubes has better quality attributes than the unblanched and unsoaked samples. It is therefore recommended that the best combination of processing parameter for best quality yam flour is 40oC blanching water temperature and 12h soaking time.
    Keywords: yam, yam flour, blanching temperature, soaking time, quality attributes
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adejumo B. A. and Okundare, R. O., Afolayan, O. I. and Balogun, S. A.},
    title = {Quality Attributes of Yam Flour (Elubo) As Affected By Blanching Water Temperature and Soaking Time},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {216-221},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13051
    Paper Title :: Prediction of Water Resource Potentials and Sustainable Supply of Water in Portharcourt, Nigeria from Meteorological Data
    Author Name :: I. Tamunobereton-ari||E. D. Uko|| D. H. Davies
    Page Number ::

    222-231

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102220231
    This work x-rays and predicts the water resource potentials of Port Harcourt, Nigeria that can be harnessed to satisfy the water needs of the area using the city's meteorological data. Meteorological records covering a 10 year period (2001 – 2010) show that Port Harcourt has a rainy season of 9 to 10 months and minimum average annual rainfall of over 185mm with a minimum annual rainfall peak of 354mm for the 10 year data. Within this period, there are only 3 to 4 months of dry season. Rainy and dry seasons are transitional in February and November. Maximum annual evaporation peak was 148mm and a maximum annual average evaporation of 102mm. The water resource potentials of Port Harcourt and its environs are enormous with a favourable hydrogeology of 15m to 30m depth of water table distribution and an overwhelming recharge capacity of water bodies (surface water and groundwater) by the amount of rain fall.
    Keywords: Water resource, meteorology, groundwater, recharge capacity, aquifer, percolation.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {I. Tamunobereton-ari and E. D. Uko and D. H. Davies},
    title = {Prediction of Water Resource Potentials and Sustainable Supply of Water in Portharcourt, Nigeria from Meteorological Data},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {222-231},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13087
    Paper Title :: Effect of Heat Treatment on the Characteristics and Oil Yield of Moringa Oleifera Seeds
    Author Name :: Adejumo, B. A.||Alakowe, A.T||Obi, D. E
    Page Number ::

    232-239

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102320239
    The effect of heat treatment on the characteristics and oil yield of moringa oleifera seeds was investigated. The moringa oleifera seed samples was divided into four portions A, B, C and D. Samples A, B and C were heated at 1000C, 1300C, and 1500C respectively for 30 minutes, while sample D served as the control for the experiment. The oil extraction was done using soxhlet extraction method and the oil extracted characterized using standard methods. The results showed a percentage oil yield of 33.7%, 32.2%, 30.9% and 28.6% for samples A, B, C and D respectively. The specific gravity and density (kg/m3) for the extracted oil are 0.96, 0.89, 0.91, 0.91 and 0.99, 0.97, 0.95, 1.05 for samples A, B, C and D respectively. Saponification (mg/KOH/mol) and iodine (g/100) values are 230.81, 218.75, 177.70, 252.34 and 69.25, 66.70, 66.63, 72.40 for samples A, B, C and D respectively. The acid (mg/KOH/g) and peroxide (m/mol/kg) values are 1.37, 1.36, 1.35, 2.73 and 1.94, 1.90, 1.90, 3.10 for samples A, B, C and D respectively. The free fatty acid (mg/KOH/g) ranged between 2.70 to 5.80 for oil samples extracted. It can be concluded that the oil yield, saponification value, free fatty acid, acid value, peroxide value and iodine value decreases with increase in heating temperature, while heating temperature has no significant effect on the specific gravity of the oil. The properties evaluated indicate the long shelf life, resistance to rancidity and edibility of Moringa seed oil.
    Keywords: Moringa Oleifera seeds, oil yield, characteristics, heat treatment
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adejumo, B. A. and Alakowe, A.T and Obi, D. E},
    title = {Effect of Heat Treatment on the Characteristics and Oil Yield of Moringa Oleifera Seeds},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {232-239},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13122
    Paper Title :: Performance Comparison of Moving Object Detection Techniques in Video Surveillance System
    Author Name :: Dr. Dheeraj Agrawal||Nitin Meena
    Page Number ::

    240-242

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102400242
    Real time object tracking is considered as a critical application. Object tracking is one of the most necessary steps for surveillance, augmented reality, smart rooms and perceptual user interfaces, video compression based on object and driver assistance. While traditional methods of Segmentation using Thresholding, Background subtraction and Background estimation provide satisfactory results to detect single objects, noise is produced in case of multiple objects and in poor lighting conditions. Hence, a method called correlation is used which gives the relation between two consecutive frames which have sufficient difference to be used as current and previous frame. This gives a way better result in poor light condition and multiple moving objects.
    Keywords: Video Surveillance system; Moving object detection; Tracking; Background Subtraction algorithm; Adaptive Contrast Detection Method
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Dheeraj Agrawal||Nitin Meena},
    title = {Performance Comparison of Moving Object Detection Techniques in Video Surveillance System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {240-242},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13152
    Paper Title :: Solving Nonlinear Partial Differential Equation Using Painleve Analysis
    Author Name :: M. Y. Adamu||E. Suleiman||A. G. Madaki
    Page Number ::

    243-245

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102430245
    We employ the use of Painleve analysis in order to solve nonlinear partial differential equation (NLPDE) that passes the panileve test. Backlund transformation is then readily found by using the Painleve truncation expansion. Finally, based on the obtained Backlund transformation, some explicit exact solution of the nonlinear partial differential equation is obtained.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {M. Y. Adamu and E. Suleiman and A. G. Madaki},
    title = {Solving Nonlinear Partial Differential Equation Using Painleve Analysis},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {243-245},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13185
    Paper Title :: Deep Cryogenic Processing After Heat Treatment: A New Approach
    Author Name :: S.N.Chaudhari||Dr. G.J. Vikhe patil
    Page Number ::

    246-249

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102460249
    Abstract- Generally cryogenic treatment for tool steel is performed after quenching but cryogenic treatment after completion of total heat treatment was hardly studied. This work compares the performance of untreated (HTTT) M2 tool with cryogenically treated after heat treatment (HTTTCD) tool on the basis of tool life, flank wear, power consumption, surface roughness and microstructure. The result shows that cryogenically treated M2 tool after heat treatment (HTTTCD) tool exhibit better performance during operation than untreated (HTTT) M2 tool steel.
    Keywords: M2 tool steel, HTTT, HTTTCD.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S.N.Chaudhari and Dr. G.J. Vikhe patil},
    title = {Deep Cryogenic Processing After Heat Treatment: A New Approach},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {246-249},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13205
    Paper Title :: Advanced Trends of Heterogeneous Computing with CPU-GPU Integration: Comparative Study
    Author Name :: Ishan Rajani||G Nanda Gopal
    Page Number ::

    250-253

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102500253
    Over the last decades parallel-distributed computing becomes most popular than traditional centralized computing. In distributed computing performance up-gradation is achieved by distributing workloads across the participating nodes. One of the most important factors for improving the performance of this type of system is to reduce average and standard deviation of job response time. Runtime insertion of new tasks of various sizes to different nodes is one of the main reasons of Load unbalancing. Among the several latest concepts of Parallel-Distributed Processing CPU-GPU Utilization is focused here. How the ideal portion of the CPU can be utilized for GPU process and visa-versa. This paper also introduces the heterogeneous computing work flow integration focused on CPU-GPU. The purposed system exploits the coarse-grain warp level parallelism. It is also elaborated here that by using which architectures and frameworks developers are racing in the field of heterogeneous computing.
    Keywords: Heterogeneous Computing, Coarse-Grained warp level parallelism, standard deviation of job response time
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ishan Rajani and G Nanda Gopal},
    title = {Advanced Trends of Heterogeneous Computing with CPU-GPU Integration: Comparative Study},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {250-253},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13212
    Paper Title :: Comparison of the cooling effects of a locally formulated car radiator coolant with water and a commercial coolant
    Author Name :: Efeovbokhan||Vincent Enontiemonria||Ohiozua, Ohireme Nathaniel
    Page Number ::

    254-262

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102540262
    The cooling properties of a locally formulated coolant (sample C) vis-a-vis, its boiling characteristics and specific heat capacity were investigated along side with a common coolant-water (as sample A) and a commercial coolant (sample B). The results of the investigation showed that sample C gave the best performance compared to the other two samples A and B: the boiling points of sample C was 1100C, sample A 1000C, and sample B 1010C. This means that the possibility of a boil-out of sample C from the radiator is little compared to samples A and B. Also, for the same quantity of coolant more heat would be required to raise sample C to its boiling point than for samples A and B. In other word, better cooling would be achieved using sample C. The specific heat capacity for sample C was 4238 Jkg-1K-1, which was also a good compromise against samples Abut better than sample B having 4266 Jkg-1K-1 and 4208Jkg-1K-1 respectively.
    Keywords: Radiator coolants, Corrosion inhibitors, Overheating, Engines
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Efeovbokhan and Vincent Enontiemonria and Ohiozua and Ohireme Nathaniel},
    title = {Comparison of the cooling effects of a locally formulated car radiator coolant with water and a commercial coolant},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {254-262},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21012
    Paper Title :: Assessment of Groundwater Pollution Potential in and Around Ranipet Area, Vellore District, Tamilnadu
    Author Name :: K.Ambiga||Dr. R. AnnaDurai
    Page Number ::

    263-268

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102630268
    Drinking water is contaminated through the pipe distribution system or directly through groundwater due to addition of waste water discharged from domestic, industrial and agricultural sources. The present study deals with the physic-chemical characteristics of subsurface water quality in Ranipet area. Such a water samples were collected from different identified bore wells and dug wells for the purpose of studying the quality of groundwater during July 2012. The bore wells from which the samples were collected are extensively used for drinking purpose. It has been proved from the present investigation findings that value of few parameters are TDS, Total hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulphate, Chloride, Fluoride and Nitrate fall out of the permissible range with reference to BIS. Drinking standards. Hence, suggested to take proper care to avoid contamination of groundwater pollution through periodic monitoring of the water quality.
    Keywords: Groundwater, Physico – chemical parameter, Heavy metals
    @article{key:article,
    author = {K.Ambiga and Dr. R. AnnaDurai},
    title = {Assessment of Groundwater Pollution Potential in and Around Ranipet Area, Vellore District, Tamilnadu},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {263-268},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21021
    Paper Title :: Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Ultra Thin White Topping
    Author Name :: Ankit Sharma
    Page Number ::

    269-274

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102690274
    The highway construction industry has made rapid strides in the field of new technology upgradation and adaptation. Newer materials have been tried in the field applications with a lot of emphasis on optimizing life cycle cost and minimizing rutting/abrasion. One of the solution for rutting asphalt pavement is white topping, which means, the placement of a concrete overlay on top of asphalt pavement. Salient features of white topping are: milling is generally not required, a leveling layer of dry lean concrete or bituminous material is required, and joints are at normal spacing with dowel at each contraction joints for high volume roads.
    Keywords: asphalt pavement, mix proportioning, white topping
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ankit Sharma},
    title = {Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Ultra Thin White Topping},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {269-274},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21030
    Paper Title :: Physiochemical and Environmental Factors Responsible for Change in Milk Composition of Milking Animal
    Author Name :: Rashmi Arora||N. Bhojak
    Page Number ::

    275-277

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102750277
    The study was designed to evaluate the different factors which are responsible for milk composition. Total 80 samples from different species in different seasons were collected and analyzed for fat, Protein,Lactose,Acidity and pH.The average value of cow milk fat, protein and lactose was 3.79,2.98,4.55.for buffalo milk these values are 6.13,3.28,4.98 for goat and sheep these values are3.74,3.02,4.45and6.69,4.37,4.51 respectively. These values were somewhat different from standard values due to season effect, nutrition habit of animal, lactation stage of animal etc. In the early lactation Fat and protein decrease and lactose concentration increases, where as in the late lactation fat and protein increases and lactose decreases. The lactose content was less, in winter in comparison to summer where as the protein content was high in winter in comparison to summer.
    Keywords: Breed, fat, protein, lactation, lactose, standard values
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rashmi Arora and N. Bhojak},
    title = {Physiochemical and Environmental Factors Responsible for Change in Milk Composition of Milking Animal},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {275-277},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21029
    Paper Title :: Theoretical Formulaion to Evaluate Capacitance for Before And After Touch Point Mems Capacitive Pressure Sensors
    Author Name :: Y. Hezarjaribi||M.N. Hamidon
    Page Number ::

    278 -286

     

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102780286
    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This is due to the great promise of increased miniaturization and Performance of MEMS devices over conventional devices. MEMS pressure sensors currently dominate the market for greater than atmospheric pressure sensors. In this paper, a theoretical and finite elements analysis (FEA) solution for Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor to evaluate capacitance for before and after touch point is proposed. By looking at MEMS devices, when the diaphragm starts touching the fixed electrode by applying loads, it will have a major effect on the overall of the capacitance. Therefore, one should consider the effect of touch mode capacitance value in the system to evaluate good linearity, large operating pressure range and large overload protection at output. As of so far the evaluation for capacitance value of touch point and after touch point has not been evaluated in the literatures. This paper presents the new analytical formula to approach for including the touch-down effect capacitance value of Microsystems. The proposed MEMS capacitive pressure sensor demonstrated diaphragm with radius of , the gap depth of and the sensor exhibit linear response with pressure from 0.01 Mpa to 1.7 Mpa.
    Keywords: MEMS Pressure sensor; Touch mode; Circular Diaphragm
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Y. Hezarjaribi and M.N. Hamidon},
    title = {Theoretical Formulaion to Evaluate Capacitance for Before And After Touch Point Mems Capacitive Pressure Sensors},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {278 -286 },
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13173
    Paper Title :: Adsorption Studies On Reactive Blue 4 By Varying The Concentration Of Mgo In Sorel's Cement
    Author Name :: R. HARIHARASUTHAN||A. NAGESWARA RAO||A. BHASKARAN
    Page Number ::

    287-292

     

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102870292
    Batch experiments are carried out for the adsorption of Reactive Blue 4 by Sorel's cement with varying the composition. The operating variables studied are initial Dye concentration (Ci), pH, Temperature and contact time. The equilibrium data are fitted to the Langmuir isotherm equations. From this the adsorption efficiency, adsorption capacity and dimensionless separation factor are calculated..
    Keywords: Reactive Blue 4, Various types of Sorel's Cement, Langmuir isotherms, Kinetic studies, pH effect, Effect of contact time.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {R. HARIHARASUTHAN and A. NAGESWARA RAO and A. BHASKARAN},
    title = {Adsorption Studies On Reactive Blue 4 By Varying The Concentration Of Mgo In Sorel's Cement},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {287-292},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13211
    Paper Title :: Amalgamate Scheduling Of Real-Time Tasks And Effective Utilization On Multiprocessors With Work-Stealing
    Author Name :: Sreenath.M||Sukumar .P||naganarasaiahgoud.K,
    Page Number ::

    293-298

     

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102930298
    The load balancing between resources in order to get effective utilization when many jobs are running with varying characteristics. The system speed is reduced when the work load is not properly balanced and idle processors are not involve for tasks execution, due to single processor may execute limit number of tasks. Thus the tasks steal from master processor to idle processors. Here work stealing is efficient approach to the distributed dynamic load balancing for the load among different processors. But Our proposal is priority based deque in place of the non-priority deque of work -stealing. Work stealing will increase the speedup of Parallel applications without affecting the schedulability of the other jobs scheduled by EDF-HSB
    Keywords: deque, EDF-HSB, effective utilization, work stealing.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sreenath.M, and Sukumar .P andnaganarasaiahgoud.K},
    title = {Amalgamate Scheduling Of Real-Time Tasks And Effective Utilization On Multiprocessors With Work-Stealing},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {293-298},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21036
    Paper Title :: Status Of User's Perspective On The Quality Family Planning Services And Care In Doiwala Block, Dehradun District Of Uttarakhand
    Author Name :: Dr. Rajeev Bijalwan||Ms. B. Maithili
    Page Number ::

    299-302

     

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02102990302
    The Family Planning Program has been implemented in India since 1951, however, lack of inappropriate and inadequate dissemination of information and pre and post services of family planning always affects the period of continuation of temporary family planning methods for longer period. The study investigates the status of user's perspective of quality family planning services and care in Doiwala block of Dehradun district of the Uttarakhand state. The relevant information was collected largely by quantitative and qualitative research approach. The total number of married women was 298 from all five PHCs in Doiwala block, the survey was conducted in the month of October and November 2012. The study revealed that 66.9% of married women were using spacing or permanent method of contraceptives. The source of method was public hospital (95.5%) and 4.5% received from private hospital. Among the 298 interviewed married women only 51.7% received basket of choice at the time of contraceptive acceptance. The number of studies pointed out that women who know about all available contraceptive methods and their side effects can make better choices and continue temporary methods for longer duration as well as have minimum rate of early dropout of temporary contraceptives. However among the 298 interviewed women more than fifty percent of mother provided baskets of choice for the selection of contraceptive acceptance while 73.8% women received follow up services from health providers. The study pointed out that if health providers ensure delivery of quality counseling, pre checkup or examination, information about side effects and adequate follow up services of ongoing family planning services, the dropout rate or discontinuation of contraceptive not only reduces but it also helps married women to continue temporary family planning methods for longer period.
    Keywords: contraceptive, temporary, discontinuation
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Rajeev Bijalwan and Ms. B. Maithili},
    title = {Status Of User's Perspective On The Quality Family Planning Services And Care In Doiwala Block, Dehradun District Of Uttarakhand},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {299-302},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21013
    Paper Title :: Studies of Effects of Convective Plane Stagnation Point Mhd Flow with Convective Boundary Conditions In The Presence Of A Uniform Magnetic Field
    Author Name :: adeniyan, A and adigun,J.A
    Page Number ::

    310-313

     

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02103100313
    A numerical investigation is made on the convective plane stagnation point flow with convective boundary conditions in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The system of coupled partial differential equations obtained from the modelled fluid flow was first transformed into a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with the use of similarity transformation. The ordinary differential equations are solved using fourth order Runge-Kutta formula together with shooting technique. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for different values of the relevant flow quantities in engineering are investigated. Under this study, the Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are obtained numerically and the results compared with those in the literature. It is seen that the magnetic field has a significant influence on the skin friction as the skin friction decreases with increasing values of the magnetic parameter whereas the combined influence of pressure gradient and magnetic fields invokes minimal changes on the Nusselt number .
    Keywords: plane stagnation point, convective boundary conditions, magnetic field
    @article{key:article,
    author = {adeniyan, A., and adigun,J.A},
    title = {Studies of Effects of Convective Plane Stagnation Point Mhd Flow with Convective Boundary Conditions In The Presence Of A Uniform Magnetic Field},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {310-313},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21019
    Paper Title :: Pattern In Splitting Sequence In Okike's Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher Technique In Securing Web Information
    Author Name :: Okike Benjamin||Prof. E.G.D. Garba
    Page Number ::

    314-338

     

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02103140338
    Tusers. Transposition cipher addresses the above issues - it is at the foundation of all information security. Even if the information in transit is intercepted, with transposition cipher, the information would be meaningless to the interceptor. The researcher will in this work review Single Columnar Transpositionhe protection of sensitive information against unauthorized access or fraudulent changes has been of prime concern throughout the centuries. Modern communication techniques, using computers connected through networks, make all data even more vulnerable to these threats. In addition, new issues have surfaced that did not exist previously, e.g., the use of the Internet for business transactions, video conferencing, net meeting, etc. These issues have made it possible for information in transit more vulnerable to attack by unauthorized Ciphers, Double Columnar Transposition Cipher and Irregular Transposition Cipher. Because of the problems associated with these ciphers, the researcher will deploy Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher to ensure that information is more secure than there are in the reviewed transposition ciphers presently in use. However, Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher will ensure that the original message is split into two or more parts, each of the part encrypted and finally combined to form the ciphertext message that would be sent. The number of parts that the original message would be split depends on the length of the message.
    Keywords: Merged Irregular transposition, Cipher, Web Information, Splitting Sequence
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Okike Benjamin and Prof. E.G.D. Garba},
    title = {Pattern In Splitting Sequence In Okike's Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher Technique In Securing Web Information},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {314-338},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13107
    Paper Title :: Corrosion Effect of Gas Flaring On Galvanized Roofing Sheet in Imo State,Nigeria
    Author Name :: Ovri||J.E.O. M.Iroh
    Page Number ::

    339-345

     

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02103390345
    The effect of air pollutants due to gas flaring on the corrosion of corrugated galvanized steel roofing sheets in Imo state is the subject of this work. Seven months monthly analysis of the ambient atmospheric gases was taken which showed that methane gas has an overall mean value of 6.21ppm with a coefficient of variation of +_ 27.2% and (r=-0.64) and sulphur-dioxide of mean value of 0.58ppm with coefficient of variation of +_ 17.4% and(r=-0.54), contribute more to corrosion . The corrosion rate of the galvanized samples exposed on racks was monitored using the electrochemical method using a Cu/CuSO4 with saturated calomel electrode of which a lowest corrosion potential of -1021mV was obtained at 500meters and -1018mV at 1000meters away from flare source in Izombe and -1011mV at a none gas flare site,Federal University of Technology,Owerri(FUTO). The weight loss were taken monthly regressed with atmospheric pollutants. A maximum weight loss of 7.62mg was obtained at 500meters away from flare source in Izombe followed by 4.23mg at 1000meters from flare source while 1.17mg weight loss was obtained in FUTO which shows that Gas flaring has serious deteriorating effect on galvanized roofing sheet.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ovri, J.E.O.and M.Iroh},
    title = {Corrosion Effect of Gas Flaring On Galvanized Roofing Sheet in Imo State,Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {339-345},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13124
    Paper Title :: Corrosion Inhibition of Stainless Steel(314l) Using Molasses
    Author Name :: A.C.Iyasara||J.E.O.Ovri
    Page Number ::

    346-352

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02103460352
    The inhibition effect of molasses of varying concentrations (0.2g/L, 0.3g/L, 0.4g/L, 0.5g/L) on the corrosion of austenitic stainless steel (type 316L) in 0.5M tetraoxosulphate(vi )acid (H2SO4), Brine (6% NaCl), seawater (3% NaCl) and freshwater media was studied at room temperature. The corrosion rates of the steel were determined using the weight loss method for a period of fifty six days. The solution of the molasses inhibited the corrosion of the stainless steel samples to an extent depending on the concentration of the molasses and the type of medium. The results obtained showed that the higher the concentration of the molasses, the higher the inhibition efficiency (the lower the corrosion rate). The lowest corrosion rates were observed in freshwater medium while H2SO4 acid medium showed the highest corrosion rates. The inhibition is attributed to the physical adsorption of the inhibitor (molasses) on the surface of the stainless steel.
    Keywords: Inhibition, Molasses, Weight loss, Corrosion rate, Austenitic stainless steel,physical adsorption.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {A.C.Iyasara and J.E.O.Ovri},
    title = {Corrosion Inhibition of Stainless Steel(314l) Using Molasses},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {346-352},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21067
    Paper Title :: Prevalence of Fast Food Intake among Urban Adolescent Students
    Author Name :: Dr. Naheed Vaida
    Page Number ::

    353-359

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02103530359
    Consumption of fast foods has become almost a global phenomenon, as more and more people are lured by it day in and day out irrespective of demographic traits. But to know how students are attracted by fast foods has assumed importance in recent times. So the research subject of the study was to find out the "Prevalence of Fast Food Intake among Urban Adolescent Students". For the collection of data a representative sample of 80 urban adolescent students were randomly selected in the target area. A structured questionnaire was administered and interviews were carried out on the students in different schools and colleges of the Srinagar city to gather the data related to the subject. Study showed interesting results. On one hand sex and economic status were found chief variable in fast food consumption as girls are leading in former and adolescent students reading in private schools are up in the latter. On the other hand, flavor, variety, brand, fast service and availability were found main driving force in fast food intake. Also exposure to advertisements, media influence and urbanization were found chief factors in fast food in take.
    Keywords: Fast food, adolescents, prevalence.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Naheed Vaida},
    title = {Prevalence of Fast Food Intake among Urban Adolescent Students},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {353-359},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21042
    Paper Title :: Restrained Shrinkage Cracks in Composite Bridge Decks, Evaluation and Reduction Method
    Author Name :: Maria M. Szerszen||Aleksander Szwed
    Page Number ::

    360-366

     

    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0210360366
    Paper presents an analytical method to estimate restrained shrinkage stresses in concrete bridge decks and a practical method to decrease these stresses. Proposed approach is based on flexure analysis of a composite beam's section assuming displacement and strain discontinuity condition and slip at interface of the deck and girder. The ratio of deck-to-girder stiffness strongly affects the final value of the restrained shrinkage stresses. Results indicate the strong possibility of cracks initiation in the deck because the level of restraint caused by the girders can range 60% of the full restraint. Presented analytical expression for the coefficient of restraint level can be used as a measure of cracking tendency of concrete. It is proposed to apply external forces to the girders at the beginning of the construction process to create an initial camber. In that manner, created stress pattern is of opposite sign to that caused by the restrained shrinkage. Camber is gradually relived during early stage of concrete maturing. Based on calculations, even half of tensile stress can be eliminated from the deck. This decrease of tension in the deck can prevent cracking.
    Keywords: bridge decks, composite bridges, early cracking, restrained shrinkage.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Maria M. Szerszen and Aleksander Szwed},
    title = {Restrained Shrinkage Cracks in Composite Bridge Decks, Evaluation and Reduction Method},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {1},
    pages = {360-366},
    month = {January}
    }