•  
    Volume 03 || Issue 09|| Version I || September 2014
    Paper Id :: 38033
    Paper Title :: Tamaridus Indica and Balanites Eagyptiacabarks: The Bio – Indicator of Environmental Pollution
    Author Name :: R.O.Akinsola|| M.I.Mohammed || D.I.Malami
    Page Number :: 01-06
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03910106
    Tamaridusindica and Balaniteseagyptiaca tree barks fromYobe State, north east, Nigeria, and the soils around them were analysed for their Zinc concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results of the analysis indicate various concentration levels obtained from soil solution through mineral uptake by plants. The mean values of Zn range between 0.52 - 8.13 μgg-1 in the bark and 0.06 - 10.01μgg-1 in the soil. All the values obtained correlate well with the anthropogenic activities in the study area and are below the recommended safe limits for heavy metals by WHO, FAO, EU, and NESREA guidelines. The statistical comparison of the values between the bark and soil shows correlation at P < 0.01 and significant difference at P < 0.05. The study further demonstrates the suitability of some of the trees as a good bio indicator.
    Keywords:Tamaridusindica, Balaniteseagyptiaca, Zinc, Tree bark.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {R.O.Akinsola, M.I.Mohammed, D.I.Malami},
    title = {Tamaridus Indica and Balanites Eagyptiacabarks: The Bio – Indicator of Environmental Pollution},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {01-06},
    month = {September}
    }
    Paper Id :: 36022
    Paper Title :: Statistical evaluation of genotype by environment interactions for grain yield in Millet (penniisetum glaucum (L) R. Br)
    Author Name :: M. Mustapha || H. R. Bakari
    Page Number :: 07-16
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/039107016

    Over the years, Pearl Millet has suffered set back in the production due mainly to the poor varieties used and poor environmental condition by famers which in turn lead to shortage of food production, poor commercialization and trade, market opportunity, unemployment among others. This study aimed at applying AMMI Model and GGE biplots in possessing the stability and adaptability of patterns of GE interaction in Pearl Millet varieties.The combined ANOVA and AMMI analysis for grain yield of forty (40) millet genotypes at 4 environments showed that environments, genotype and GxE interaction revealed highly significant (P<0.001) variations. The analysis also show that millet grain yield was significantly affected by environment E, which explained 33.20% of the total treatment (G+E+GE) variation, whereas the genotype G and GEI were significant accounted for 22.72% and 44.01% respectively. In additive variance, the portioning of (GE) SS data matrix by using AMMI analysis indicated that the two PCAs were significant (P<0.001). The first IPCA axis (IPCA1) accounted for 62.58% of the GxE interaction sum of squares, using 41 degree of freedom. The second IPCA axis (IPCA2) accounted for 30.71% of the interaction sum of squares using 39 degree of freedom. Both represent a total of 93.29% variation. Graphical display of genotype by environment interaction (GGE-biplot) based on the genotype ranking is shown on the graph of genotype so-called ―ideal‖ genotype. genotype-focused scaling was depicted in order to detect the locations of genotypes, whereas the millet genotypes were divided into three groups based on their scores of PCA 1 and PCA 2: four stable and high yielding genotypes (G11,G7,G10 and G8), three stable low yielding genotypes (G12, G23, and G21). Genotype G11, G7, and G17, had specific adaptation to E2 and E4, and E1 and E3 is unfavorable environment. Variety G11 can thus be used as a reference genotype in cultivar evaluation follow by Variety G8, G7, G10, G27 as superior variety in this study. In our research both of AMMI and biplot model were successful in assessing the performance of genotype and the selection of best genotype were identical in both of them. We used both models to analyze 40 millet varieties in 4 environments and reported that the AMMI model and GGE biplot models were very useful in estimating the performance of millet genotype.

    Key words: (MET) Multi-environmental trial, (AMMI) Additive main effects and multiplicative interactions, (GEI) genotype by environment interaction, (PCA) principal component analysis, Millet, biplot.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {M. Mustapha , H. R. Bakari},
    title = {Statistical evaluation of genotype by environment interactions for grain yield in Millet (penniisetum glaucum (L) R. Br)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {07-16},
    month = {September}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38053
    Paper Title :: Production of Motor Vehicle Brake Pad Using Local Materials (Perriwinkle and Coconut Shell)
    Author Name :: F. N. Onyeneke || J. U. Anaele || C. C. Ugwuegbu
    Page Number :: 17-24
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0391017024

    The production and testing of motor vehicle brake pad using locally available raw materials is presented. The disc brake friction lining with the geometrical specifications of Audi 90 model was produced using palm kernel and coconut shell powder as base materials, araldite and epoxy resin as binder materials and carbon as fibre reinforcement. Aluminum, copper, zinc and cashew nut shell were used as abrasives and rubber dusts from shoe as filler. The commercial asbestos brake pad produced by Ibeto group of Companies served as control. Two groups of samples of 25 each and sub group of five samples each were produced. The two major groups were made to have different percentage composition of carbon, palm kernel shell, coconut shell, araldite and epoxy resin. The five sub group samples were produced from different grit/particle sizes. Test results revealed that second major group composition with grit/particle size of 0.25 and 0.35 gave the best result in the test instruments used and in proof test on Audi 90 model. Further test on the second major group composition gave static and dynamic friction coefficient of (0.4-0.65) and (0.35-0.55) respectively as compared to static and dynamic coefficient of 0.5 -0.75 and 0.45-0.65 respectively of the reference commercial asbestos lining produced by Ibeto. The scratch hardness, bonding strength to the back plate and wear rate of the specimen were in the range (80-85), (25-27) kg/cm2, (0.03-0.06) mm/min. respectively and for asbestos brake pad wear rate range from 0.04-0.08mm/min.

    KEYWORDS : Brake pad, Brake friction, Perriwinkle shell, wear rate, scratch hardnes, bonding strength.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {F. N. Onyeneke, J. U. Anaele, C. C. Ugwuegbu},
    title = {Production of Motor Vehicle Brake Pad Using Local Materials (Perriwinkle and Coconut Shell)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {17-24},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38037
    Paper Title :: Static Analysis of Centrifugal Blower Using Composite Material
    Author Name :: Mr M.Sampathkumar ||Mr.Dsvsra Varaprasad||Mr.Vijaykumar
    Page Number :: 25-31
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0391025031

    This paper is static and model analysis of centrifugal blowers using composite materials Centrifugal blowers are used in naval applications and motors which have high noise levels. The noise generated by a rotating component is mainly due to random loading force on the blades and periodic iteration of incoming air with the blades of the rotor. The Contemporary blades in naval applications are made up of Aluminum or Steel and generate noise that causes disturbance to the people working near the blower. The present work aims at observing the choice of E-Glass as an alternative to metal for better vibration control. E-Glass, known for their superior damping characteristics are more promising in vibration reduction compared to metals. The modeling of the blower was done by solidworks2014. The blower is meshed with a three dimensional hex8 mesh is done using. It is proposed to design blower with Epoxy glass, analyze its strength and deformation using FEM technique. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of E-Glass and metal blower using FEA packaged (ANSYS). Modal analysis is performed on both Aluminium and E-Glass blower to find out first five natural frequencies.

    KEYWORDS : solidwork2014, ANSYS

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mr M.Sampathkumar,Mr.Dsvsra Varaprasad,Mr.Vijaykumar},
    title = {Static Analysis of Centrifugal Blower Using Composite Material},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {25-31},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38076
    Paper Title :: Solar tracking System using artificial Intelligence
    Author Name :: Inali Wahane ||Prashant Gade
    Page Number :: 32-37
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0391032037

    Many human mental activities such as writing computer programs, doing mathematics, engaging in commonsense reasoning, understanding language, and even driving an automobile are said to demand "intelligence". Over the past few decades, several computer systems have been built that can perform tasks such as these. Specifically, there are computer systems that can diagnose diseases, plan the synthesis of complex organic chemical compounds, solve differential equations in symbolic form, analyze electronic circuits, understand limited amounts of human speech and natural language text, or write small computer programs to meet formal specifications. We might say that such systems possess some degree of artificial intelligence. Most of the work on building these kinds of systems has taken place in the field called Artificial Intelligence (AI) (Nilsson, 1980). Most AI programs are quite complex objects and mastering their complexity is a major research goal. A comprehensive study of the problems that exist in AI programs requires a precise formalization so that detailed analyses can be carried out so as satisfactory solutions can be obtained (Bourbakis, 1992).

    KEYWORDS : Artificial Intelligence, USB Comm., Light Tracking Sensors, 8085 Peripherals Interface

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Inali Wahane,Prashant Gade},
    title = {Solar tracking System using artificial Intelligence},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {32-37},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38058
    Paper Title :: Proximate Characteristics and Complementary assesment of Five Organic Sweet Potatoes Cultivars and Cowpea Varieties
    Author Name :: N.M Anthony|| M. K. Sawi|| O.O. Aiyelaagbe|| A.Taiwo|| T. Winnebah|| S.N Fomba
    Page Number :: 38-42
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0391038042

    Flours from five (5) organic sweet potato and cowpea varieties were analyzed for their proximate composition and functional properties at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria with the purpose of utilizing them for preparation of complementary food. Sweet potato tubers NG/SP/034 (yellow-flesh), NG/SP/083 (white-flesh), NG/SP/109 (yellow-flesh), NG/SP/277 (yellow-flesh), slipot 3 (orange flesh) and cowpea varieties Black- eye, Hundea, Kpotowai, Ellane and batami processed into flour were obtained from the organic skill demonstration farm at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria and Njala Agricultural Research Centre, Njala, Sierra Leone in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Results showed proximate composition and functional properties of legume varieties Black eye beans, and batami met the average values and can be used to formulate composite flour for complementary food. Organic sweet potato cultivars (SLIPOT / 003, NGB/SP/083 also falls within average protein content with suitable functional properties thus have the potential to ensure nutrient security if composited to formulate a complementary diet.

    KEYWORDS :organic sweet potato, cowpea, proximate composition, functional properties

    @article{key:article,
    author = {N.M Anthony, M. K. Sawi, O.O. Aiyelaagbe, A.Taiwo, , T. Winnebah , S.N Fomba},
    title = {Proximate Characteristics and Complementary assesment of Five Organic Sweet Potatoes Cultivars and Cowpea Varieties},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {38-42},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38013
    Paper Title :: Type and Abundance of Macrozoobenthos as A pollution Indicator in ken Dedes river at singosari Subdistrict malang regency, east java, Indonesia
    Author Name :: Mas Ayu Dewi Ratna Swari|| Diana Arfiati|| Marsoedi
    Page Number :: 43-49
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0391043049

    Ken Dedes river was located at Singosari Subdistrict in Malang Regency. It was originally only used as waste water from bath but it has been used for agriculture, tourism, public toilet, settlements, rearing of fish tilapia waste, sandal industry, welding workshop and tofu industry. The waste water can cause problems of habitat destruction of macrozoobenthos that was in water. The aim of this research was to study the type and abundance of macrozoobenthos, and determine the level of water pollution based on macrozoobenthos so that the river can be utilized by the public. The research was carried out by methods of survey and on observing variable of macrozoobenthos, current velocity, type of substrate, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total organic matter, hardness and ammonia. Analysis of macrozoobenthos using PCA software, BMWP-ASPT and abundance index. Macrozoobenthos found during research consisting of 10 classes which divided into 12 order and 44 species. The result analysis of PCA showed medium and heavy polluted category, while of BMWP-ASPT index showed categories heavily polluted with abundance index varied from moderate to high. This river belong to quality standard grade two where water sources and flow can still be used for activity of agriculture, tourism, settlements and rearing of freshwater fish.

    KEYWORDS : river pollution, macrozoobenthos, Ken Dedes River, quality standard

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mas Ayu Dewi Ratna Swari, Diana Arfiati, Marsoedi},
    title = {Static Analysis of Centrifugal Blower Using Composite Material},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {43-49},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39003
    Paper Title :: Low Velocity and High Velocity Impact Test on Composite Materials – A review
    Author Name :: S.N.A. Safri ||M.T.H. Sultan ||N. Yidris || F. Mustapha
    Page Number :: 50-60
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0391050060

    A question that is naturally raised is how to improve the survivability of aircraft structures regarding low and high velocity impacts. Since structural failure is caused primarily by fracture, a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms and mechanics of the material is one of the most important steps needed to solve the problem. In a high velocity impact, fracture often occurs in an impacted zone where compression is dominant. For a low velocity impact, invisible cracks often occur, but they cannot be seen using the naked eye. It is important to understand the deformation and damage mechanisms involved in the impact of targets, for the effective design of composite structures.

    KEYWORDS : Composite Materials ,High Velocity Impact (HVI), Impact Damage, Low velocity Impact (LVI), Non-destructive Testing (NDT).

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mr M.Sampathkumar,Mr.Dsvsra Varaprasad,Mr.Vijaykumar},
    title = {Low Velocity and High Velocity Impact Test on Composite Materials – A review},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {50-60},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38068
    Paper Title :: Problems Encountered in the Types of Lighting Systems Generally Used in Surface Mining Projects A Case Study.
    Author Name :: N.Lakshmipathy|| Ch.S.N.Murthy|| M. Aruna
    Page Number :: 61-72
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0391061072

    Mining is one of the major occupations in India, employing a large workforce that is likely to grow. Mining is a hazardous occupation, with workers exposed to adverse conditions; apart from the need for hard physical labor, there is exposure to stress and environmental pollutants like dust, noise, heat, vibration, poor illumination, radiation, etc. Visibility is restricted when operating load haul dump, Heavy Earth Moving Machinery (HEMM) vehicles resulting in a number of serious accidents one of the leading causes of these accidents is the inability of the equipment operator to see clearly people, objects or hazards around the machine. Results indicate blind spots are caused primarily by posts, the back of the operator's cab, and by lights and light brackets. Impaired visibility on some machines was caused by the wheel well covers, bucket lip extension, fire extinguisher, over-sized buckets, light posts, radiator back, booms, hoses on the booms, engine and the air intake cylinders. To ensure safe movement of men and machinery and for efficient working conditions, good artificial illumination needs to be provided during night hours. In mines a good lighting installation is one, which promotes good conditions of seeing. The important aspect of lighting design is to provide sufficient illuminance on visual tasks. The illuminance level, distribution of light (i.e. uniformity) and glare are the three important design parameters, which influence the visibility during night times. Power LEDs used in lighting have many advantages comparing to the widely used high pressure sodium vapor lamps or metal halide lamps. But power LEDs need switched mode electronic drives which cause high disturbances both in harmonics and in transients. Results of this study have been used to conduct "visibility" awareness campaigns to evaluate design modifications to Opencast (surface) mine with the goal to improve visibility. This paper highlights Types of Lighting Systems Generally Used in Surface Mining Projects

    KEYWORDS : light, luminaire, Illuminance, luminance, tilt angle. efficacy

    @article{key:article,
    author = {N.Lakshmipathy, Ch.S.N.Murthy, and M. Aruna},
    title = {Problems Encountered in the Types of Lighting Systems Generally Used in Surface Mining Projects A Case Study.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {61-72},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38067
    Paper Title :: Radio Propagation In Outdoor Sub-Urban Environment:Effect On Gsm Signal Strength
    Author Name :: Osuagwu Florence
    Page Number :: 73-79
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0391073079

    In mobile communication, the cell phone needs adequate signal strength to properly place or receive calls. Signal strength varies based on location and multipath is one of the conditions that lead to signal variation in a given environment. In this paper, measurement of signal strength with increase in distance was made at two different environments. The plot of signal strength relative to median against distance revealed more random variation at location A suggesting the presence of multipath in that environment. It was also observed that in a real world environment with obstructions, shadowing can lead to loss of more than 13dBm signal strength. This investigation showed that small scale fading due to multipath is not a challenge in a "no obstruction environment" such as location B. Though the signal strength varies with distance, the variation is approximately linear in such environment. The paper recommends that network providers should make routine signal strength measurement in suburban and urban environments as this will guide them on how to maintain signal quality within cells

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Osuagwu Florence},
    title = {Radio Propagation In Outdoor Sub-Urban Environment:Effect On Gsm Signal Strength},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {73-79},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 09|| Version II || September 2014
    Paper Id :: 33153
    Paper Title :: Prevalence Of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus From Clinical Specimens In Ibadan, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Adetayo, T. O.|| A. M. Deji-Agboola ||M.Y. Popoola ||T.J. Atoyebi ||K. J. Egberongbe
    Page Number :: 01-11
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/039201011

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in clinical isolates in Ibadan. Clinical samples (150) were collected from various health centers in Ibadan over a period of 7 months. The samples were cultured on bacteriological media for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus using standard methods of isolation and identification of bacteria. The Staphylococcus aureus were tested for methicillin susceptibility using 5μg oxacillin disc while the identified MRSA were tested for susceptibility to other antibiotics. Out of 23 Staphylococcus aureus isolated, 52.2% were recovered from urine specimens, 30.4% wounds swab, 13.0% ear swab and 4.3% from nasal swab. 7(30.4%) out of the Staphylococcus aureus were MRSA as indicated by their resistance to oxacillin . The yield of MRSA was highest from urine (71.4%) and least from wound swab (28.6%). The MRSA were highly resistant to Amoxicillin (100%), Augumentin (85.7%), Cotrimozaxole (71.4%), Tetracycline (57.1%), Gentamycin (42.9%), Ofloxacin (28.9%) and Ciprofloxacin (28.5%). The MRSA 6(85.7%) isolated showed multi resistance to at least 4 or more of the antibiotic tested, five out of the seven MRSA harbor single plasmid of molecular weight 25.0kbp.The prevalence of MRSA is high; the MRSA showed a very high degree of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics indicating the infectiveness of these antibiotics and need to reassess the policies on antibiotic usage in hospital environment.

    KEYWORDS :prevalence, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, antibiotic sensitivity pattern, Clinical samples, bacteriological media.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adetayo, T. O., A. M. Deji-Agboola, M.Y. Popoola, T.J. Atoyebi ,K. J. Egberongbe},
    title = {Prevalence Of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus From Clinical Specimens In Ibadan, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {01-11},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39005
    Paper Title :: Fluid Filled Hyper Elastic Robot Finger Model With and Without Initial Pressure for Object Manipulation
    Author Name :: P.Subramaniam || R.Marappan
    Page Number :: 12-19
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0392012019

    A semi cylindrical shaped , hyper elastic, thin wall, fluid filled, soft robot finger model with adequate length and radius has been designed. While applying normal load, the deformation parameters such as contact width, vertical deflection and stress in the wall are analytically calculated. The procedure is repeated with addition of initial pressure inside the finger. It is found that the contact width and vertical deflection of the finger with initial fluid pressure are lesser and stress in the finger wall is more than those without initial fluid pressure. While object manipulation, these deformation parameters determine the load lifting capacity of the finger. To validate this analytical findings, experiments were conducted on fluid filled silicone rubber fingers with and with-out initial fluid pressure. The analytical results are found to be very close to the experimental results.

    KEYWORDS : Anthropomorphic, Finger deformation, Fluid filled robot finger, Hyper elastic material, Object manipulation, Silicone rubber, Semi contact width.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {P.Subramaniam ,R.Marappan},
    title = {Fluid Filled Hyper Elastic Robot Finger Model With and Without Initial Pressure for Object Manipulation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {12-19},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38074
    Paper Title :: Performance Evaluation of a Box-Type Solar oven with Reflector
    Author Name :: S. O. Yusuf || M. M. Garba || M. Momoh || D. O. Akpootu
    Page Number :: 20-25
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0392020025

    This paper presents the evaluation of the thermal performance of a constructed box type solar oven with reflector. The solar box oven was used to perform an experiment with reflector and without reflector in which the ambient temperature, the air temperature inside the oven, the plate temperature at the side and the bottom, of the oven were obtained. The wind speed and the solar radiation were also recorded for different days. The temperature profiles without load and with load assure its good thermal performance and the ability to boil water. The stagnation test and the water boiling test were performed during the year 2012. The efficiency of the solar oven without and with reflector was found to be about 96% and 99% respectively. Efficiency increase with decreasing temperature difference between plate temperature and ambient temperature, while it decreases with decrease in solar radiation. The result shows that the oven has a good reliability for baking and boiling water.

    KEYWORDS : Solar oven, Thermal performance, Efficiency, First Figure of Merit, Second Figure Merit.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. O. Yusuf, M. M. Garba, M. Momoh ,D. O. Akpootu},
    title = {Performance Evaluation of a Box-Type Solar oven with Reflector},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {20-25},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38073
    Paper Title :: Comparative Analysis on the Performance of Four Selected Fuel Wood Stoves Using Water Boiling Test
    Author Name ::

    D.O. Akpootu || S.B. Muhammad || S. B. Sharafa ||A. Bala ||

    F. Sani ||S. O. Yusuf || C. C. Ajaeroh

    Page Number :: 26-30
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0392026030

    The comparative analysis of four selected wood stoves using Water Boiling Test was carried out in this study. The selected wood stoves were Save 80, Single Hole Improved (S.H.I.) Wood Stove, Locally Fabricated Metal (L.F.M.) Stove and Traditional Open Fire (T.O.F.) Stove. The Water Boiling Test adopted in this research is that of the Volunteers in Technical Assistance (VITA) 1985 which is currently accepted as standard for the performance evaluation of stoves (Ballard et al., 1996). The analysis showed that it took the Traditional Open Fire and Locally Fabricated metal Stoves an average of 40.66 min and 30.67 min to bring 2 liters of water to boiling point (1000C) with 1.25 kg and 1.05 kg of wood respectively. However, for Single Hole Improved Wood Stove and Save 80, it took also an average of 28.00 min and 15.33 min to bring the same volume of water to boiling point with 0.75 kg and 0.30 kg of wood respectively. The results obtained further showed that the Save 80 Fuel Wood Stove has a Fuel Burning Rate of 0.79 kg/hr, Single Hole Improved Fuel Wood Stove, 1.20kg/hr, Local Fabricated Metal Stove, 1.24kg/hr, and Traditional Open Fire Stove (Three Stone Stove), 1.29kg/hr. Finally, the Percentage Heat Utilized (PHU) and Thermal Efficiencies of the Save 80 stove, the Single Hole Improved Wood Stoves, the Locally Fabricated Metal Stove and the Traditional Open Fire Type were found to be 39.39 (31.12%), 14.69 (17.62%), 11.25 (15.87%) and 7.78 (10.04%) respectively.

    KEYWORDS : Wood Stove, Traditional Open Fire, Locally Fabricated, Single Hole Improved, Save 80, Burning Rate, Specific Fuel Consumption, Efficiency.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {D.O. Akpootu, S.B. Muhammad, S. B. Sharafa, A. Bala, F. Sani, S. O. Yusuf, C. C. Ajaeroh},
    title = {Comparative Analysis on the Performance of Four Selected Fuel Wood Stoves Using Water Boiling Test},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {26-30},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38036
    Paper Title :: Assessment of Neem Tree (Azadirachta Indica) Leaves for Pollution Status Of maiduguri Environment, Borno State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Abdullateef,B*.||Kolo, B. G.|| Waziri, I.|| Idris,M.A.
    Page Number :: 31-35
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0392031035

    Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is a popular tree amongst the populace and has served as medicinal plant. Plants are important bioindicators of heavy metals in Environmental Pollution. This study was aimed at assessing the concentration (μg/g) of Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Zn and Pb in leaves of Neem tree as indicator of environmental pollution in Maiduguri Metropolitan council, Borno State, Nigeria. Samples (leaves) were collected monthly for three months from three different locations (Bama station, Bulumkutu and Post office areas designated as S1, S2 and S3 respectively) at distances of 50m and 100m each from the main roads, and 250m to serve as control. The samples were collected monthly from the designated and control points for a period of three months from December, 2012 to February, 2013. The concentrations of heavy metals in the samples were determined using Perkin-Elmer Analyst 200 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The results showed that the concentrations of analysed heavy metals ranged from 0.254±0.063- 1.010 ± 0.104 μg/g Mn; 0.779±0.073-2.452 ± 0.034 μg/g Fe; 0.031± 0.008-0.813± 0.009 μg/g Cu; 0.152±0.012-0.604±0.005 μg/g Zn; 0.002±0.001-0.066 ± 0.033 μg/g Co; whereas, the concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd were not detected at certain distances.The concentrations of some of the metals in the three sampling points were lower than that of their corresponding controls. Thus, the Neem tree leaves do not only indicate pollution due to vehicular traffic activities but also other anthropogenic activities.

    KEY WORDS: Environment, Heavy Metal,MaiduguriNeem leave, Pollution.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Abdullateef,B*., Kolo, B. G., Waziri, I. and Idris,M.A.},
    title = {Assessment of Neem Tree (Azadirachta Indica) Leaves for Pollution Status Of maiduguri Environment, Borno State, Nigeria.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {31-35},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37081
    Paper Title :: Indirect Adaptive Fuzzy Controller for Frequency Tracking In A Nonlinear Interconnected Two Area Power System Network
    Author Name :: Rabiu Sabiu Shehu ||Rahmatu Aliyu Abarshi ||Said Adamu
    Page Number :: 36-44
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0392036044

    Adaptive fuzzy control method is an important for complex nonlinear systems that operate varying in operating conditions. In this paper, we designed an Indirect Adaptive Fuzzy controller for tracking performance and load frequency deviation control for an interconnected two area nonlinear power system. Zero order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system and projection algorithm are employed for plant estimation and parameter adaptation mechanisms, the developed controller was connected directly to act on area 1 dynamics, the closed loop adaptive system is implemented in Matlab Simulink- S-function flat forms. Simulation results obtained demonstrated the capability of the tracking controller in maintaining stability in the presence of large load changes and parameter variations

    KEYWORDS :Indirect Adaptive fuzzy control, Load frequency, Tracking performance, Parameter adaptation, Fuzzy basis function, Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rabiu Sabiu Shehu ||Rahmatu Aliyu Abarshi ||Said Adamu},
    title = {Indirect Adaptive Fuzzy Controller for Frequency Tracking In A Nonlinear Interconnected Two Area Power System Network},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {36-44},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38064
    Paper Title :: Synthesis of Organochlorine Herbicides and Comparative Evaluation of the Herbicidal Activities of their Acids and Alkali Metal Salts
    Author Name :: Anietie E. Ekot || Okon D. Ekpa
    Page Number :: 45-50
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0392045050

    The drive to protect our environment from substances capable of disrupting the ecological equilibrium of the natural ecosystem necessitates detailed evaluation of non-target effects of substances such as herbicides used on our farmlands. In this study the herbicidal activities of sodium and potassium salts of Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D), representing the commonly used herbicides for monocotyledonous (grassy) and dicotyledonous (broadleaf) weeds respectively, have been evaluated. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was prepared by oxidizing chloral hydrate with concentrated tri-oxo-nitrate(V) acid while 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was prepared by treating 2,4-dichlorophenol with 50% 2-chloroacetic acid under thermostatically controlled reflux. The resulting herbicidal acids were converted to their sodium and potassium salts by treating each acid with a strong solution of sodium and potassium hydroxide. Comparative tests on plants revealed that the acid forms had stronger herbicidal properties than both sodium and potassium salts of the original products. Although the acids could attack older weeds much faster than the salts they had the potential of increasing the soil acidity to a level that may result in ecological mayhem. The tests further revealed that potassium salts of both TCA and 2,4-D were milder than the sodium salts of the two herbicidal acids; while the acid/salt blend in a proper ratio was found to reduce the soil acidity considerably. Thus the discernable difference in herbicidal strength of the acid and salt forms can be used as a guide to work out mixtures that are more environmentally friendly than the pure acids.

    KEYWORDS : Herbicidal acids, acids to salts conversion, soil acidity, environmental implication.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anietie E. Ekot, Okon D. Ekpa},
    title = {Synthesis of Organochlorine Herbicides and Comparative Evaluation of the Herbicidal Activities of their Acids and Alkali Metal Salts},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {45-50},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39011
    Paper Title :: Thermostatic Valve In Geyser System
    Author Name :: Sudhanshu Pandey
    Page Number :: 51-53
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0392051053

    A Thermostatic Valve Is An Advanced Valve That Can Be Implemented In The Geyser System For Obtaining Continuous Supply Of Hot Water From Geyser In Places Where The Consumption Rate Is High. A Thermostatic Valve Is A Closed Valve Containing A Piston Inside It. The Upper And Lower Parts Of The Piston In The Valve Is Filled With Gas. One Side Of This Valve Is Made Up Of Thermal Conducting Material, While Others Sides Are Adiabatic. The Conduction Of Heat Takes Place From The Hot Water In The Geyser Tank To The Gas Inside The Thermostatic Valve. This Heat Causes The Gas Inside The Valve To Expand. This Expansion Leads To The Movement Of The Rod Attached To The Piston To Move Downwards. This Piston Contains A Hole Which Controls The Amount Of Normal Water Discharged At Outlet. A Separate Pipe Is Used To Discharge Hot Water At Outlet Directly From The Geyser Tank. Thus ,The Net Water At Outlet Contains A Mixture Of Hot And Cold Water And The Amount Of Cold Water Discharged Is Dependent On The Temperature Of Hot Water. This Helps To Avoid The Wastage Of Overheated Outlet Water, When Water Is Directly Taken From The Geyser Tank . This Valve Also Enables Us To Get A Continuous Supply Of Hot Water In Places Where The Consumption Rate Is High Because We Are Not Using The Hot Water Directly, But A Mixture Of Hot And Normal Water. So The Hot Water In The Geyser Tank Can Be Utilised For A Longer Time.

    KEYWORDS : Consumption, Conduction, Expansion, Geyser, Thermostatic, Valve.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sudhanshu Pandey},
    title = {Thermostatic Valve In Geyser System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {51-53},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38075
    Paper Title :: Modeling & Control of Event Based Behaviour Using State Machines
    Author Name ::

    Obota M.E. ||Ukwa C.N.||Ona D.I.

    Page Number :: 54-58
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0392054058

    One of the main challenges in becoming an effective state machine designer is to develop a sense for which behaviour should be captured. In this paper, semantic of hierarchical state decomposition is deployed to facilitate reusing of behaviour to avoid unnecessary increase in system due to explosive increase in number of states and transitions. Furthermore, state machine is used here to model event based behaviour through transitions that are driven by the value of either discrete or continuous properties. Obviously, this research work is interesting especially to the software developers because the approach is truly applicable to real-life problems.

    KEYWORDS : State machine, modeling, transition, event, behavior,

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Obota M.E. , ukwa C.N. , ona D.I.},
    title = {Modeling & Control of Event Based Behaviour Using State Machines},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {54-58},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37071
    Paper Title :: Sensory evaluation of wheat bread made with wild yeast and its mutant species isolated from fermented orange juice.
    Author Name :: Obasi, B.C. , Whong , |||C.M.Z, Ado , S.A ||Abdullahi, I.O.
    Page Number :: 59-63
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0392059063

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the sensory properties of wheat bread made with wild yeast (Kodamae ohmeri, Geotrichum capitatum) and its mutant species and to find out consumers acceptance of the new product. The main sensory properties (colour of the bread crumb, texture, aroma) were evaluated with a hedonic scale of 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest), which was used for the determination of the degree of acceptance. The sensory data were analysed by means of the analysis of variance (Anova). Quality evaluation of the sweetened and unsweetened breads made with the wild yeast and its mutant revealed that the mutant species showed better quality than their wild type, with regard to their texture and their organoleptic properties; mutants of nitrous acid sweetened and unsweetened bread samples; DS20 was the best with a mean value of (4.25a, 4.00a), followed by 7F9 (4.00a, 3.50a), DS6 and 7F8 (3.75a, 3.75a). For the mutants of U.V. light the following bread samples were ranked the best at different mutation time. At 15minutes, DS6 (3.86a, 4.15a), at 20minutes, DS10 (4.15a, 4.00a), at 25 minutes, DS14 (4.29a, 3.86a) and at 30minutes, (DS14 (3.71a, 3.63a). The results of the hedonic rating also proved that the panelist preferred the wheat bread made with the mutant species in the sweetened bakery product and the bread samples made with the wild yeast in the unsweetened bread. The results of the analysis of variance showed that there is no significant difference in the colour and aroma of the bread samples with the wild yeast and its mutant species when compared with the control sample baked with the commercial baker's yeast.

    KEY WORDS:Geotrichum capitatum, Kodamae ohmeri, baker's yeast, bread samples, texture, sensory evaluation

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Obasi, B.C. , Whong , 2,C.M.Z, Ado , S.A and 3,Abdullahi, I.O..},
    title = {Sensory evaluation of wheat bread made with wild yeast and its mutant species isolated from fermented orange juice.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {59-63},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37072
    Paper Title :: Isolation and Identification Of Yeast Associated With Fermented Orange Juice
    Author Name :: Obasi, B.C., Whong, C.M.Z., Ado, S.A and Abdullahi, I.O
    Page Number :: 64-69
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0392064069

    Yeast species present in orange juice were screened. A total of 98 strains of yeast were isolated from fresh or healthy fermented and defective orange fruit. A total of 51 species were identified using AP120C, representing 4 genera; 32 from fresh fermented orange juice (FSSOJ) which 19 species were from defective orange juice (DSSOJ). Among (FSSOJ) isolates, Candida kruesi and Rhodotorula minuta were the predominant species, while Candida zeylanoides and Candida parapsilosis were the dominant species in DSSOJ. Candida and Rhodotorula species were both isolated from fresh or healthy and defective orange juice, while Kodamaea and Geotrichum species were isolated from the fresh or healthy orange juice only. Candida Kruesi had the highest prevalence (57%), Rhodotorula minuta (20%), Candida zeylanoides (8%), Candida parapsilosis (6%), Geotrichum capitatum (4%), Candida norvegensis and Kodamea (1%) respectively. Candida lusitaniae, Candida parapsilosis and Rhodotorula minuta metabolised xylose which showed that they possess genes responsible for xylose fermentation. Thus, these make them suitable for ethanolic fermentation of hydrolysates of cellulosic materials. The diversity of yeast isolated from the FSSOJ and DSSOJ showed that orange juice employ a whole range of natural flora that could function under varied environmental conditions

    KEY WORDS: Yeast, Candida species, Kodamaea ohmeri, orange juice, FSSOJ, DSSOJ

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Obasi, B.C., Whong, C.M.Z., Ado, S.A and Abdullahi, I.O},
    title = {Isolation and Identification Of Yeast Associated With Fermented Orange Juice},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {64-69},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39017
    Paper Title :: Identity Access Management and Multi-Tier Cloud Infrastructure for Secure Voting System
    Author Name :: Bhosale Poonam||Vethekar Priyanka||Thorat Lata||Suchitra Shinde||Archana Lomte
    Page Number :: 70-73
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0392070073

    Integrity of election process will determine the integrity of democracy itself. So the election system must be secure and robust against a variety of fraudulent behaviours, should be transparent and comprehensible that voter and candidates can accept the result of election. But in history, there are examples of election being manipulated in order to influence their outcome. Anonymity of ballot should be preserved both to guarantee that voter have no proof that proves which candidates receive their votes. Architecture to manage identity and access in Multi-tier cloud infrastructure, in which most services are supported by massive-scale data centre over the internet. Multi-tier cloud infrastructure uses tier-based model from software engineering to provide resources in different tiers. In this paper we focus on design and implementation of centralized identity and access management system for the multi-tier cloud infrastructure. First we discuss identity and access management requirement in such an environment and propose our solution to address these requirements. Next we discuss approaches to improve performance of the IAM system and make it scalable to billion of users.

    KEY WORDS: IAM (Identity Access Management) SAVI, (Smart Application On Virtual Infrastructure) , Encryption, Decryption, multi-tier cloud

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Bhosale Poonam, Vethekar Priyanka, Thorat Lata, Suchitra Shinde, Archana Lomte},
    title = {Identity Access Management and Multi-Tier Cloud Infrastructure for Secure Voting System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {70-73},
    month = {September}
    }
    Volume 03 || Issue 09|| Version III || September 2014
    Paper Id :: 39009
    Paper Title :: Comparison of Some Strength Properties of Concrete Made from Reclaimed Aggregates and Crushed Granite Aggregate
    Author Name :: Obam, Ogah
    Page Number :: 01-06
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/03930106

    Wastes generated through demolition of concrete and asphalt civil engineering structures constitute environmental nuisance. In this study, an attempt has been made to find the suitability of reclaimed concrete aggregate (RCA) and reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) aggregate in the production of concrete that is, recycling these wastes to produce concrete. The concrete strengths were then compared to the strength of crushed granite aggregate concrete Laboratory experimental procedures were used to determine the compressive strength of crushed granite aggregate (CGA) concrete, reclaimed concrete aggregate and reclaimed asphalt aggregate concrete. The study was done in three mix ratios, 1:2:4, 1:1.5:3 and 1:1:2. The surface texture of RCA and CGA were rough while that of RAP aggregate was relatively smooth. The maximum size of aggregate used is 20mm. The specific gravity values of RCA, RAP and CGA are 2.49, 2.23, and 2.63 respectively. The average water absorption values of the aggregates are 3.1, 2.8, and 1.3 percent for RCA, RAP and CGA respectively. 1The average values of the compressive strengths of RCA concrete, at 28 day, are 26, 39 and 52N/mm2 for the three mix ratios respectively. The values for RAP concrete are 25, 37, and 49N/mm2 respectively, while that of CGA concrete are 27, 41 and 54N/mm2 respectively. The values of the specific gravity and compressive strength of the three aggregates are close. Therefore, NCA and RAP aggregate are recommended as good substitutes to natural crushed granite aggregate for production of structural concrete. It is also discovered that it could be cheaper to use the reclaimed aggregates than the crushed granite aggregate.

    KEYWORDS :Compressive Strength, Reclaimed Aggregate, Recycling, Waste

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Obam, Ogah},
    title = {Comparison of Some Strength Properties of Concrete Made from Reclaimed Aggregates and Crushed Granite Aggregate},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {01-06},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39032
    Paper Title :: Design Scaled Arm 7- Soft Core Processor with Communication Techniques With Fpga
    Author Name ::

    Jayampu Manohar|| Ch.Janardhan || Dr.K.V. Ramanaiah

    Page Number :: 07-14
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/039307014

    Soft processor cores are gaining importance for FPGA based embedded applications, where the end user can configure the processor as per his requirement and achieve the benefits of SOC by implementing other required logic on FPGA fabric .It is of great concern to build ARM soft processor cores in the context of FPGA based multiprocessor based SOC applications. In this paper a subset of ARM 7, V4 instruction set will be implemented to cater for such applications.. The core shall be implemented with UART and SPI communication capabilities. The instructions of Data processing, Arithmetic, Branch instructions, Logical and compare will be implemented. The data path will be implemented with multiplexer based design, which is suitable for FPGA implementation. Modelsim Xilinx Edition (MXE) will be used for functional simulation and Xilinx XST will be for FPGA synthesis. The Chipscope tool will be used for on chip verification of the results. The maximum possible frequency of operation of ARM core will be estimated from the timing report.

    KEYWORDS : RISC,Shift Register , UART,FPGA, ARM .

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jayampu Manohar , Ch.Janardhan , Dr.K.V. Ramanaiah},
    title = {Design Scaled Arm 7- Soft Core Processor with Communication Techniques With Fpga},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {07-14,
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39015
    Paper Title :: Gardener Diamond Syndrome: diagnosis and treatment.
    Author Name :: Richa Shree || Dr. A. K. Singh ||Dr. V. K. Chauhan
    Page Number :: 15-17
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0393015017

    Gardner Diamond Syndrome is a rare and poorly understood clinical presentation of unexplained painful ecchymotic lesions, mostly on the extremities and the face. This disorder mainly occurs in Caucasian women with emotional stress or one or more concomitant mental illnesses. A 17 years old female adolescent presented with recurrent episodes of blood-oozing from the skin of both lower eyelids along with bleeding from the skin of the nails of upper and lower limbs which ceased spontaneously after a few minutes without having any in duration or oedema at the sites. The female had no systematic abnormality but she had a tendency of seeking attention. Psychological consultation and Hypnotherapy revealed that she was suffering from conversion disorder with anxiety traits. After 6 psychotherapeutic sessions (Hypnotherapy, Cognitive behavioral therapy and Counseling) she showed marked improvement and the symptoms of disorder didn't recur

    KEY WORDS:cognitive behavioral therapy, conversion disorder, counseling, , female adolescent, Gardner Diamond Syndrome, hypnotherapy.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Richa Shree, Dr. A. K. Singh ,Dr. V. K. Chauhan},
    title = {Gardener Diamond Syndrome: diagnosis and treatment.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {15-17},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39050
    Paper Title :: Steady Mhd Couette Flow Of An Incompressible Viscous Fluid Through A Porous Medium Between Two Infinite Parallel Plates Under Effect Of Inclined Magnetic Field
    Author Name :: L.Sreekala || E.Kesava Reddy
    Page Number :: 18-37
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0393018037

    In this paper, we discuss the steady hydro magnetic three dimensional couette flow of an incompressible viscous flow through a porous medium between two infinite parallel plates under the influence of effect of inclined magnetic filed, and taking viscous dissipation into account. The stationary plate is subjected to a slightly sinusoidal surface temperature with transverse sinusoidal suction velocity while moving plate is isothermal with injection velocity. The velocity and the temperature are evaluated by using perturbation technique. The expressions for the components of skin friction at the stationery plate and the insulated plate and the rate of heat transfer are also obtained and its behaviour computationally discussed with reference to the various governing parameters in detail.

    KEY WORDS:viscous fluid, steady flow, porous medium infinite parallel plates, MHD couette flow

    @article{key:article,
    author = {L.Sreekala , E.Kesava Reddy},
    title = {Through A Porous Medium Between Two Infinite Parallel Plates Under Effect Of Inclined Magnetic Field},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {18-37},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39047
    Paper Title :: Stock Assessment of Fishery Resources Using Surplus Production Model on Surabaya East of Java
    Author Name :: Hari Subagio || Supriyatno Widagdo
    Page Number :: 38-42
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0393038042

    The development of fisheries on Surabaya indicated by the growing number of vessels and fishing gear units operated by fishermen. However, the increase in the number of fishing gear is a contradiction with the amount of fish catches landed. This study aims to determine the potential maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of fishery resources, the level of exploitation of fishery resources as well as the conditions that exist on fishing activities in the city of Surabaya. This study used a survey method. The survey was conducted to collect primary and secondary data which includes the type and number of vessels, the type and amount of fishing gear, as well as the number of catches. The potential maximum sustainable yield can be predicted by using the surplus production with Fox models (Sparre and Venema, 1999). The results of the study, the optimum catch effort (Fmsy) is 2,000 units of standard fishing gear. Estimated potential maximum sustainable yield is equal to 11,032.026 tons/year. Fishing activities conducted fishermen, in the last six years using a number of existing gear is as much as 123.2 to 159.95%, and at the same time their catch has exceeded the maximum sustainable yield with the trend indicated that the cumulative catches decreased.

    KEY WORDS: stock assessment, surplus production model, Fox Models, Surabaya.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Hari Subagio , Supriyatno Widagdo},
    title = {Stock Assessment of Fishery Resources Using Surplus Production Model on Surabaya East of Java},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {38-42},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39014
    Paper Title :: Computer-Simulated Delta (δ) For Vertical Transversely Isotropic (Vti) Media in Two Depobelts of the Niger Delta
    Author Name :: Emudianughe, E. J||Alaminiokuma, G. I. || Ojugo, A. A
    Page Number :: 43-48
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0393043048

    Thomsen's parameter (delta, δ) for Vertical Transversely Isotropic (VTI) media was estimated in two depobelts of the Niger Delta. This was based on seismic and well velocity data within common midpoint gathers for different offset ranges to extend anisotropic normal moveout correction in processing steps. A computer simulation was utilized to analyse the seismic and well velocity data at same interval after seismic-to-well tie. Results show that the values of the parameter, delta (δ) estimated from wells lie within the range 0.0≤ δ ≤0.1. This correlates better with the values of the same parameter obtained analytically with a combination of normal moveout velocity (VNMO) from seismic and vertical velocity (Vo) from checkshot data. This result completely characterizes the VTI system in the area of study. It is useful for good subsurface imaging in depth repositioning and focussing in migration processes and reliably extracting reservoir fluids, lithology and pore pressure prediction from seismic data, and understanding time-to-depth conversion errors and non-hyperbolic moveout.

    KEY WORDS: Anisotropy, Depobelts, delta, Central Swamp, Greater Ughelli

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Emudianughe, E. J , Alaminiokuma, G. I. , Ojugo, A. A},
    title = {Computer-Simulated Delta (δ) For Vertical Transversely Isotropic (Vti) Media in Two Depobelts of the Niger Delta},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {43-48},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39010
    Paper Title :: Design and Implementation of Pipeline Monitoring System Using Acceleration-Based Wireless Sensor Network
    Author Name :: Nwalozie Gerald .C || Azubogu .A.C.O
    Page Number :: 49-58
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0393049058

    A Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based wireless sensor network (WSN) is developed for nondestructive monitoring of pipeline systems. It incorporates MEMS accelerometers for measuring flow-induced vibration on the surface of a pipe to determine the change in water pressure caused by rupture and the damage location. This work presents an experimental investigation of the relationship between flow-induced vibration and the pressure fluctuations. Measurements of vibration were performed in pipe sections of a water-filled loop subjected to a wide range of flow rates. Experimental observations show that a sharp change in pressure is always accompanied by a sharp change of pipe surface acceleration at the corresponding locations along the pipe length. Statistical analysis of the measurement showed that there is a non-linear but proportional relationship between the water flow rate and flow induced vibration. Therefore, water pressure-monitoring can be transformed into acceleration-monitoring of the pipe surface. The latter is a significantly more economical alternative due to the use of less expensive sensors such as MEMS or other acceleration sensors.

    KEY WORDS: Acceleration, Vibration, Wireless Sensor Network, pressure fluctuations

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nwalozie Gerald .C , Azubogu .A.C.O},
    title = {Design and Implementation of Pipeline Monitoring System Using Acceleration-Based Wireless Sensor Network},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {49-58},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38059
    Paper Title :: The GIS Application for Monitoring Spatially Changes of Mangrove Conservation Areas in the East Coast of Surabaya
    Author Name :: Viv Djanat Prasita || Nuhman. || Ninis Trisyani
    Page Number :: 59-65
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0393059065

    The aim of this study is intended to monitor spatially the changes of mangrove conservation area on the East Coast of Surabaya by using the technology of geographic information systems (GIS). The method used is a GIS analysis methods, such as: overlay. The results showed that the condition of mangrove conservation area changed due to accretion and aberration. The changes in the extent of accretion and erosion impact on the changes in the management boundary of the conservation area. In addition, changes occur in the number of farm plots that exist in the conservation area. From the satellite image, the observed number of farms plots in 2002, 2007 and 2014 respectively as 1743, 1707 and 1746 plots

    KEY WORDS: GIS, conservation areas, mangrove

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Viv Djanat Prasita, Nuhman.,.Ninis Trisyani},
    title = {The GIS Application for Monitoring Spatially Changes of Mangrove Conservation Areas in the East Coast of Surabaya},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {59-65},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39069
    Paper Title :: Microbiological Quality of Food Contact Surfaces At Selected Food Premises of Malaysian Heritage Food ('Satar') in Terengganu, Malaysia
    Author Name :: Mohd Nizam Lani || Mohd Ferdaus Mohd Azmi || Roshita Ibrahim ||Rozila Alias || Zaiton Hassan
    Page Number :: 66-70
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0393066070

    Satar' is a blend of succulent boneless fish marinated in spices, wrapped in banana leaves and grilled over flaming charcoal. It is a very popular ready-to-eat food sold in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The vehicle and routes of 'Satar' contamination could come from raw materials and food contact surfaces during preparation and handling of 'Satar'. However, this study only focused on the possibility of contaminations which came from food contact surfaces. This study was carried out to determine the Aerobic Plate Count (APC), Enterobacteriaceae count, Staphylococcus aureus count, Pseudomonas count and the presence of Salmonella sp. in swab samples from ten selected food contact surfaces in two popular 'Satar' premises in Terengganu. Results showed that all food contact surfaces used in the Premise A which were cutting board, knife, table of preparation, mixer, food handler's hand, container, spoon, banana leaves, skewer and surface of griller were highly contaminated with indicator microorganisms (aerobic mesophilic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas) compared to food contact surfaces of premise B. This findings highlight the possibility of microbial contamination in 'Satar' that could come from contaminated food contact surfaces. Further study should be carried out in improving the hygienic status of 'Satar' premises and local RTE foods.

    KEY WORDS: Microbiological qualities, 'Satar', Food contact surfaces, indicator organisms, RTE foods

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mohd Nizam Lani, Mohd Ferdaus Mohd Azmi, Roshita Ibrahim, Rozila Alias ,Zaiton Hassan},
    title = {Microbiological Quality of Food Contact Surfaces At Selected Food Premises of Malaysian Heritage Food ('Satar') in Terengganu, Malaysia},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {66-70},
    month = {September}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39067
    Paper Title :: Evaluation on Chemical Analysis and Microbiological Quality of Partially Cooked-Frozen of Malaysian Heritage Food ('Satar')
    Author Name :: Mohd Nizam Lani || Suriani Ahmad ||Roshita Ibrahim ||Rozila Alias ||Zaiton Hassan
    Page Number :: 71-77
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0393071077

    'Satar' is a Malaysian heritage food that made of a blend of boneless fish marinated in spices, wrapped in banana leaves and grilled over flaming charcoal. It is a very popular ready-to-eat food sold in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Left over 'Satar' is frequently subjected to frozen and re-grilling. Storing the 'Satar' under freezing condition has been a common practice by the owners, but how this practice may affect the quality of this product is yet to be understood. This product may undergo undesirable changes during storage and such deterioration may affect the quality of 'Satar'. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical and microbiological changes of partially cooked-frozen 'Satar' during storage. Initially, 'Satar' was prepared under controlled environment by mixing fish together with onion, shallot, spices, sugar, salt and shredded coconut. The chemical analyses were conducted every two weeks storage at -18ºC in a blast freezer for 2 months period of study. The moisture, carbohydrate, protein, lipid and ash contents of the 'Satar' were 66.89%, 5.39%, 11.71%, 14.06% and 1.87%, respectively. The peroxide value of 'Satar' was significantly increased from 9.23 to 12.75 mEq/kg fat during frozen storage. In terms of microbiological quality of this product, Aerobic Plate Count (APC), Enterobacteriaceae count and Yeast and Mold count were gradually increased throughout 8-weeks of frozen storage, where after 6-weeks of storage showed substantial increase of microbial populations to unacceptable level. In conclusion, storage of partially cooked frozen 'Satar' was acceptable within 4 weeks of storage at -18ºC. After four weeks of storage at -18ºC, lipid oxidation was significantly higher and APC almost reached 1.0 x 106 CFU/g which indicate the physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of the product became unacceptable.

    KEY WORDS: 'Satar', chemical analysis, microbiological quality, partially cooked-frozen, lipid oxidation

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mohd Nizam Lani, Suriani Ahmad, Roshita Ibrahim, Rozila Alias , Zaiton Hassan},
    title = {Evaluation on Chemical Analysis and Microbiological Quality of Partially Cooked-Frozen of Malaysian Heritage Food ('Satar')},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {9},
    pages = {71-77},
    month = {September}
    }