•  
    Volume 03 || Issue 02|| versions 1 || February 2014
    Paper Id :: 3158
    Paper Title :: Comparative Study of Mesophilic Biogas Production Potentials of Selected Agro-Wastes
    Author Name :: Tsunatu D. Yavini||Usman H. Taura|| Nuhu Mohammed|| James M. Namo
    Page Number :: 01-06
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03210106
    Biogas production from agricultural wastes (Groundnut shell, Maize Cobs, Rice Straw and Bagasse) inoculated with cattle dung/poultry droppings was investigated. These substrates were charged into batch digesters and labeled sample A-D with the ratio of amount of total solids to water in each of the bio-digester being the same and were subjected to Anaerobic Mesophilic conditions. The biogas produced was collected by the saline water displacement method and subsequently measured. Results obtained showed that, Sample C (Rice Straw) has the highest cumulative biogas generation of 692.9ml, followed by Sample B, A and D with cumulative biogas generation of 468.7ml, 325.5ml and 185.9ml respectively, with a pH range of 6.5 – 7.7. It could be concluded that, the inoculation of agricultural wastes with methanogenic bacteria sources have an important role and efficacy in the biogas generation quantity. Wastes recycling and biogas production requires strong governmental support to be successful in terms of environmental pollution control and management that might have resulted from the domestic disposal of these agricultural wastes
    Keywords: Bagasse, Inoculums, Biogas, Rice Straw, Anaerobic, Pollution, Mesophilic
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Tsunatu D. Yavini, Usman H. Taura, Nuhu Mohammed, James M. Namo},
    title = {Comparative Study of Mesophilic Biogas Production Potentials of Selected Agro-Wastes},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {01-06},
    month = {February}
    }
    Paper Id :: 3187
    Paper Title :: Development of Cross Cut Shape Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna & Compare with Normal Microstrip Patch Antenna
    Author Name :: Tushar || Pooja Jaiswal
    Page Number :: 07-11
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/032107011
    In this paper, we developed a cross cut shape microstrip patch antenna for the performance comparison with the normal microstrip patch antenna using the spectrum analyzer. The return loss of cross cut shape microstrip patch antenna designed at the resonant frequency of 2.47 GHz has been compared with the normal microstrip patch antenna at a substrate height of 1.6 mm. We get improvement in return loss. This paper shows the faithful return loss means we get dual band operation for the cross cut shape on the patch side and a very good practically value of VSWR obtain at the 2.47 GHz resonant frequency. These structures are simulated using IE3D version 12.29 Electromagnetic simulator of Zeland software incorporation
    Keywords: Cross cut shape Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna, Return Loss, VSWR.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Tushar , Pooja Jaiswal},
    title = {Development of Cross Cut Shape Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna & Compare with Normal Microstrip Patch Antenna},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {07-11},
    month = {February}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3182
    Paper Title :: Smartphone Based Wearable Sensors for Cyborgs Using Neural Network Engine
    Author Name :: Dayana Benny|| Anil Antony
    Page Number :: 12-18
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0321012018
    Now we can imagine a situation where human beings wear electronic skin as touch sensors for health monitoring system. There is a recent advancement in developing a system that uses wireless sensors placed on body and collected sensor information are dealt with smart phone applications. This application uses cloud computing, location data and a neural network engine to determine the current state of a patient is dangerous or not. Electronic skin modules mount spatially on human beings. The neural network engine fuses the information from multiple sensors

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dayana Benny, Anil Antony},
    title = {Smartphone Based Wearable Sensors for Cyborgs Using Neural Network Engine},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {12-18},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3148
    Paper Title :: Hydrogeochemistry of Some Selected Springs' Waters in Ekiti Basement Complex Area, Southwestern Nigeria
    Author Name :: Talabi*, A. O||Afolagboye, O. L.||Tijani, M. N.||Aladejana, J. A. ||Ogundana, A. K.
    Page Number :: 19-30
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0321019030
    The occurrence of surface water and shallow groundwater in Ekiti Basement area is erratic and subject to seasonal variation while the eleven selected springs under study have history of continuous yield throughout the year. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the hydrochemistry of the selected springs with a view to understand their hydrochemical evolution and suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes. Temperature, pH and EC of water samples from the springs were measured in the field using Schott electric conductometer. Subsequently, 30 springs' water samples were collected in polyethylene bottles and analysed in the Laboratory for cations and anions determinations using Buck Scientific Model 210VGP Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and colorimetric method respectively. Results of the analyses indicate that pH of the springs' water range from 5.7 – 11.5 exceeding approved World Health Organisation (WHO) standard for drinking water in few locations. The EC range from 19 - 239μS/cm while the TH of 90% of the springs' waters is less than 70mg/L signifying soft, low mineralized water with no pronounced effects of rock-water interaction arising from transient residence time. Ionic concentrations in the springs' waters exhibiting trend of Cl−>HCO3- >NO3-, Mg2+> Ca2+> Na+>K+ and Fe2+>Zn4+>Cu2+>Mn4+ are within approved WHO standard values for drinking water. The hydrochemical facies are Na-(K)-Cl (dominant) and Ca-(Mg)-Cl water types. Irrigation indices (sodium absorption ratio, residual sodium bi-carbonate, permeability index) signified good quality water suitable for agricultural use while magnesium absorption ratio and Kelly's ratio were indicative of moderately suitable irrigation water.
    Keywords: Ekiti Basement Area. Springs. Irrigation. Colorimetric method. Mineralized
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Talabi*, A. O||Afolagboye, O. L.||Tijani, M. N.||Aladejana, J. A. ||Ogundana, A. K},
    title = {Hydrogeochemistry of Some Selected Springs' Waters in Ekiti Basement Complex Area, Southwestern Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {19-30},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3179
    Paper Title :: Eroding the Autonomy of Nigerian Local Governments: The Bane of Grass Root Development
    Author Name :: Mamidu Aruna Ishola|| Adegboye Adegboyega|| Solola Lawal Solanke
    Page Number :: 31-39
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0321031039
    This work took a cursory look at the Nigerian Local governments right from 1950, when Nigeria became a federal unit (that is North, West and East) to 1999 when the latest constitution came into being. The main aim of the research was to delve into the reasons why most Nigerian Local Governments remain grossly underdeveloped and not well catered for by their council functionaries using local governments in Ondo State of Nigeria as a case study. Questionnaires were sent out to collect data from the local governments. The data were x-rayed using Chi-square tool. It was discovered that the main reason for the poor performance of the local government which led to under-development of the grass roots was the non-autonomy of the local governments; since they were tied to the apron spring of the State government (who often times are their political god- fathers). This abuse of the provisions in the Constitution, especially by the State government, has brought to the fore-front the question of local government autonomy. The work is divided into five sessions. They are: The Introduction; Theoretical and conceptual Frame work; The bane of Local Government Development; Methodological Approach and finally Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations.
    Keywords: Non-autonomous, Grossly underdeveloped, Nigerian Local governments, The grass roots and Apron spring
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mamidu Aruna Ishola|| Adegboye Adegboyega|| Solola Lawal Solanke},
    title = {Eroding the Autonomy of Nigerian Local Governments: The Bane of Grass Root Development},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {31-39},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: A31101
    Paper Title :: Power Factor Correction in Zeta Converter Fed PMBLDCM Drive for an Air Conditioner
    Author Name :: Chandru K||Mariaraja P||Kuppuswamy A
    Page Number :: 40-45
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0321040045
    In this paper, the isolated zeta converter designed for power factor correction converter. A permanent magnet brushless dc motor is fed through a voltage source inverter which is used to drive a compressor load of an air conditioner and it is variable speed operation under rated torque. Conventional air conditioner uses single phase induction motor to drive the compressor, it provides inefficient temperature control operation. Now a day PMBLDCM drive rapidly increasing the popularity due to its operation, efficiency, ease of control, maintenance and size. The power quality problems due to uncontrolled charging the dc link capacitor in the PMBLDCM drive is reduced to a greater extent using PFC converter. The proposed PFC converter results in an improved power quality in AC mains in a wide range of speed control and input AC voltage.
    Keywords: Zeta converter, PFC, Power quality, VSI, Air-conditioner
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Chandru K, Mariaraja P, Kuppuswamy A},
    title = {Power Factor Correction in Zeta Converter Fed PMBLDCM Drive for an Air Conditioner},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {40-45},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211017
    Paper Title :: An Assessment of the Impact of Plot Standard on Physical Development: The Case Study of Kano Metropolis, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Orekan||Atinuke Adebimpe
    Page Number :: 46-52
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0321046052
    Kano State is one of the thirty- six (36) states in Nigeria offering good opportunity for human settlement due to its attractive terrain and adequate land space. Kano metropolis is congested consequent upon concentration of infrastructure and physical development. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of plot standard on physical development in Kano Metropolis. To attain this aim, questionnaires were administered to a sample population of 650 property owners selected from six Local Government Areas that form the component of the study area. 460 (71%) copies of the questionnaire were retrieved. Interviews were also conducted among the property owners and staff of Kano State Ministry of Land and Physical Planning, and the Kano State Urban Planning and Development Authority (KNUPDA). It found that various approved plot sizes and unauthorised plot subdivisions are major factors aiding congestion in the study area and retarding physical development. It is recommended that government should strictly enforce the law that regulates physical development.
    Keywords: plot size, metropolis, urban planning, physical development, Kano
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Orekan, Atinuke Adebimpe},
    title = {An Assessment of the Impact of Plot Standard on Physical Development: The Case Study of Kano Metropolis, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {46-52},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 02|| versions 2 || February 2014
    Paper Id :: 3126
    Paper Title :: A Relational Graph Based Approach using Multi-Attribute Closure Measure for Categorical Data Clustering
    Author Name :: K.Nagarajan ||Dr.M.Prabakaran
    Page Number :: 01-05
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03202001005
    Conventional clustering approaches suffer with the scalability of number of attributes based on which the clustering is performed. There are approaches to cluster data points with multiple attributes but suffers with overlapping and multiple iteration needed to perform clustering , also the measure computed for the variation of data points between cluster also will not be effective when doing with multiple attributes. To overcome the problem identified we propose a new graph based approach which represents the relation between the data points and clusters. The relational graph consists of various vertices and edges, each vertex represent a data point. There will be an edge between two different edges only if there is a multi-attribute closure between them. We compute the attribute closure, using all the attributes of the data points. We use threshold method to select the data point has closure to other one and the value of threshold is set based on number of attributes the data point has. The proposed method produces good results compare to other approaches discussed in this era and we have evaluated the proposed method with various data sets.
    Keywords: plot Categorical Data, Clustering, Data Mining, Multi-Attribute Closure.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {K.Nagarajan , Dr.M.Prabakaran},
    title = {A Relational Graph Based Approach using Multi-Attribute Closure Measure for Categorical Data Clustering},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {01-05},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3152
    Paper Title :: A Light Weight Multi-Copy Geocache Maintenance in Mobile Disconnected networks
    Author Name :: M.Subalakshmi ||Dr.M.Prabakaran
    Page Number :: 06-11
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03202006011
    We present a light weight Geocache maintenance algorithm to maintain the information at a particular location in mobile disconnected networks. In mobile disconnected networks the mobile nodes within the coverage of particular location can carry the data for little while and pass to some other node when it moves away from the location. The selection of nodes to carry the data by means of movement of the node and returning the data to the location when it moves away from location doesn't make sense. Because it increases the traffic in the network and the traffic introduced in sending the data back to the location will increase the network overhead. To challenge this issue we introduce a multi-copy Geocache maintenance algorithm, where the cache or data will be maintained in few nodes around the location. In the proposed methodology the data will not be returned to the origin but will be handover to some other node which is closer in origins perimeter. This reduces the unnecessary routing of packets and data towards the origin and removes the failure introduced by the node failure.
    Keywords: Geocache Maintenance, Mobile Disconnected Networks, Location based information.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {M.Subalakshmi,Dr.M.Prabakaran},
    title = {A Light Weight Multi-Copy Geocache Maintenance in Mobile Disconnected networks},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {06-11},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3154
    Paper Title :: Methods of Tidal Approach for Determination of Sea Level Rise in Surabaya Waters
    Author Name :: Engki A. Kisnarti ||Viv Djanat Prasita
    Page Number :: 12-17
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03202012017
    The objective of this research is to analyze the sea level rise that occurred in the waters of Surabaya. The research uses methods, that is: harmonic analysis, trend analysis , and regression analysis. The results showed an increase in sea level in the waters of Surabaya. It is noted that sea level rise around 1.97 mm per year. The results of this study are expected to be useful as a reference in the development of Surabaya coast region.
    Keywords: sea level rise, tides, Surabaya coast region.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Engki A. Kisnarti , Viv Djanat Prasita},
    title = {Methods of Tidal Approach for Determination of Sea Level Rise in Surabaya Waters},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {12-17},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212076
    Paper Title :: Vibration Analysis for Gearbox Casing Using Finite Element Analysis
    Author Name :: Mr.vijaykumar ||Mr.shivaraju ||Mr.srikanth
    Page Number :: 18-36
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03202018036
    This paper contains the study about vibration analysis for gearbox casing using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The aim of this paper is to apply ANSYS software to determine the natural vibration modes and forced harmonic frequency response for gearbox casing. The important elements in vibration analysis are the modelling of the bolted connections between the upper and lower casing and the modelling of the fixture to the support. This analysis is to find the natural frequency and harmonic frequency response of gearbox casing in order to prevent resonance for gearbox casing. From the result, this analysis can show the range of the frequency that is suitable for gearbox casing which can prevent maximum amplitude.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mr.vijaykumar, Mr.shivaraju, Mr.srikanth},
    title = {Vibration Analysis for Gearbox Casing Using Finite Element Analysis},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {18-36},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: A31110
    Paper Title :: Compressive Strength Development for Cement, Lime and Termite-hill Stabilised Lateritic Bricks
    Author Name :: Paul O. Awoyera ||Isaac I. Akinwumi
    Page Number :: 37-43
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03202037043
    This study evaluated the compressive strength of lateritic bricks stabilised with cement, lime and termite-hill, moulded with CINVA-Ram. The engineering characteristics and classification of the lateritic soil sample were determined, also the characteristic compressive strength of stabilised bricks as well as the unstabilised bricks were investigated after 7, 14 and 28 days of curing. The total number of bricks moulded was ninety and they were 290 mm x 140 mm x 90 mm in size. Each of the three stabilisers were added in varying proportions of 8%, 10% and 12% by weight of the lateritic soil for producing the bricks. Compressive strength test conducted after 28 days curing revealed that the cement stabilised bricks developed a rapid increase in strength than the lime stabilised and termite-hill stablised bricks. In all, the compressive strength increased with increasing proportion of the stabilisers. However, the unstabilised bricks developed strength which was more than the 10% termite-hill stabilised bricks after 28 days. It was deduced that cement stabilization is adequate where early strength is targeted on the field.
    Keywords: cement, compressive strength, laterite bricks, lime, termite-hill
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Paul O. Awoyera , Isaac I. Akinwumi},
    title = {Compressive Strength Development for Cement, Lime and Termite-hill Stabilised Lateritic Bricks},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {37-43},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: A31103
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of Some Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp) Genotypes at Mubi, Northern Guinea Savanna Of Nigeria
    Author Name :: Yohanna Mamma KWAGA
    Page Number :: 44-47
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03202044047
    A filed trial was undertaken in 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons at Mubi, in the northern Guinea Savanna ecology of Nigeria. In the study, five improved erect and semi-erect genotypes (IT97K-499 -35, IT97K -131 – 2, IT98KD – 391, IAR – 07 – 1050 and IAR – 00 -1074) and a local check "kanannado" were assessed to determine their vegetative and yield performances. All the erect and semi-erect genotypes reached 50% flowering earlier than "kanannado". Furthermore, IAR – 00 – 1074 also attained 50% flowering later than the other improved genotypes in the combined analysis. Three genotypes, IT97K -131 – 2, IAR – 07 -1050 and IAR – 00 -1074 produced higher number of pods/plant than the local check in the combined analysis and also out-yielded it in 2011. However, the local check exhibited bigger and heavier seeds than all the improved genotypes throughout the study.
    Keywords: cowpea, genotype, evaluation, yield performance
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Yohanna Mamma KWAGA},
    title = {Evaluation of Some Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp) Genotypes at Mubi, Northern Guinea Savanna Of Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {44-47},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3103
    Paper Title :: DBET: Demand Based Energy efficient Topology for MANET with Security
    Author Name :: Minakshi Kivade ||Chaitali Bangar ||Pragati Vedpathak ||Poonam Kulkarni
    Page Number :: 48-50
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03202048050
    Deman Based Energy efficient topology as the name itself suggests saves the energy efficiently by dynamically adjusting the totpology of the network. Network is a wireless network of mobile devices also called as MANETs. The main goal is to save Energy Cunsumption and Power Consumption because these factors are also , important in determining the performance of the network. Efficiency in Ad-hoc networks can be achieved mainly in two different ways. In the first method,network maintains a small number of nodes to form connected backbone and the remaining nodes sleep to conserve energy. This method is effective for low traffic networks. Energy efficiency in the second method is achieved by power control technique. This technique is effective in high traffic conditions. The first method is not effective in high traffic conditions. Similarly, the second method is not effective in low traffic networks. So, in this paper we propose a Demand Based Energy efficient Topology (DBET) to reduce the energy consumption for mobile ad hoc network, by dynamically adjusting the topology for various network traffic conditions. We have simulated our proposed protocol DBET by using AODV [8] as routing protocol in network simulator ns2.33 [1] and compared with AODV an SPAN [3]. The simulation studies revealed that the proposed scheme perform better in terms of Energy, Delay, and Delivery ratio. Also in this paper newly we are implementing the security factor while sending the packets. For that we are using RSA algorithm.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Minakshi Kivade,Chaitali Bangar,Pragati Vedpathak,Poonam Kulkarni},
    title = {DBET: Demand Based Energy efficient Topology for MANET with Security},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {48-50},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3198
    Paper Title :: To Study the Reasons For Customer Abandoning Their On-Line Shopping Cart Before Purchase Completion Stage
    Author Name :: Ojaswita Shrivastava
    Page Number :: 51-73
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03202051073
    E-tailers spend enormous amount of time, effort and energy and resources to market and sell their products and services to their consumers. They engage in activities such as segmentation, targeting, positioning and use the four Ps to ensure that the consumers select their products and services from a shelf full of competing products. The perceived transaction inconvenience is the major predictor of shopping cart abandonment. The other predictors are perceived risks and perceived waiting time. While marketing literature is replete with investigations focusing on virtually every aspect of consumer and shopping behavior, little academic research focus has been directed towards understanding why consumer abandon a shopping cart towards the end, after they have selected the product. The study examines the unexplored area of consumer behavior at the final stages of transaction culmination and hence is an initial step towards filling that gap.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ojaswita Shrivastava},
    title = {To Study the Reasons For Customer Abandoning Their On-Line Shopping Cart Before Purchase Completion Stage},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {51-73},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: A31102
    Paper Title :: Poultry Droppings Ameliorate infection of Alectra vogelii (Benth) in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Mubi, in Semi – Arid Ecology of Nigeria
    Author Name :: Yohanna Mamma KWAGA
    Page Number :: 74-78
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03202074078
    A field trial was undertaken in 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons in Mubi in semi-arid ecology of Nigeria. The investigation was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization and poultry droppings in ameliorating the effect of vogelii on the performance of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Four groundnut varieties (SAMNUT -10, SAMNUT -11, SAMNUT -22, and a local variety kampala) were assessed using three nitrogen levels (0, 25, 50 kgNha-1). The varieties were assigned to the main plots, while nitrogen levels and poultry droppings were combined in a factorial lay in the sub-plots in three replications. Applications of 25 and 50 kg Nha -1 reduced incidence significantly, while application of 5.0 tonnes of poultry droppings ameliorated parasitism in groundnut by increasing groundnut kernel yield significantly in Sspite of high infection.
    Keywords: vogelii, parasitism amelioration.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Yohanna Mamma KWAGA},
    title = {Poultry Droppings Ameliorate infection of Alectra vogelii (Benth) in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Mubi, in Semi – Arid Ecology of Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {74-78},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32006
    Paper Title :: Manganese as a Reference Element for the Interpretation of Lead Enrichment/Depletion in Selected Farming Soils of Nigeria
    Author Name :: Awagu, E.F. ||Uduma, A. U.
    Page Number :: 79-86
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03202079086
    Lead (Pb) concentration was assessed of the arable soils in the vicinity of mining and dumping sites in Nigeria. Its contents in the arable soils assayed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, (AAS) ranged from 6.8 – 47.8 mg/kg. The enrichment factor (EF) calculated by using Manganese as a reference element fell within a range of 30.3 – 301.4. The mean values of the enrichment factor of 92.9 classified the soil as extremely high contaminated with lead. Anthropogenic activities contribute significantly to the level of lead in the studied areas. This poses serious debilitating effects on the agro – ecosystems, since lead has no known essential function(s) in plants metabolism.
    Keywords: Zamfara, Arable soils, anthropogenic activities, lead, enrichment, depletion, Enrichment Factor.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Awagu, E.F., Uduma, A. U.},
    title = {Manganese as a Reference Element for the Interpretation of Lead Enrichment/Depletion in Selected Farming Soils of Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {79-86},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 02|| versions 3 || February 2014
    Paper Id :: 32008
    Paper Title :: A Precise Method for Gender Cataloguing using a Minimum Distance Classifier
    Author Name :: Dr. Nachamai.M
    Page Number :: 01-04
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03203001004
    The identification of gender is a mandate for applications which has human computer interaction in its process. Now-a-days all applications have become web-enabled, starting from learning to shopping. All these applications would require an app to identify the gender of a person to improve the system performance. This paper aims in deploying a gender identification system based on basic features using a Minimum distance classifier. The system architecture is designed to have two classifiers taking different feature vectors for the classification process. The system has proved its efficiency by identifying 95.12% of female faces of Bao database (one faces dataset).
    Keywords: Image processing, Minimum distance classifier, Facial images, Gender Identification, Facial Landmarks.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Nachamai.M},
    title = {A Precise Method for Gender Cataloguing using a Minimum Distance Classifier},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {01-04},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27074
    Paper Title :: A Study of Underpinning Methods Used in the Construction Industry in Nigeria
    Author Name :: D. Dahiru ||S.Salau ||J.Usman
    Page Number :: 05-13
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03203005013
    Foundation and retaining wall failures account for the highest case of structural failures. This is a report on a study of underpinning methods used in the construction industry in Nigeria. In view of the fact that underpinning, just like most engineering decisions, there is no unique solution, the research investigated technique of remedying foundation defects and whether there are innovations as regards to the underpinning methods used in Nigeria. To achieve the desired objective structured questionnaire, oral interviews and case study of an ongoing underpinning work were carried out. Result shows that differential settlement with a mean of 2.28 is the most frequent cause of foundation failure. While the continuous strip and reinforced mat with mean of 2.7 and 2.67 respectively, are most frequently used underpinning methods in Nigerian construction industry. Also 81.3% of the respondents agree that underpinning methods adopted are suitable and effective. Professionals in Nigeria have devised unique method of underpinning. It was recommended that proper and adequate site investigation should be carried out. Heavy penalties and sanctions should be meted on those construction firms that employ quack professionals.
    Keywords: Underpinning, foundation failure, building collapse, remedial measure
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D. Dahiru , S.Salau , J.Usman},
    title = {A Study of Underpinning Methods Used in the Construction Industry in Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {05-13},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32029
    Paper Title :: Mechanical Properties of Reinforcing Steel Rods Produced From Recycled Scraps
    Author Name :: Ponle E. A|| Olatunde O. B|| Awotunde O. W
    Page Number :: 14-34
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/032030014034
    This paper presents comparative experimental data on Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Steel produced from scrap and imported Reinforced Steel compared to International standard NO-432. Steel being part of everyday life of an individual, it is incumbent to study its physical properties so as to enable production of reliable steel bars. The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), Yield Strength (YS), Breaking Strength (BS) and Hardness of steel bars manufactured from scraps and imported steel bars were investigated. Steel rods samples of 12mm and 16mm diameter were subjected to mechanical properties test using a universal testing machine. UTS, YS, BS and Hardness of the samples were obtained from the stress-strain curve plots obtained from the result data. It was observed that the locally produced steel from scrap were as good as the imported steel rods in terms of UTS, YS AND BS. Both the locally produced steel rod and imported steel rods conform with the standard in terms of yield stress but both have considerably low ultimate tensile stress compared to the standard values. The hardness values also point to the non-uniformity of the steel samples.
    Keywords: Reinforced Steel bar, Mechanical Properties, Comparative Study, Scrap and Imported Steel bars
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ponle E. A, Olatunde O. B, Awotunde O. W},
    title = {Mechanical Properties of Reinforcing Steel Rods Produced From Recycled Scraps,
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {14-34},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32017
    Paper Title :: Three Phase Current Source Inverter Using Space Vector Pwm For Grid Connected Applications
    Author Name :: V.Sureshkumar|| S.Arun
    Page Number :: 35-38
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/032030035038
    This paper presents the implementation of the space vector pulse width modulation for the current source inverter for the grid connected applications. The space vector pwm provides the digital control by producing the gate pulses to the power electronic switches thereby, reducing the switching loss across the devices and with very less Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).
    Keywords: space vector pulse width modulation, grid interconnection, switching losses
    @article{key:article,
    author = {V.Sureshkumar, S.Arun},
    title = {Three Phase Current Source Inverter Using Space Vector Pwm For Grid Connected Applications},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {35-38},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32004
    Paper Title :: Performance Evaluation of an Automated Gari Fryer
    Author Name :: Olagoke O. Ajayi|| Olawale J. Olukunle|| Mohammed Dauda
    Page Number :: 39-46
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/032030039046
    The processing of cassava into gari is largely done manually. However, some of the unit operations have been mechanized, but peeling and frying are yet to be fully mechanized. This paper reports a novel effort at developing a gari fryer and the performance of the machine at various conditions of cassava mash and operational parameters. The effects of operation speed, quantity of mash and trough temperature on the performance of the fryer were studied. The performance characteristics of the machine was evaluated at five different operating speeds (10, 20, 40, 60, 80 rpm), with respect to material feed rate (5, 7.5 and 10 kg) and corresponding change in temperature. The result shows that at an optimum speed of 20 rpm and initial mash moisture content of 41.2%, gari of 12.6% final moisture content was obtained at the twenty first minutes of frying using 5 kg charcoal as source of heat energy. The product obtained (gari) has a good texture and fit for consumption.
    Keywords: Gari fryer, functional efficiency, operational parameters, performance evaluation
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Olagoke O. Ajayi, Olawale J. Olukunle, Mohammed Dauda},
    title = {Performance Evaluation of an Automated Gari Fryer},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {39-46},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3167
    Paper Title :: Brain Controlled Artificial Legs
    Author Name :: R.ANJALI
    Page Number :: 47-55
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/032030047055
    This paper describes a brain controlled robotic leg which is designed to perform the normal operations of a human leg. After implanting this leg in a human, the leg can be controlled with the help of user's brain signals alone. This leg behaves similar to a normal human leg and it can perform operation like walking, running, climbing stairs etc. The entire system is controlled with the help of advanced microcontrollers and digital signal processors. The signals are taken out from the human brain with the help of electroencephalography technique. The person can perform operations like walking, running etc just by their thought. This system will be very much suitable for those who lost their legs in accidents and the proposed system is hundred percent feasible in the real time environment with the currently available technology. The Brain Controlled Artificial Legs are very much cost effective when compared to the normal Artificial legs which is available in the market. The reduction in cost of the proposed system is found to be above 80% when compared to the existing system. Moreover, the user can have full control over the artificial legs which is not possible in the existing system.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {R.ANJALI},
    title = {Brain Controlled Artificial Legs,
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {47-55},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3113
    Paper Title :: An Appraisal of the Role of Science and Technology in Promoting National Development Efforts in Nigeria
    Author Name :: Sani Abubakar Mashi|| Amina Ibrahim Inkani ||Abdu Yaro
    Page Number :: 56-67
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/032030056067
    Sustainable development of any country has generally followed the development and applications of science and technology (S&T). Many developed countries of the world today achieved their level of development through the adaptation of technology and development of an efficient S&T capacity. The thrust of this paper is to examine the role science and technology has been playing in promoting national development in Nigeria. It was shown in the paper that a wide variety of different policies have been pursued in Nigeria in an effort to foster technological development with the aim of accelerating the pace of economic development. These sectoral development policies were formulated to guide the process of development in relevant areas of the economy. Thus in terms of policy making, it is not an overstatement to say that Nigeria as a country has fared very well. However, we have not largely succeeded as a nation to make effective use of S&T in promoting national development. The major challenges that need to be addressed to make S&T address the developmental challenges in the country have been discussed
    Keywords: Keywords: Science; Technology; National; Development; Nigeria
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sani Abubakar Mashi, Amina Ibrahim Inkani ,Abdu Yaro},
    title = {An Appraisal of the Role of Science and Technology in Promoting National Development Efforts in Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {56-67},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211002
    Paper Title :: Drillability of Migmatite Gneisses in Lokoja Environs
    Author Name :: Jethro, Michael Adebola|| Shehu, Shaib Abdulazeez ||Saliu, Muyideen Alade
    Page Number :: 68-74
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/032030068074
    In this study, correlation analysis was applied to investigate the relationship between some strength properties (Uniaxial Compressive Strength, Point Load Strength, Schmidt Hammer Value, Equivalent Quartz Content and Penetration Rate) of Beautiful Rock Quarry along Ajaokuta Road in Kogi State, North Central Nigeria. These properties were determined and the relationships between them were described by Regression Analysis. The coefficient of correlation for all the parameters evaluated is more than 0.7. The result indicated that Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) varies between 239.60MPa and 283.01MPa, Point Load Strength varies between 5.9MPa and 6.01MPa, the Schmidt Hammer Value varies between 42 and 56, Equivalent Quartz Content varies between 55.3% and 70.2%, and the Penetration Rate Varies Between 1.10m/min and 1.60m/min. This result shows that the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of the rock tested was extremely high while the Point Load Strength was high [5]. The Schmidt hammer rebound value is moderate. The study revealed that the Equivalent Quartz Content is one of the major factors controlling penetration rate in rocks
    Keywords: Keywords: Drillability, penetration rate, strength properties, correlation and, regression analysis
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jethro, Michael Adebola; Shehu, Shaib Abdulazeez ; Saliu, Muyideen Alade},
    title = {Drillability of Migmatite Gneisses in Lokoja Environs},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {68-74},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211003
    Paper Title :: The Suitability of Some Selected Granite Deposits for Aggregate Stone Production in Road Construction
    Author Name :: Jethro, Michael Adebola|| Shehu, Shaib Abdulazeez || Olaleye, B.M.
    Page Number :: 75-81
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/032030075081
    The investigation of the suitability of some selected granite deposits for aggregate stone production within the basement complex of Nigeria for road construction was studied. Aggregate samples obtained from the deposits were analyzed in the laboratory to determine their mechanical properties (aggregate crushing value and aggregate impact value). It was found out that the granite deposits possess certain desirable aesthetic and visual characteristic. Also, the percentage mineralogical compositions of the studied samples were examined. The results show that Beautiful Rock Company has the highest percentage composition of microcline content which reduces the rate of wearing and tearing. The results of the laboratory analyses on the aggregate sample indicated that the technical features of the deposit are suitable for aggregate stone for road construction when compared with the globally accepted standard. The result of the investigation will be useful and serve as database to prospective investors in aggregate stone quarrying.
    Keywords: Keywords: Suitability, Deposit, Aggregate, Basement complex, Aggregate crushing value, Aggregate impact value, Microcline.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jethro, Michael Adebola; Shehu, Shaib Abdulazeez ; Olaleye, B.M.},
    title = {The Suitability of Some Selected Granite Deposits for Aggregate Stone Production in Road Construction},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {75-81},
    month = {February}
    }

    Volume 03 || Issue 02|| versions 4 || February 2014
    Paper Id :: 3188
    Paper Title :: Comparative Studies on the Use of Ordinary And De-Oiled Moringa Oleifera In The Treatment Of Abattoir Waste Water
    Author Name :: J.E Lagasi || J.C. Agunwamba || M. Aho
    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03240107
    The menace of indiscriminate wastewater disposal has been an age long concern of every environmentalist. Moringa oleifera was used as a coagulant to treat wastewater and have been found to be effective. In this paper, a comparison has been made using Moringa oleifera extracts in its ordinary state and after extracting the oil content, in the treatment of Abattoir wastewater. Parameters investigated include both the chemical, physical and biological parameters before and after the treatment process. Jar test was conducted to obtain the optimum dosages in both cases.The optimum dosage obtained when 10% concentration of both ordinary and de-oiled moringa, hitherto identified by MPS (moringa powder solution) and MCS (moringa cake solution) respectively was 1.1mls.This was at the flocculation speed of 90 revolution per minute and in 1hour contact time. Soxhlet extraction was done to extract the Moringa oleifera oil using Hexane as solvent in the extraction process. Significant turbidity removal from 218.4NTU to 42NTU which translated to 80.77% was observed when de-oiled moringa was used, as compared with that of ordinary moringa which reduced from 218.4NTU to 68NTU being 68.86%. At 2hrs. contact time, pH reduced from 2.74% with the use of MPS to1.98% after using MCS. The BOD of 73.68% reduced to 68.42% at 90rpm when MCS and MPS were used in the treatment process respectively. Similar trend was observed in the other parameters considered. This research revealed that de-oiled moringa oleifera performed better in abattoir wastewater treatment as compared to ordinary moringa.The result was compared with the W.H.O standard and found to be within the acceptance limit.
    Keywords: Keywords: Waste Water, Moringa Oleifera, Abattoir,Ordinary, De-oiled
    @article{key:article,
    author = {J.E Lagasi , J.C. Agunwamba , M. Aho},
    title = {Comparative Studies on the Use of Ordinary And De-Oiled Moringa Oleifera In The Treatment Of Abattoir Waste Water},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {01-07},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32035
    Paper Title :: The Teaching Skills In The Chemical Engineering Laboratory
    Author Name :: Antonio Valiente Barderas ||Estela de la Torre Gómez Tagle
    Page Number :: 08-10
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/032408010
    The competency-based education is one of the current pedagogical trends to address the teaching profession. The competence of individuals is derived from the possession of a number of attributes (knowledge, values, skills and attitudes) that are used in various combinations to perform occupational tasks. Thus, competent person is defined as one that has the attributes (knowledge, values, skills and attitudes) required to perform the work according to the appropriate standard. The authors believe that one way to acquire professional skills is through work in the laboratory. By the operation of equipment, data jacks and resolution of problems presented the teacher leads students to reflect, teaches management team, variables, conversions, how to perform calculations, logic to solve problems , the handling of tables, nomograms, charts and appendices, the integration of knowledge and information analysis
    Keywords:
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Antonio Valiente Barderas ||Estela de la Torre Gómez Tagle},
    title = {The Teaching Skills In The Chemical Engineering Laboratory},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {08-10},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32064
    Paper Title :: Influence of Pavement Friction on the Initial Velocity of Vehicle in Highways Accidents
    Author Name :: Robert M. Brooks|| Mehmet Cetin
    Page Number :: 11-15
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0324011015
    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of pavement friction on the initial velocityof the vehicle on highways. Regression analysis on the results of these variables was conducted. Excellent correlation coefficient was found for therelationship at α = 0.05 significance level. The influence of Pavement Friction on the Initial Velocity is shown by a quadratic equation (Initial velocity = -0.37 Pavement Friction 2 + 8.04 Pavement Friction + 80) with R = 1.
    Keywords: Keywords: Accident Reconstruction, Chain Accident, Initial Velocity, Pavement Friction, Regression Analysis.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Robert M. Brooks, Mehmet Cetin},
    title = {Influence of Pavement Friction on the Initial Velocity of Vehicle in Highways Accidents},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {11-15},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32047
    Paper Title :: In-Situ Phytoremediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soil
    Author Name :: Otaraku ||Ipeghan Jonathan ||Anozieuchechukwu
    Page Number :: 16-19
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0324016019
    A leguminous crop [ground nut] was planted in a sandy clay soil artificially polluted with crude oil. The plant survived the fouled soil and showed a faster rate of remediating the soil than natural attenuation. Total hydrocarbon content of the soil was analyzed weekly via collected soil samples. 487g of groundnut seeds was used in the experiment which lasted for fifteen (15) weeks. A regression model was developed for the phytoremediation process. The developed model is useful for prediction and environmental control studies.
    Keywords: Keywords: Crude oil, Legume, Phyto-remediation, Sandy-clay soil
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Otaraku , Ipeghan Jonathan ,Anozieuchechukwu},
    title = {In-Situ Phytoremediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soil},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {16-19},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32033
    Paper Title :: A Stability Analysis for a Two-Sex Mathematical Model of Hiv
    Author Name :: Egbetade, S.A. ||Babalola, F.M.
    Page Number :: 20-23
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0324020023
    We Analyze A Two-Sex Model Of HIV Epidemics For Stability Of The Infection-Free Equilibrium And Infection Equilibrium. We Formulate Theorems Using The Basic Reproduction Number And Determine The Criteria For Stability Of The Two Equilibrium Points. Our Results Showed That The Infection Is Cleared From The Population If Ro < 1 While The Infection Is Persistent And Could Lead To Full Blown AIDS If Ro > 1.
    Keywords: Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Equilibrium Points, Basic Reproduction Number, Stability
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Egbetade, S.A. ;Babalola, F.M.},
    title = {A Stability Analysis for a Two-Sex Mathematical Model of Hiv},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {20-23},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32001
    Paper Title :: Study on Electro Discharge Machining (Edm)
    Author Name :: Dhirendra nath mishra ||Aarti Bhatia ||Vaibhav rana
    Page Number :: 24-35
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0324024035
    The electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most common and most accepted non traditional machining processes used. It is a electro-thermal process and is based on the eroding effect of an electric spark on both the electrode and workpiece. It is a thermal erosion process where metal removal takes place by a series of recurring electrical discharges between a cutting tool acting as an electrode and a conductive workpiece, in the presence of a dielectric fluid. This discharge occurs in a voltage gap between the electrode and workpiece. EDM technology is increasingly being used in tool, die and mould making industries, for machining of heat treated tool steels and advanced materials (super alloys, ceramics, and metal matrix composites) requiring high precision, complex shapes and high surface finish.
    Keywords: Keywords: EDM, Electronic Discharge Machining, Machining Process, Study of Machining Process EDM.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dhirendranathmishra , Aarti Bhatia , Vaibhavrana},
    title = {Study on Electro Discharge Machining (Edm)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {24-35},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31017
    Paper Title :: Geoelectric Survey for Post-Foundation Investigation of a Distressed Building at Ade Super Hotel Akure, Southwestern Nigeria
    Author Name :: Adeyemo Igbagbo A.||Bamidele Odunayo E.||Obatayo Omolade B.
    Page Number :: 36-43
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0324036043
    A geophysical investigation involving the combination of two field techniques of Electrical Resistivity method were carried out within the premises of Ade Super Hotel, Akure with the aim of investigating the cause(s) of the foundation failure of a building within the premises and to understand the subsurface structures of the area. Two traverses (1 and 2) were established along S-N and W-E directions, covering a total length of about 50 and 75 m respectively. Two electrical resistivity field techniques were employed which are the Vertical Electrical Sounding and Dipole-Dipole Configurations. Thirteen (13) VES stations were occupied within the study area and the dipole-dipole data were acquired using electrode spacing of 5 m. Four geoelectric layers were delineated within the premises; the topsoil (clay, sandy clay and clayey sand), lateritic weathered layer, weathered layer (clay/sandy clay/clayey sand) and partially weathered/fractured/fresh bedrock and their resistivity values vary respectively as 45-210 Ω-m, 305-5858 Ω-m, 12-142 Ω-m, and 109 -10075 Ω-m. The thickness values also vary respectively as 0.5-2.3 m, 0.2-2.8 m, 6.2-36.8 m and depth to bedrock from 9-40.1 m to an undeterminable depth. The result obtained from the 2-D image correlates with that obtained from the geoelectric sections drawn for the two traverses. They showed that the upper lateritic layer is underlain by a clayey weathered layer, which in turn is underlain by partially weathered/fractured basement bedrock. The similarity in the results obtained therefore showed that the two techniques correlate and reveals the true nature of the subsurface in the study area. It could therefore be concluded that the foundation instability observed in the building was as a result of the clayey nature of the weathered layer on which the building was founded and the presence of linear features such as faults, fractures, fissures and joints within the bedrock.
    Keywords: Keywords:Cracks, competent layer, lateritic layer, weathered layer and bedrock.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adeyemo Igbagbo A., Bamidele Odunayo E., Obatayo Omolade B},
    title = {Geoelectric Survey for Post-Foundation Investigation of a Distressed Building at Ade Super Hotel Akure, Southwestern Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {36-43},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27134
    Paper Title :: Hydrogeologic and Geoelectric Determination of Groundwater Flow Pattern in Alaba-Apatapiti Layouts, Akure, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Adeyemo, I.A.|| Omosuyi, G.O.|| Olayanju, G.M.|| Omoniyi, G.K
    Page Number :: 44-52
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0324044052
    The investigation of the suitability of some selected granite deposits for aggregate stone production within the basement complex of Nigeria for road construction was studied. Aggregate samples obtained from the deposits were analyzed in the laboratory to determine their mechanical properties (aggregate crushing value and aggregate impact value). It was found out that the granite deposits possess certain desirable aesthetic and visual characteristic. Also, the percentage mineralogical compositions of the studied samples were examined. The results show that Beautiful Rock Company has the highest percentage composition of microcline content which reduces the rate of wearing and tearing. The results of the laboratory analyses on the aggregate sample indicated that the technical features of the deposit are suitable for aggregate stone for road construction when compared with the globally accepted standard. The result of the investigation will be useful and serve as database to prospective investors in aggregate stone quarrying.
    Keywords: Keywords: Hydrogeologic measurement, geoelectric sounding, groundwater head, aquifer layer resistivity, aquifer layer elevation, recharge, discharge and groundwater flow direction
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adeyemo, I.A.; Omosuyi, G.O.; Olayanju, G.M.; Omoniyi, G.K.},
    title = {Hydrogeologic and Geoelectric Determination of Groundwater Flow Pattern in Alaba-Apatapiti Layouts, Akure, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {44-52},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32003
    Paper Title :: Semantic Web Based Representation of VGI
    Author Name :: Jissmol Jose|| Kumary R. Soumya
    Page Number :: 53-55
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0324053055
    This review paper presents a study about to create qualitative VGI(volunteered geographic information) and its semantic web representation .Creation of VGI describes about to create ,use and share volumes of spatial data in an increasingly accessible fashion. This paper describes about the methods of semantic web based representation of VGI. Some ontological principle can be used for its semantic web representation
    Keywords:
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jissmol Jose , Kumary R. Soumya},
    title = {Semantic Web Based Representation of Vgi},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {53-55},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32067
    Paper Title :: An Experimental Study on Beam-Column Joints for Load Reversal
    Author Name :: M. L. Anoop Kumar||Dr. S. Robert Ravi
    Page Number :: 56-65
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0324056065
    Beam column joints in a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame are crucial zones for transfer of loads effectively between the connecting elements in the structure. The three main factors considered in design of beam column joint are Anchorage of main reinforcement of the beam, Confinement of the core of joint, Shear strength of the joint. In the present investigation, the beam column joint specimens were detailed as per IS 456:2000 and IS 13920:1993 and the influence of the increase of anchorage length by 25 % and 50 % for both the types of beam column joints was studied. Totally eighteen beam-column joint specimens were tested. Among the eighteen beam-column joint specimens nine specimens were designed and detailed according to IS 456:2000 specifications and the other nine specimens were designed according to IS 13920:1993 specifications. The results of the investigation proved that the load carrying capacity and the energy absorption capacity of the beam column joints were enhanced considerably by the increase of anchorage length in the joint specimens detailed as per IS 456:2000 and also IS 13920:1993
    Keywords: Keywords: Beam column joint, Seismic loads, Load reversal
    @article{key:article,
    author = {M. L. Anoop Kumar, Dr. S. Robert Ravi},
    title = {An Experimental Study on Beam-Column Joints for Load Reversal},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {56-65},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 02|| versions 5 || February 2014
    Paper Id :: 3106
    Paper Title :: Active and Reactive Power Pricing Considering Voltage Security
    Author Name :: J.Stephyangelin || S.Saravanan
    Page Number :: 01-05
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03250105
    The voltage security has become the major problem in the restructuring power industry. The voltage stability causes the system security due to insufficient reactive power supply. The system security is obtained by considering the reactive power. For the pricing of active and reactive power considering the voltage security the new SALIN approach is used. The problem is modeled as the multi objective optimal power flow. By assigning suitable value for the weighting factor the security of the system can be obtained. The weighting factor is assigned by the HHI (Herfindahl-Hirschman Index). The proposed method is verified using the IEEE 6 bus system in the PSAT-GAMS software.
    Keywords: Keywords: Deregulation, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Reactive power, Voltage security, Weighting factor
    @article{key:article,
    author = {J.Stephyangelin , S.Saravanan},
    title = {Active and Reactive Power Pricing Considering Voltage Security},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {01-05},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32022
    Paper Title :: A Review on BB84 Protocol in Quantum Cryptography
    Author Name :: Shiji Johny || Anil Antony
    Page Number :: 06-09
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03250609
    The implementation of secure keys, as we know is done by an important cryptographic technique called Quantum cryptography.The popularity of Quantum Key Distribution increases day by day due to it's unrivaled security level. Quantum Mechanics principles in particular Heisenberg Uncertainty principle helps in achieving this high security level which is promised.This review paper deals with the working principle of the famous Quantum cryptographic protocol , BB84 as well as the key distillation methods for establishing the secure cryptographic keys through an unsecure channel.
    Keywords: Keywords: Quantum Cryptography,Quantum Key Distribution,BB84 Protocol
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Shiji Johny , Anil Antony},
    title = {A Review on BB84 Protocol in Quantum Cryptography},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {06-09},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32075
    Paper Title :: Development of Decentralized Controller Based On Gain and Phase Margin for Interacting Processes
    Author Name :: Ria Maria Zacharia ||Dr. Sanjeevi Gandhi A
    Page Number :: 10-15
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0325010015
    The system under investigation is a two tank interacting process. The basic control principle of the two tank interacting system is to maintain a constant level of the liquid in the tank. In interacting systems a change in single parameters will affect all other loops. This paper aims at eliminating the interaction between TITO processes based on gain and phase margin specifications. In order to minimize the interaction between the loops decouplers are designed for the system. Then for each decoupled subsystem a first order plus dead time model is achieved based on frequency response fitting. For each reduced order decoupled subsystems an independent PI controller is designed so as to obtain the desired gain and phase margins.
    Keywords: Keywords: decentralized controller, model order reduction, interaction process,decoupled system.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ria Maria Zacharia , Dr. Sanjeevi Gandhi A},
    title = {Development of Decentralized Controller Based On Gain and Phase Margin for Interacting Processes},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {10-15},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32052
    Paper Title :: Enhancing the Image Compression Rate Using Steganography
    Author Name :: Archana Parkhe ||Nilam Bire ||Anuja Ghodekar ||Tejal Raut ||Tanuja Sali
    Page Number :: 16-21
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0325016021
    Image compression is a technique to minimize the size in bytes of a graphics file without degrading the quality of image to an unacceptable level. On the other hand, steganography deals with embedding secret data in redundancies of image in invisibility manner. The goal of this study is to improve image compression through steaganography. Therefore, this paper proposes two schemes one of which combines a steganographic algorithm with the baseline DCT-based JPEG, and the second one uses this steganographic algorithm with the DWT-based JPEG. Hence, data compression is performed twice.
    Keywords: Keywords: DCT,DWT,JPEG,LSB coding
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Archana Parkhe ,Nilam Bire , Anuja Ghodekar ,Tejal Raut ,Tanuja Sali},
    title = {Enhancing the Image Compression Rate Using Steganography},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {16-21},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32030
    Paper Title :: Radiation and Mass Transfer Effects on An Unsteady Mhd Convection Flow of A Micropolar Fluid Past In Infinite Heated Vertical Moving Porous Plate In A Porous Medium
    Author Name :: T. Sankar Reddy|| P.Roja|| N. Bhaskar reddy
    Page Number :: 22-40
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0325022040
    An analysis is presented for the problem of free convection with mass transfer flow for a micropolar fluid via a porous medium bounded by an infinite vertical porous plate in an optically thin environment with time dependent suction in the presence of thermal radiation field in the case of unsteady flow. The plate moves with constant velocity in the longitudinal direction, and the free steam velocity follows an exponentially small perturbation law. A uniform magnetic field acts perpendicularly to the porous surface in which absorbs the micropolar fluid with a suction velocity varying with time. Numerical results of velocity distribution of micropolar fluids are compared with the corresponding flow problems for a Newtonian fluid. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer, whereas when Grashof number increases the velocity increases. Also, the results of the skin- friction coefficient, the couple stress coefficient, the rate of the heat and mass transfers at the wall are prepared with various values of fluid properties and flow conditions.
    Keywords: Keywords: Mass transfer, MHD, Micropolar, Radiation, Sherwood Number, Skin-Friction
    @article{key:article,
    author = {T. Sankar Reddy, P.Roja, N. Bhaskar reddy},
    title = {Radiation and Mass Transfer Effects on An Unsteady Mhd Convection Flow of A Micropolar Fluid Past In Infinite Heated Vertical Moving Porous Plate In A Porous Medium},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {220-40},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32031
    Paper Title :: Groundwater Potential Evaluation of Ultra Modern Guest House, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria
    Author Name :: Ogundana, A.K|| Talabi A. O.
    Page Number :: 41-52
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0325041052
    Geophysical study of the Ultra Modern Guest House, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti was conducted to investigate its groundwater potential and challenges. Profiling and Vertical electrical sounding methods were employed using Dipole - Dipole and Schlumberger configuration respectively. Eleven points were sounded along three traverses and three profiles were occupied. Five different subsurface lithologic units were established namely; lateritic topsoil, sandy-clay, weathered basement, fractured basement and, fresh basement. The curve types range between simple K, H to complex HA, and HK. The topsoil, sandy-clay and weathered basement materials are characterised with relatively low resistivity values while the fresh basement materials are characterized with high resistivity values. The average resistivity and thickness values for the topsoil are 180Ωm and 3.0m respectively. Sandy-clay was encountered in all the locations with average resistivity and thickness values of 37Ωm and 10.0m respectively. Weathered basement was encountered in seven locations with average resistivity and thickness values of 121Ωm and 9.0m respectively. Fractured basement was encountered in two locations with average resistivity and depth to the top of fracture values of 25Ωm and 20.0m respectively. Basement is relatively shallow in the study area, it was encountered in six locations and the average resistivity and depth values to the top of basement are 294Ωm, and 13.0m respectively. Overburden thickness was established in all the locations with an average resistivity and thickness values of 113Ωm and 22.0m respectively. The combination of overburden materials with the fractured basement constitutes aquiferous units within the study area. The groundwater potential of the area is moderate. VES 3 and 8 could be drilled to a total depth of 50m provided there is no drop in volume of water as drilling progresses.
    Keywords: Keywords: Profiling, Vertical electrical sounding, Lithologic units, Fractured basement, Aquiferous unit.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ogundana, A.K , Talabi A. O.},
    title = {Groundwater Potential Evaluation of Ultra Modern Guest House, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {41-52},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3170
    Paper Title :: The Role of Academics in the Selection of Science and Technology
    Materials in Nnamdi Azikiwe Library, University of Nigeria
    Nsukka (Unn)
    Author Name :: Nebeolise Lucy N
    Page Number :: 53-63
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0325053063
    The study surveyed the extent of participation of members of the academic staff in science and technology in University of Nigeria,Nsukka in recommending books for library purchase. The work specifically examines the role of academics in selection of science and technical materials.The academics claimed to make a better quality selection than librarians due to their active involvement in teaching and research. Added that they direct the learning process of their students and thus shape their informational needs,book selection naturally belongs to their territory not only for the benefit of the students but also for their own concern.The work adopted descriptive survey using questionnaire and unstructured oral interview as instrument for data collection. The population of study consisted of 130 academicians in university of Nigeria. The study had 89% response rate. Data were analyzed using tables and simple percentages. Some of the data were further analyzed using histogram and pie chart for further clarification. The study established among others that academics in university of Nigeria were best suited for selection of materials in science and technology (74%); they participate in selection of materials for the library(82%); majority of them are involved in evaluation of materials for library (60%); they do not fully obtain information about resources to be acquired (40%); there is a partial corporation between library and academic departments (48%). It was recommended that librarians should try their best to ensure that selection tools are sent to academics in science and technology for effective selection of library materials so to offer adequate service to her users. Secondly academics should intimate the university proprietors such as NUC/Federal Government for fund so to acquire enough resources ordered. Furthermore, a departmental board meeting or selection committee should be formed for effective selection of materials. The study thus concluded that for effective collection building to be achieved, it should be a shared responsibility between the academics and librarians.
    Keywords:
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nebeolise Lucy N},
    title = {The Role of Academics in the Selection of Science and Technology Materials in Nnamdi Azikiwe Library, University of Nigeria Nsukka (Unn)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    pages = {53-63},
    month = {February}
    }