• Volume 2 || Issue 6 || versions 1 || June 2013
    Paper Id :: 25079
    Paper Title :: Increasing the Efficiency of Credit Card Fraud Deduction using Attribute Reductiono
    Author Name :: Geetha Mary A, Arun Kodnani|| Harshit Singhal|| Swati Kothari
    Page Number :: 01-04
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02610104
    The detection of fraudulent credit card usage is of immense importance for banks as well as the card users and requires highly efficient techniques to increase the chance of correctly classifying each transaction as fraud or genuine. One of the techniques used to perform this classification is decision tree. Attribute reduction is used to increase the efficiency of the technique, which is decided based on entropy.
    Keywords: Data Mining, Decision tree, data cleaning, Attribute Reduction, Entropy
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Geetha Mary A, Arun Kodnani, Harshit Singhal, Swati Kothari},
    title = {Increasing the Efficiency of Credit Card Fraud Deduction using Attribute Reduction},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {01-04},
    month = {June}
    }
    Paper Id :: 25151
    Paper Title :: Effect of Alccofine on Self Compacting Concrete
    Author Name :: M.S. Pawar1|| A.C. Saoji
    Page Number :: 05-09
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02610509
    The SCC is that which gets compacted due to its self-weight and is deaireated almost completely while flowing in the form work. The use of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) bypasses the need for external vibration, eliminating the problem of unskilled labour. Self Compacting Concrete shortens the construction, period, eliminates noise due to vibration and provides high stability during transport and placement. There is a reduction in cracking and micro structural defects.The study explores the use of the Alccofine powder to increase the amount of the fines and hence achieve self – compatibility. The study focuses on comparison of the properties of SCC with flyash and Alccofine to that of standard one.with flyash The main variable is proportion of Alccofine keeping cement, flyash, water, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and super plasticizer contents constant..
    Keywords: Self Compacting Concrete, Alccofine, Compatibility, Strength.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {M.S. Pawar, A.C. Saoji},
    title = {Effect of Alccofine on Self Compacting Concrete},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {05-09},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25141
    Paper Title :: Field Evaluation of Longitudinal Skid Resistance on Pavement Surface in Bangalore City - A Case Study
    Author Name :: Harish H.S.|| Avinash N.P||M.K.Harikeerthan
    Page Number :: 10-18
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/026010018
    Skid resistance is the force developed when a tyre is prevented from rotating along the pavement surface. Skid resistance is thought of as a pavement property, it is the antonym of slipperiness. Among other road surface conditions, slippery pavement during precipitation is of great concern to road safety authorities. Some statistics indicate that the number of accidents increases by up to two folds during rainy conditions. Loss of skid resistance affects driver's ability to control vehicle. In addition to increasing the stopping distance while braking, lower skid resistance reduces steering controllability since both braking and steering depend on tire-pavement friction. In the present study, longitudinal skid resistance studies were conducted on four different road stretches. The test stretches selected are within the Bangalore city, catering to high volume of traffic. Portable pendulum type skid resistance tester was used to obtain the skid resistance value along the longitudinal direction. Longitudinal skid resistance studies were conducted for critical conditions like dry sand and oil on pavement to obtain the skid resistance values. Tests were conducted during summer and rainy season (March and June respectively) under different pavement surface condition. International Friction Index was used to establish friction value at 60 Km/hr from friction value obtained in wet condition using portable pendulum skid resistance tester.
    Keywords: International Friction Index, Longitudinal Skid Resistance, Pavement, Portable Pendulum Tester
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Harish H.S, Avinash N.P, M.K.Harikeerthan},
    title = {Field Evaluation of Longitudinal Skid Resistance on Pavement Surface in Bangalore City - A Case Study},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {10-18},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25106
    Paper Title :: Characterization and Trends of Development In Data Mining Techniques For Intrusion Detection Systems (Ids)
    Author Name :: Idowu S.A|| Ajayi Adebowale
    Page Number :: 19-25
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0261019025
    In Information Security, intrusion detection is the act of detecting actions that attempt to compromise the confidentiality, integrity or availability of a resource. Datamining is the process of extracting useful and previously unnoticed models or patterns from large data stores. This work is focused on the characterization and trends of development in data mining techniques for intrusion detection systems. We present a comparative analysis of these techniques vis-à-vis their performance.
    Keywords: Information Security, intrusion detection, data mining, intrusion detection systems
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Idowu S.A, Ajayi Adebowale},
    title = {Characterization and Trends of Development In Data Mining Techniques For Intrusion Detection Systems (Ids)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {19-25},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24238
    Paper Title :: Phytoremediation: An Ecological Solution to Heavy Metal Polluted Water and Evaluation of Plant Removal Ability
    Author Name :: Jatin G. Italiya || Mitali J. Shah
    Page Number :: 26-36
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0261026036
    Increasing urbanization, industrialization and over population is one of the leading causes of environmental degradation and pollution. Heavy metal such as Cu and Fe are one of the toxic pollutants which show hazardous effects on all living livings. The study involves the capacity of spinach to filtrate, absorb and accumulate iron and copper. In the work of Rhizofilteration & Extraction the spinach has planted in different pots and arranged it properly for outlet collection and after arrangement, apply the synthetic wastewater on the spinach as concentration(5,10ppm),time period(30,60,90,120,150min.) and plant size 5.0cm. Here rhizofilteration give 86.5% and 85.9% for Cu and Fe respectively. The results shown that Spinach highest accumulate metals in leaves than roots and stems.
    Keywords: Heavy metals, phytoextraction, plant analysis, rhizofilteration, soil analysis
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jatin G. Italiya, Mitali J. Shah},
    title = {Phytoremediation: An Ecological Solution to Heavy Metal Polluted Water and Evaluation of Plant Removal Ability},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {26-36},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25096
    Paper Title :: Effect of Service Technology Upgrade on Dump-Trip Time and Efficiency of Solid Waste Collection In Uyo Metropolis Nigeria
    Author Name :: Obot E. Essien|| Obioma C. Nnawuihe
    Page Number :: 37-47
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0261037047
    The objectives of the time study were: (1) to quantify the dump-trip time of municipal solid waste MSW collection using haul-container system (HCS), as upgrade collection technology, and tipper lorries, previously identified as ineffective, in waste collection in urban route zones of Uyo metropolis; and to evaluate and compare the solid wastes collection efficiencies of both service vehicular technologies to justify selecting upgrade technology of HCS. Time-study survey was effected with 4 HCS trucks and three tipper carriers in 4 out of 6 route zones in Uyo metropolis using snap-back stop watch timing of all on-the-job collection activities and non-job related [loss time] activities. Data were statistically analyzed and inferences made from ANOVA significant differences, coefficient of variance using SPSS version 17 windows. Dump trip time (tnet) varied between vehicles and route zones with HCS performing faster and more efficient than tipper lorries in all route zones. Dump trip time varied for between 17 and 27 mins maximum, HCS haulers and between 49 and 59 min maximum for tipper lories, and gave maximum tnet ratio of 1 (HCS) : 3.5 (tipper). Average collection efficiencies were 61 – 76% (for HCS pickups) and 59% for tippers. The tipper vehicle consumed longer hours (2.5 – 3.5 times the dump trip time of HCS hauler) to complete about the same waste load collection as the HCS haulers.
    Keywords: time study, technology, solid waste, haul container, haul container system, collection efficiency.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Obot E. Essien, Obioma C. Nnawuihe},
    title = {Effect of Service Technology Upgrade on Dump-Trip Time and Efficiency of Solid Waste Collection In Uyo Metropolis Nigeria,
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {37-47},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 6 || versions 2 || June 2013
    Paper Id :: 25154
    Paper Title :: Reduction of Defects in Latex Dipping Production: A Case Study in a Malaysian Company for Process Improvement
    Author Name :: M.C. Ng|| Hasnida Ab-Samat , ||Shahrul Kamaruddin
    Page Number :: 01-11
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/026201011
    Six Sigma is based in large measure on creating a closed-loop business system to reduce company's inconsistency or "variations" of business system and keep it staying on the path to performance and success. Defects, which are the bad variation that have a negative impact on customers and the approaches used to monitor and improve them, can be defined as "process improvement". This paper presents the implementation of process improvement in a latex production company in Malaysia. The Six Sigma Way is proposed and DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) phases are developed to accomplish the process improvement efforts. These phases had been applied in latex dipping production line that identified as the most critical area of cost compelling to the company.
    Keywords: Defects, Dipping process, Latex product, Process improvement, Six Sigma.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {M.C. Ng , Hasnida Ab-Samat , Shahrul Kamaruddin},
    title = {Reduction of Defects in Latex Dipping Production: A Case Study in a Malaysian Company for Process Improvement},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {01-11},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25137
    Paper Title :: Task Orientedrisk Assessment - A Risk Assessment Tool
    Author Name :: Maushumilahon
    Page Number :: 12-16
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0262012016
    It is a well known fact that projects get delayed and sometimes they fail due to insufficient knowledge regarding the causes of the failure as well as because of not identifying the critical points which require special attention. A proactive exercise is very important in order to identify and find those aspects which need more attention in order to avoid delays and failures. In this paper an attempt is made to explain the Task Oriented Risk Assessment concept as a tool which can assist in identifying those tasks and events which require more attention. A detailed description of the Risk Exposure assessment of tasks using Risk Exposure assessment of failure events, assessment of precedence tasks and position of the tasks in the network schedule is proposed. The risk assessment for a particular issue forms the foundation for making a decision about future actions which may lead to additional analyses, perform activities that reduce the risk, or do nothing at all. This assessment is based on identifying the tasks and subtasks in a project and then identifying the events which are responsible for the failure of the tasks which may alternatively Critical Path, Eventbe termed as the reasons which are the causes for the failure of the task.
    Keywords: Event, Impact,Project, Risk Assessment, Task.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Maushumilahon},
    title = {Task Orientedrisk Assessment - A Risk Assessment Tool},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {12-16},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25130
    Paper Title :: Modelling the Train Accidents at Railroad Crossings in East Java
    Author Name :: Nyono||, Harnen Sulistio||, Achmad Wicaksono||, Ludfi Djakfar
    Page Number :: 17-26
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0262017026
    The growing train movement and people activities around the railroad will increase the frequency of traffic in railroad crossing. This potentially results in the increase in traffic accidents. The prediction of the number of such accidents is influenced by some factors dealing with variables on sensory psychological behaviors and the perception of the drivers passing the crossings. Observations were made at 33 points railroad crossing with not guardrail in Surabaya DAOP VIII. The responsive variables are determined by the explaining variables namely the number of train accidents in railroad crossing. The explaining variables are those determining the value of responsive variables, consisting of three factors namely train engineering features, road engineering features and environment. The last Poisson regression model possesses four determining variables significant with the number of accidents, that is the train speed, the distance of signs and the railroad crossing, flashing lamps and the average daily traffic. The train speed seems to be a primary factor contributing to the high level of accidents. The results of sensivity analysis show that if the train speed increases of 50%, the number of accidents will increase 40%. Facilities that should be quickly provided are among others: provision and installation of flashing lamps and EarlyWarning System (EWS).
    Keywords: railroad crossing, train engineering features, road engineering features, environment factor, Poisson regression.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nyono, Harnen Sulistio, Achmad Wicaksono, Ludfi Djakfar},
    title = {Modelling the Train Accidents at Railroad Crossings in East Java,
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {17-26},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25097
    Paper Title :: Organic Pollution Indicator And Anion Concentration Of Pharmaceutical Effluent And Surface Water In Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Idris, M. A , ||Kolo, B. G. , ||Sani, A
    Page Number :: 27-32
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0262027032
    Pharmaceutical effluent and surface water from River Gorax Maitumbi industrial layout Minna, Niger State, Nigeria were Sampled at eight different points designated as S1 to S8. The levels of Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were simultaneously monitored in the effluent and the receiving watersheds over a period of 3 months using standard method of APHA, (1995). Anion concentrations which includes phosphate (PO43-), Nitate (NO3-) and Chloride (Cl-) were also determined using standard procedures as discribed by HACH, (1997) and Ademoroti, (1996). Dissolved Oxygen value ranged from (3.67±0.20 to 7.00±0.22 mg/l); while COD showed the highest value of (182±1.56 mg/l) at S7 whereas BOD which range from (1.85±0.04 to 3.47±1.32 mg/l) was within permissible limits of 30mg/l. Similarly, anion concentrations showed values of 1.29 mg/l, 15.80 mg/l and 1767 mg/l to be highest at S1 for phosphate, nitrate and chloride whereas the lowest values of 0.69 mg/l, 7.21 mg/l and 950 mg/l were observed at the control (S5). Most values observed at ddifferent sampling points were outside the compliance levels of the NSDWQ, FEPA and WHO tolerance limits for effluents discharge into receiving watersheds except for PO43- (1.29 ± 0.30 to 0.69 ± 0.05 mg/l) which was within permissible limits of 5mg/l. This study reveals the need for enforcing adequate effluent treatment methods before their discharge to surface water to reduce their potential environmental hazards.
    Keywords: Pollution, Environment, Watershad, Minna, River, Industry, Ions, Surface
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Idris, M. A ,Kolo, B. G. ,Sani, A},
    title = {Organic Pollution Indicator And Anion Concentration Of Pharmaceutical Effluent And Surface Water In Minna, Niger State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {27-32},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25057
    Paper Title :: The Factors Determining the Choice of Career Among Secondary School Students
    Author Name :: SALAMI OLUFUNMILAYO OLAMIDE || SALAMI OLUWASEUN OLAWAIYE
    Page Number :: 33-44
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0262033044
    100 students were randomly selected from five secondary schools in ogun state. The sample consists of 37males and 63females. A questionnaire designed on the basis of likert-type scale on the factors determining the choice of career based on environment, influence and opportunity of the students was administered. Their responses were analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation and T-test at p.05.Significant difference was found on the environmental factor (tcal at p.05=220.25,tcrit=1.960),Significant difference was also found on the personality(tcal at p.05=673.48;tcrit1.960)and the significant difference of the opportunity the students see(tcal at p.05=148.69;tcrit1.960).The percentage on male and female was also carried out. 52% of male and 46% of female agreed that opportunity do affect career while 42% disagreed for both male & female, 51% of male and 51% of female agreed that personality do affect career choice while 42% and 45% of both male and female disagreed, 50% of male and 54% of female agreed that environment do affect career choice but 41% and 49% of male& female does not agree. Conclusively, all the factors affect the students in determining their career.
    Keywords: factors, environment, opportunity, personality.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {SALAMI OLUFUNMILAYO OLAMIDE, SALAMI OLUWASEUN OLAWAIYE},
    title = {The Factors Determining the Choice of Career Among Secondary School Students.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {33-44},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25045
    Paper Title :: EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A FLUIDIZED BED DRYER PERFORMANCE
    Author Name :: OKORONKWO C.A, ||NWUFO, O.C, ||NWAIGWE K.N, ||OGUEKE N.V, AND ||ANYANWU E.E
    Page Number :: 45-53
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0262045053
    Results of an experimental study on the drying characteristics of fluidized bed dryer are presented. The experimental rig comprises of the air blower, heater, drying chamber and chimney. The materials used in the drying study were; cassava, yam and maize. The drying experiments were carried out according to the following parameters: initial moisture content of the material (High and Low), drying time and various optimum temperatures. The results obtained show that it took a total of 150minutes with an optimum temperature of 60oC to reduce the moisture content of the cassava and yam from 75.4%(w.b) to the equilibrium moisture content of 11% which is suitable for storage and preservation while maintaining the external conditions. While the optimum temperature that gives faster drying time for maize was 400C. Similarly, a preliminary sun drying experiment was carried out to ascertain the drying time of the cassava and yam chips. It was observed that in the case of sun drying of cassava, it takes a total of 72hrs with an average ambient temperature of 30oC to reduce the moisture content from 75.4 % (w.b) to the equilibrium moisture content of 11 % (w.b). Similarly, the effect of temperature at 300C on the drying curves for the maize shows that the value of the constant rate period of the experiment was smaller than the value obtained at the temperatures of 350C and 400C respectively. The drying rate of products below their optimal temperature was affected by the lower rate of moisture removal and the equilibrium moisture content by mass was high. While drying at temperatures above the optimum temperature, ultimately may cause the thermal degradation of the products been dried. This could be in form of physical defects, such as, decoration, cracking, shrinking and non-uniform drying. From the drying kinetic curves and visual observations during the experiments, it could be concluded that the fluidized bed dryer is an alternative for the processing of cohesive solids that preserve the final quality of the dry solids.
    Keywords: drying, optimum temperature, fluidized
    @article{key:article,
    author = {OKORONKWO C.A, NWUFO, O.C, NWAIGWE K.N, OGUEKE N.V, ANYANWU E.E},
    title = {EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A FLUIDIZED BED DRYER PERFORMANCE},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {45-53},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 6 || versions 3 || June 2013 
    Paper Id :: 26029
    Paper Title :: Assessment of Types of Cyber Crime Faced By Elderly Across Residence
    Author Name :: Nabat Arfi,|| Shalini Agarwal
    Page Number :: 01-03
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0263001003
    Cybercrime is a kind of crime that happens in "cyberspace", that is crime that happens in the world of computer and the Internet. Although many people have a limited knowledge of "cybercrime", this kind of crime has the serious potential for severe impact on our lives and society, because our society is becoming an information society, full of information exchange happening in "cyberspace". Elderly is that vulnerable group who has been deprieved from any information regarding latest technologies and innovation especially in the area of computer world and has lack of knowledge about internet and become the victim of different types of cybercrime. The main objective was to assess the types of cyber crime faced by the elderly. The research design was cross-sectional in nature. 60 respondents each residing in their homes and old age homes respectively were selected from different areas of Lucknow city. Total sample size was 120. The purposive random sampling technique was used to collect the data. Finding of the study revealed that majority of respondents reported that they were not affected by cyber pornography, phishing, money laundering, password sniffer, credit card fraud and even web jacking either residing in own homes or old age homes.
    Keywords: Cyber crime, Knowledge, Elderly.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Cyber crime, Knowledge, Elderly.},
    title = {Assessment of Types of Cyber Crime Faced By Elderly Across Residence},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {01-03,
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24102
    Paper Title :: Sobel Threshold Is a Different Resolution of Palmprint
    Author Name :: Mrs. Kasturika B. Ray
    Page Number :: 04-11
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0263004011
    Biometric a technology which is describes the general procedures of the palmprint identification such as feature extraction, storing features, matching processes. The techniques for automatically identifying an individual based on the physical or behavioral characteristics are called biometrics. Biometrics is the words "Bio" and "metrics". Bio means living things. Metrics means measure. Currently, Biometrics stands for measuring human‟s features for personal identification and verification. The palmprint as a relatively new biometric feature has several advantages compared with other currently available ones. Palmprint capture devices are much cheaper than other devices. In this paper which mainly contains the different operations but I analyze palmprint texures using Sobel Threshold operation for personal authentication. Sobel Threshold can reflect the charecterstic of a palmprint texture at different resolution Here I have presented an identification approach using textural properties of palm print images like principal lines, edges and wrinkles are considered with equal importance. In the verification test good accuracy has been obtained by the proposed approach.
    Keywords: Biometric Identify Verification, Palm print Classification, Feature extraction, Edge Detection, Image matching.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mrs. Kasturika B. Ray},
    title = {Sobel Threshold Is a Different Resolution of Palmprint},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {04-11},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26096
    Paper Title :: Characterization of Cyclically Deformed Persistence Slip Bands and Ladder like PSB's in Copper Grain Structure
    Author Name :: Aezeden Mohamed|| Wei Liu || M. N. Bassim
    Page Number :: 12-18
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0263012018
    A study of microstructural characterization of copper polycrystals during strain control fatigue has been studied for three decades. However, the reported results are quite controversial in regard to the plateau behavior, which has been well established for single copper crystals. The absence of complete and reliable results on the effects of the copper grain size when polycrystals are subjected to strain control fatigue testing was the primary motivation for the present study, with the goal being to address the cause of a clear answer in the existing literature. Saturation stresses measured in strain control fatigue tests were plotted as a function of corresponding plastic strain amplitudes to obtain a cyclic stress strain curve (CSSC) for three different grain sizes. After testing, cycled specimens were sectioned and cut longitudinally in the gauge length section of the specimens to produce samples for etching and microscopic investigation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted on the etched samples to determine the presence of persistent slip bands (PSBs) in each grain size.
    Keywords: Cyclic, curve, fatigue, grain, persistence, plateau, saturation, slip, strain, stress
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Aezeden Mohamed, Wei Liu and M. N. Bassim},
    title = {Characterization of Cyclically Deformed Persistence Slip Bands and Ladder like PSB's in Copper Grain Structure},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {12-18},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25127
    Paper Title :: Design and Cost Analysis of 3 Kw Wind-Diesel Hybrid Water Pumping System for Ban Village
    Author Name :: Maren I. Borok, ||Gyang Y. Pam, ||Kolo B.Yetu
    Page Number :: 19-27
    Paper Index   :09.1913/0263019027 
    Underground water from boreholes is probably the most reliable alternative source of potable drinking water especially in rural areas. Adequate, reliable and affordable energy is required to pump the water to the surface for use. Most rural areas do not have access to grid-connected electricity and the burning of fossil fuels to provide energy is environmentally unfriendly. Solar energy is only available in the day time and wind energy is stochastic. These necessitated the design of a wind-diesel hybrid water pumping system, which is more reliable for a rural community in Ban village in Nigeria. The hybrid system will pump water from underground to an overhead tank to supply the village for a period of 20 years. A design analysis gave results that for adequate water supply to the village, a 3 kW wind-diesel hybrid system is required. A cost analysis via the annuity method gave the cost of water to be $0.2/m3, which is considered economical in view of the value attached to water in that location.
    Keywords: Annuity, Design, Hybrid energy, Underground water
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Maren I. Borok, Gyang Y. Pam, Kolo B.Yetu},
    title = {Design and Cost Analysis of 3 Kw Wind-Diesel Hybrid Water Pumping System for Ban Village},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {19-27},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26077
    Paper Title :: An Experimental Design Method for Solving Constrained Optimization Problem
    Author Name :: Ekezie Dan Dan, ||Ekechukwu Chinonyerem Aqueen, ||Onukogu I.B.
    Page Number :: 28-39
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0263028039
    This paper presents a new version of super convergent line series for solving optimization problems. It has proven to be more precise because it converges very fast. This method does not constitute the non-negativity of the constraint equations. Unlike other general purpose solution methods of solving constrained optimization problems it guarantees global optimal solution. Useful information about the direction of search d, the steplength  and the optimal point search         X were provided by this method.
    Keywords: Optimal Design, Optimality Criteria, Stopping Rule, Regression Modeling, Convergence Test and Feasibility Checking.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ekezie Dan Dan, Ekechukwu Chinonyerem Aqueen, Onukogu I.B},
    title = {An Experimental Design Method for Solving Constrained Optimization Problem},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {28-39},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26035
    Paper Title :: Application of Multivariate Multiple Linear Regression Model On Vital Signs and Social Characteristics of Patients
    Author Name :: Ekezie Dan Dan ||Opara Jude ||Nwobi Anderson Chukwukailo
    Page Number :: 40-56
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0263040056
    This paper is an attempt to fit a Multivariate Multiple Linear Regression Model on the relationship between three response variables: Systolic Blood Pressure, Temperature, Height and two predictor variables: Age, Sex of patients. Federal Medical Center (F.M.C.), Owerri Imo State, Nigeria is used as a case study. The statistical software used in the data analysis is the "SAS Version 9.2" package. However, the Microsoft Excel office, 2010 played a vital role in the data analysis, especially in obtaining the residual and predicted matrices. The result revealed that the Multivariate Multiple Linear Regression Model was adequate for the relationship between the variables: Systolic Blood Pressure, Temperature and Height of patients on one hand, and the two social characteristics: Age and Sex on the other. A test of significance revealed that Age and Sex have influence on the Vital Signs. Following this result, we recommend that researchers should carry out a similar research work, making the predictor variables up to four to compare result. Consequent upon this finding, Government and private owned hospitals should create a standard statistics/records department, to enable future researchers have access to their data for analysis.
    Keywords: Vital Signs, Social Characteristics, Multivariate Linear Regression, Likelihood Ratio Test, Wilk's Lambda Statistic, Least Squares and Design Matrix
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ekezie Dan Dan ,Opara Jude,Nwobi Anderson Chukwukailo},
    title = {Application of Multivariate Multiple Linear Regression Model On Vital Signs and Social Characteristics of Patients},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {40-56},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26074
    Paper Title :: Optimized Suspension Design of an Off-Road Vehicle
    Author Name :: Arindam Pal ||Sumit Sharma ||Abhinav Jain ||C.D.Naiju
    Page Number :: 57-62
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0263057062
    Suspension system is the term that defines the transmissibility of an off-road vehicle. In order to resist the bumps and jerks that usually occur in an off-road track, an integrated approach of design is developed to obtain an optimized geometry which can give the drivers a ‗fun-to-drive' experience. This paper describes the development of this suspension and steering geometry design that is fast enough to be used at off-road circuit giving us appropriate camber and caster variations , toe angles , Ackermann geometry , proper flow of forces from chassis to ground and shock absorber characteristics when running on the challenges posed by a rugged off-road track. The geometry design discussed here was achieved through the thorough study of its dimensions, position of installation and application. This vehicle was a Baja off-road prototype which is used in international competitions among universities with its top speed as 45- 65km/hour and its turning radius being 10.5 ft. The car is rear wheel driven.
    Keywords: Ackermann geometry; instantaneous center; off-road vehicle; optimization design; over steer; un-sprung mass.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Arindam Pal, Sumit Sharma, Abhinav Jain , C.D.Naiju},
    title = {Optimized Suspension Design of an Off-Road Vehicle},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {57-62},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25120
    Paper Title :: Short-Term Forecasting Of Dadin-Kowa Reservoir Inflow Using Artificial Neural Network
    Author Name :: Ibeje, A.O. ||Okoro, B.C
    Page Number :: 63-73
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0263063073
    In the study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was applied to forecast the daily inflow into Dadin-Kowa Reservoir along River Gongola in Northern Nigeria. An effective algorithm for daily reservoir inflow predictions, which solicited the observed precipitation, forecasted precipitation from Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) as predictors and discharges as predicted targets for Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Networks (MLP-ANNs) modelling, was presented. With a learning rate of 0.01 and momentum coefficient of 0.85, the MLP-ANN model was developed using 1 input node, 7 hidden nodes, 1000 training epoches and 24 adjustable parameters. Error measures such as the Coefficient of Efficiency (CE), the Mean Absolute Error (MAE), the Mean Squared Relative Error (MSRE), the Relative Volume Error (RVE) and the coefficient of determination (R2) were employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed model for the month of August. The result revealed: CE; MAE; MSRE; RVE and R2 which showed that the proposed model was capable of obtaining satisfactory forecasting not only in goodness of fit but also in generalization.
    Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Proposed Model; Reservoir Inflow; Forecasting
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ibeje, A.O. , Okoro, B.C},
    title = {Short-Term Forecasting Of Dadin-Kowa Reservoir Inflow Using Artificial Neural Network},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {63-73},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26007
    Paper Title :: Design and Implementation of Fpgabased Adaptive Filter
    Author Name :: Dr. RaaedFaleh Hassan ||Ali SubhiAbbood
    Page Number :: 74-80
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0263074080
    The work presented in this paper concerned with the design and implementation of adaptive Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The adaptation algorithm is accomplished by using Genetic Algorithm (GA). Genetic Algorithm has been chosen as a reliable and robust adaptation algorithm comparing with the conventional algorithms such as Least Mean Square (LMS) and Recursive Least Square (RLS).The combination of the filter structure and its adaptation algorithm based on GA, has been implemented usingFPGA device.Xilinx XC6VLX760-VERTIX-6 FPGA starter kit device is used as a target device.The Genetic Algorithm based adaptive FIR filter have been coded in VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language). The simulation results shows thatthe steady state Mean Square Error (MSE) of the proposed 32 bit floating point representation GA based adaptive filter implemented on FPGA is 1.1861e-009 compared with a 0.0029 and 0.0015 for the LMS and RLS based adaptive filters respectively.
    Keywords: Digital Signal Processing, Genetic Algorithm, adaptive filter, Active Noise Control, FPGA.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. RaaedFaleh Hassan , Ali SubhiAbbood},
    title = {Design and Implementation of Fpgabased Adaptive Filter},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {74-80},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26008
    Paper Title :: Suitability Analysis of Green Open Space (Gos) Model Based On Area Characteristics in Kupang City, Indonesia
    Author Name :: Irene Lestari ||Bagyo Yanuwiadi ||Soemarno
    Page Number :: 81-91
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0263081091
    Appearing of any exotic species at the urban green open space (GOS) is due to the insufficient informations about vegetation suitability for the GOS . This study aims to improve GOS quality that combined the GOS function, GOS model, and location suitability of GOS with any local vegetations into the optimal location of GOS. This study involved a descriptive analysis to determine characteristics of GOS based on local area characteristics at the Kupang city. This study also applied the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to determine the priority of GOS development based on the GOS function, GOS model, and priority location; analysis of the coefficient ideal-rating (CIR) to evaluate suitability of local vegetation with a GOS function, GOS model, and priority location; the GOS modelling to design the priority location which is suitable with the GOS model and GOS function combined with any local vegetations. Results show that priority location for GOS development based on the ecological functions are the Frans Seda Street, Oebobo Kupang-Indonesia district, which consists of a shading tree (Blackboard tree, Asian palmyra palm and Siamese senna) and any ornamental species (Crinum lily, shoe flower, oleander and snake plant).
    Keywords: GOS, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), the Ideal - Rating Coefficient (IRC)
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Irene Lestari, Bagyo Yanuwiadi, Soemarno},
    title = {Suitability Analysis of Green Open Space (Gos) Model Based On Area Characteristics in Kupang City, Indonesia},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {81-91},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26034
    Paper Title :: Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm Approach to SVM Kernel Functions Parameters Selection
    Author Name :: Kavita Aneja Saroj
    Page Number :: 92-101
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02630920101
    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have been accepted as a promising technique to address the classification problems. This method is able to achieve high predictive accuracy subject to providing appropriate values for the parameters of kernel functions. The process of tuning the kernel parameters is also known as model selection. These parameters vary from one dataset to another, therefore, SVM model selection is an important dimension of research. This paper presents a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm approach to optimize the kernel parameters. In this work, a MOGA is designed with two conflicting objectives to be optimized simultaneously. These two objectives are based on the error rate and a ratio of number of support vectors to the number of instances of the dataset under consideration. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, experiments were conducted on the datasets from LibSVM (library for SVM) tool webpage and the results obtained were compared with the traditional grid algorithm for parameters searching. Compared with grid algorithm, the proposed MOGA based approach leads to less error rate and gives a Pareto front of solutions giving a user an opportunity to exercise choices with a trade-off between the two objectives.
    Keywords: genetic algorithm, multi-objective genetic algorithm, parameter selection, support vector machine, kernel function.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kavita Aneja Saroj},
    title = {Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm Approach to SVM Kernel Functions Parameters Selection},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {92-101},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26024
    Paper Title :: A Step towards Searching Alternative Method for Evaluating Welfare Loss Caused By Development-Induced Displacement
    Author Name :: Tiken Das
    Page Number :: 102-105
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/026301020105
    Displacement and deprivation are intrinsic to India's development. Though the standard perception is that development raises the standard of living through economic growth and improved services, studies and experience in recent decades show that the benefits do not reach every class. On the contrary, some classes pay the price of the benefits that other classes get. One of its reasons is that development projects require a huge land area, most of it the resource rich backward regions. The number of displace (DP) and project affected persons (PAPs) grew with planned development, but the country lacks a reliable database on their numbers, on their rehabilitation and the extent of land acquired. In various time central government and many state government has been taken different rehabilitation policies for displace and project affected people. But the people are not getting proper rehabilitation. Thus the question arises; why is the proper rehabilitation absent? Is it because of the lack of proper evaluation of welfare loss caused by such displacement? Sometimes the Contingent Valuation Method and Cost-Benefit Principle have been used to evaluate the welfare loss of involuntary displacement. But they have not given any suitable result. One should try how best laws, policies etc can be reconciled with people's expectation. This would require construction of a social welfare function without violating the critical no-worse-off principle of social choice theory, from a set of theoretical individual welfare function. Towards this, identification of determinants of individual welfare function will be done through secondary as well as primary data.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Tiken Das},
    title = {A Step towards Searching Alternative Method for Evaluating Welfare Loss Caused By Development-Induced Displacement},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {102-105},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26018
    Paper Title :: Overview Of Web Content Mining Tools
    Author Name :: Abdelhakim Herrouz ||Chabane Khentout Mahieddine Djoudi
    Page Number :: 106-110
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/026301060110
    Nowadays, the Web has become one of the most widespread platforms for information change and retrieval. As it becomes easier to publish documents, as the number of users, and thus publishers, increases and as the number of documents grows, searching for information is turning into a cumbersome and time-consuming operation. Due to heterogeneity and unstructured nature of the data available on the WWW, Web mining uses various data mining techniques to discover useful knowledge from Web hyperlinks, page content and usage log. The main uses of web content mining are to gather, categorize, organize and provide the best possible information available on the Web to the user requesting the information. The mining tools are imperative to scanning the many HTML documents, images, and text. Then, the result is used by the search engines. In this paper, we first introduce the concepts related to web mining; we then present an overview of different Web Content Mining tools. We conclude by presenting a comparative table of these tools based on some pertinent criteria.
    Keywords: Structured Data Tools, Web, Web Content Mining, Web Mining.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Abdelhakim Herrouz , Chabane Khentout Mahieddine Djoudi},
    title = {Overview Of Web Content Mining Tools},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {106-110},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26090
    Paper Title :: Corrosion Fatigue of Alloys Containing Chromium and Molybdenum
    Author Name :: A. Mohamed ||J. R. Cahoon ||W. F. Caley
    Page Number :: 111-121
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/026301110121
    Corrosion fatigue test results indicate that the fatigue life of IN600, IN601 and C22 specimens tested in 3.5 % sodium chloride solution are essentially the same as for specimens tested in air. Test results also showed that for IN600, IN601 and C22 alloys, the number of cycles to failure was highest in air and sodium chloride solution, followed by specimens fatigued in hydrochloric acid, and was least in specimens fatigued in ferric chloride solution. No evidence of surface pitting was found on C22 specimens in all three solutions, whereas IN600 and IN601 were both pitted. However, pits were generally larger in IN600 likely due to lower Cr content than in IN601.
    Keywords: IN600, IN601, C22, HCl, FeCl3, corrosion, fatigue, solution.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {A. Mohamed , J. R. Cahoon , W. F. Caley},
    title = {Corrosion Fatigue of Alloys Containing Chromium and Molybdenum},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {111-121},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25148
    Paper Title :: The Study of Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Anabolic Steroids (Testosterone) In Power Sports and Tunability with Neural Network
    Author Name :: Arash Rezapour || Somaye Dashti
    Page Number :: 122-125
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/026301220125
    Nowadays, many of common people and a large number of athletes consume steroids without. They have enough knowledge about their lateral effects. This is a threat to their health. In some cases lead to study advantages using. Anabolic steroids or in another word, Testosterone by athletes doing heavy sports like weight lifting and power lifting. Then, we address to irreparable effects of using Testosterone and regressive positive obtained results of this paper. Finally, athletes will decide to consume or not this drug. At last we could regulate research results by neural network. Obtained error diagram of this training shows our success.
    Keywords: Neural Network, Testosterone, sport, power
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Arash Rezapour , Somaye Dashti},
    title = {The Study of Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Anabolic Steroids (Testosterone) In Power Sports and Tunability with Neural Network},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {122-125},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 6 || versions 4 || June 2013 
    Paper Id :: 25128
    Paper Title :: A Study Of "Trend Analysis In Insurance Sector In India"
    Author Name :: M.Venkatesh
    Page Number :: 01-05
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02640105
    Insurance has a long history in India. Life Insurance in its current form was introduced in 1818 when Oriental Life Insurance Company began its operations in India. General insurance was however a comparatively late entrant in 1850 when Triton Insurance company set up its base in Kolkata. History of Insurance in India can be broadly bifurcated into three eras: a) Pre Nationalization b) Nationalization and c) Post Nationalization. Life Insurance was the first to be nationalized in 1956. General Insurance followed suit and was nationalized in 1973. General Insurance Corporation of India was set up as the controlling body with New India, United India, National and Oriental as its subsidiaries. The process of opening up the insurance sector was initiated against the background of Economic Reform process which commenced from 1991. For this purpose Malhotra Committee was formed during this year who submitted their report in 1994 and Insurance Regulatory Development Act (IRDA) was passed in 1999. Resultantly Indian Insurance was opened for private companies and Private Insurance Company effectively started operations from 2001. Insurance sector in India has become one of the most favored investment destinations both for Indians and NRIs. India is the fifth largest insurance market among the globally emerging insurance economies. Growing interest towards insurance among people, innovative products and distribution channels are sustaining the growth of the insurance sector.
    Keywords: Insurance, Life insurance, Non-Life insurance, Nationalization, Trend analysis
    @article{key:article,
    author = {M.Venkatesh},
    title = {A Study Of "Trend Analysis In Insurance Sector In India"},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {01-05},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26114
    Paper Title :: The Mechanism of Quality of Service (Qos) In Computer Networks and Its Methodologies
    Author Name :: Ashis Saklani,|| Dr.Ashish Negi
    Page Number :: 06-10
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/026406010
    In This Research Paper, the major research areas of Quality of Service of Computer Networks are specified with the comparison of the QoS Routing technique that is used now days. This Research paper emphasized some of the crucial concepts of QoS.
    Keywords: QoS; PSQM; MoS; GoS; QoS Routing; PEVQ; QoE; SVQ
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ashis Saklani, Dr.Ashish Negi},
    title = {The Mechanism of Quality of Service (Qos) In Computer Networks and Its Methodologies},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {06-10},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31015
    Paper Title :: Investigation into the Effects of Microstructure on the Corrosion Susceptibility of Medium Carbon Steel
    Author Name :: V. C. Igwemezie ||J. E. O.Ovri
    Page Number :: 11-26
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0364011026
    A study on the effects of microstructural changes on the Corrosion Susceptibility of Medium Carbon Steel in different corrosive media was carried out. This was done by austenitizing the coupons at 925 oC and quenching in a controlled manner into various quenchants to obtain normalized, annealed and martensitic microstructures. The coupons were later exposed to various environments and allowed to stay in the environment for 60 days. The weight loss measurements were taken at interval of 10 days. In this study, it can be concluded that microstructures obtained by different heat treatment processes are sensitive to the environment. The observable difference in corrosion rates could be attributed to precipitation of ferrite and carbide phases. These phases led to setting up of microgalvanic cells within the microstructure with the carbide phase becoming cathodic and the ferrite anodic. The result also tends to suggest that the more ferrite is precipitated (anodic area) in the normalized structure, the more corrosion rate increases. Furthermore, the combining effect of ferrite precipitation, transformation stress and carbide precipitation tends to cause higher corrosion rate in the martensitic structures. This could be attributed to high metastability (non-equilibrum position) of martensitic structure. In general, normalized structure showed the lowest susceptibility to corrosion attack while the martensitic structure showed the highest susceptibility to corrosion attack. More so, 0.5MH2SO4 was the most aggressive environment, followed by 0.5MHCL, Seawater and lastly Effluent water.
    Keywords: microstructure, ferrite, pearlite, martensitic, lattice distortions
    @article{key:article,
    author = {V. C. Igwemezie , J. E. O.Ovri},
    title = {Investigation into the Effects of Microstructure on the Corrosion Susceptibility of Medium Carbon Steel},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {11-26},
    month = {June}
    }
    Paper Id :: 26135
    Paper Title :: Comparison of Multi Criteria Decision Making Methods From The Maintenance Alternative Selection Perspective
    Author Name :: Jureen Thor || Siew-Hong Ding Shahrul Kamaruddin
    Page Number :: 27-34
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0364027034
    The significance of decision making from the maintenance perspective has long been acknowledged by the manufacturing industry. Appropriate maintenance alternative decision making increases machine reliability and enhances both productivity and product quality. By contrast, poor decision making disrupts production and increases production costs. Thus, different multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were developed and implemented in the maintenance alternative decision making process. This paper reviewed and compared the application of four popular MCDM techniques in maintenance decision making. The methods included analytic hierarchy process, elimination and choice expressing reality, simple additive weighting, and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution. The comparisons were based on the aspects of consistency, problem structure, concept, core process, and accuracy of final results.
    Keywords: Decision making, Maintenance alternative, Multi criteria Decision Making
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jureen Thor , Siew-Hong Ding , Shahrul Kamaruddin},
    title = {Comparison of Multi Criteria Decision Making Methods From The Maintenance Alternative Selection Perspective},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {27-34},
    month = {June}
    }
    Paper Id :: 26137
    Paper Title :: Improving Efficiency of Password Security Against Large Scale Online Attacks
    Author Name :: Harshitha.H.K|| Sreedevi.N
    Page Number :: 35-38
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0364035038
    The use of passwords is a major point of vulnerability in computer security, as passwords are often easy to guess by automated programs running dictionary attacks. From a user's perspective user friendliness is a key requirement. Brute force and dictionary attacks on password-only remote login services are now widespread and ever increasing. Enabling convenient login for legitimate users while preventing online attacks is a major concern in security systems. Automated Turing Tests (ATTs) continue to be an effective, easy-to-deploy approach to identify automated malicious login attempts with reasonable cost of inconvenience to users. In this paper a novel authentication scheme that preserves the advantages of conventional password authentication is proposed, while simultaneously raising the costs of online dictionary attacks by orders of magnitude. The proposed scheme is easy to implement and overcomes some of the difficulties of previously suggested methods for improving the security of user authentication schemes. The key idea is to efficiently combine traditional password authentication with a challenge that is very easy to answer by human users, but is infeasible for automated programs attempting to run dictionary attacks. This is done without affecting the usability of the system. A new Password Guessing Resistant Protocol (PGRP) is proposed, derived upon revisiting prior proposals designed to restrict such attacks. While PGRP limits the total number of login attempts from unknown remote hosts to as low as a single attempt per username, legitimate users in most cases (e.g., when attempts are made from known, frequently-used machines) can make several failed login attempts before being challenged with an ATT.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Harshitha.H.K, Sreedevi.N},
    title = {Improving Efficiency of Password Security Against Large Scale Online Attacks},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {35-38},
    month = {June}
    }
    Paper Id :: 26146
    Paper Title :: Correlation between Microbial Populations Isolated From Biofilms of Oil Pipelines and Corrosion Rates
    Author Name :: Godwin Umoren Akpan|| Godwin Abah|| Boniface D. Akpan
    Page Number :: 39-46
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0264039046
    This study was designed to assess the correlation between microbial populations and corrosion rates in oil pipelines in Rivers and Delta States of Niger Delta, region, Nigeria. The coupons were inserted into the inner regions of pipelines at the pressure of 6000 pound per square inch (P.S.I) and allowed for normal petroleum flow for a period of 127 days. The corrosion analysis by weight loss method showed higher corrosion rates of pipelines in Delta State than Rivers State but were not significantly (P < 0.05) different from each other. The microbiological analysis also showed higher microbial population in biofilms from oil pipelines in Delta State than those detected from biofilms from oil pipeline in River State. The results further revealed that microbial species detected from biofilms of oil pipelines in Delta State constitute mostly Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, B. pumillus), acid producing bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and acid producing fungi (Aureobasidium pullulan, Hormocous resimea and Aspergillus spp) than those from Rivers State. The correlation between microbial populations and corrosion rates showed positive corrosion rates. The results further showed that microorganisms were directly responsible for about 98% corrosion of oil pipelines in the area.
    Keywords: Correlation, microbial populations, brofilms, corrosion rates, biocorrosion
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Godwin Umoren Akpan, Godwin Abah, Boniface D. Akpan},
    title = {Correlation between Microbial Populations Isolated From Biofilms of Oil Pipelines and Corrosion Rates},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {39-46},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26075
    Paper Title :: Performance of Coated Carbide Tools
    Author Name :: M. Narasimha ||R. Reiji Kumar || Achamyelehaemro Kassie
    Page Number :: 47-54
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0264047054
    There are different types of cutting tools in use for machining various materials for the multiple operations in order to produce components.The manufacturers of these components except to improving their productivity, quality of the components and longer life of the cutting tools. Similarly the customers also expect the quality and durability of the product at competitive price.The tool manufacturers also aims at producing quality tools to with stand for higher cutting forces, thermal resistivity with more wear resistance and to give longer life of the tool, to produce better surface finish product and maintain desired dimensional accuracies of the product. For the past several years the materials of the cutting tools are the same, but due to continuous improvements in enhancing the life of the cutting tools, different methods/process are in progress for producing the tools. The cutting tool manufacturers with their rich R&D experience and continuous innovations, carrying on their production activity to meet the challenges of the market demand. In this paper the analysis is made for the performance of various coated carbide cutting tools in machining the steel AISI 1018. In this review, the machining performance of coated tungsten based cemented carbides, were investigated during finish turning of AISI 1018 steel under dry conditions. The coatings are of TiN, Al2O3TiN/Al2 O3,TiC/Al2 O3/TiNand nano composite coating respectively. For comparison, uncoated cemented tungsten carbides are also tested under the same cutting conditions. The coated tools exhibited superior wear resistance over the uncoated tool. The TiC/Al2 O3/TiN coated tool had the lowest flank wear.The Al2 O3, coated tool showed superior wear-resistance over the TiN/Al2 O3 coated tool. The TiN coated tool showed the least wear resistance with respect to the other coated tools. The coated tools produced lower surface roughness compared to the uncoated tool. The TiC/Al2 O3/TiN coated tool produced the lowest surface roughness of all the tools tested.
    Keywords: Coated carbide insert, coating Materials and Steel AISI 1018
    @article{key:article,
    author = {M. Narasimha,R. Reiji Kumar , Achamyelehaemro Kassie},
    title = {Performance of Coated Carbide Tools},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {6},
    pages = {47-54},
    month = {July}
    }