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    Volume 03 || Issue 08|| Version I || August 2014
    Paper Id :: 37039
    Paper Title :: A Comparative Study on the Properties of Al-7% Si-Rice Husk Ash and Al-7% Si-Bagasse Ash Composites Produced by Stir Casting
    Author Name :: A. M. Usman || A. Raji || M. A. Hassan || N. H. Waziri
    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03810107
    The aim of this study was to compare the properties of composites produced from an aluminium alloyAl-7%Si as matrix and two agro wastes Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Bagasse Ash (BA) as reinforcement. The total silica and alumina contents of the ashes obtained at 700oC were 98.24wt% and 88.24wt% for RHA and BA, respectively. Density and mechanical properties of the produced composites were determined. The results show that the composites produced with addition of BA with low density of 238.269kgm-3 have better density decreasing ability as BA decreases the density of the alloy by 19% compared with RHA with density of 397.114kgm-3and 15% decrease. The results of mechanical properties show that RHA and BAimproved the mechanical properties upto 10.2% and 7.5% for UTS, respectively. Impact strength increased upto 84.8% and 52.7%, hardness upto 55.2% and 28.8% and fatigue strength upto 316.7% and 190.0% for RHA and BA, respectively. These results show better improvement in mechanical properties with RHA addition however, the statistical analysis results show that there is no significant difference among the pairs of some properties (UTS, Young modulus and fatigue strength) of the two composites and hence both could be used in similar applications where tensile and fatigue strength are of importance.
    Keywords:Alumina, Bagasse ash, Comparison, Composites, Density, Propeties, Rice husk ash, Silica.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {A. M. Usman1, A. Raji, M. A. Hassan, N. H. Waziri},
    title = {A Comparative Study on the Properties of Al-7% Si-Rice Husk Ash and Al-7% Si-Bagasse Ash Composites Produced by Stir Casting},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {01-07},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 37046
    Paper Title :: Analysis of Performance of Jack Hammer to Determine the
    Penetration Rate on Different Rocks
    Author Name :: Vijaya Raghavan
    Page Number :: 08-17
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/038108017

    Drilling is one of the most common operation in the mining industry starting from exploration and continuing through every phase of Production until completion of mining activity. Variety of rocks may be encountered in drilling and in selecting the drilling method to determine the Penetration and Performance in Different Rocks. Jack Hammer is an pneumatically operated drilling machine which is used for drilling Horizontal and Vertical Holes in hard rock formation with Airleg. In this research an attempt is made to determine the Penetration Rate of drilling machine with an additional Pneumatic Cylinder behind the drilling machine to increase the Penetration Rate and to decrease time taken for drilling a unit length of Hole.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Vijaya Raghavan},
    title = {Analysis of Performance of Jack Hammer to Determine the
    Penetration Rate on Different Rocks},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {08-17},
    month = {August}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37055
    Paper Title :: Development of Fire Risk Assessment Procedure For The University Students' Hostel Buildings In Nigeria
    Author Name :: Aminu Umar || Usman Bukar Wakawa ||
    Alkali Ibrahim Abubakar || Elnafaty Abbas Said
    Page Number :: 18-21
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0381018021

    Fire safety in students' accommodation cannot be over emphasized, although, many institutions in Nigeria have given less attention to the program; despite its importance and the devastating effect of fire, thus may result in loss of lives and properties. This paper explores the criteria and attributes for evaluating fire risks in Students‟ hostel buildings of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Nigeria. Analytical Hierarchy Process method (AHP) was applied in the questionnaire development base on the criteria and attributes extracted from the literature. Expert from building industry with experience in fire safety were selected to respond to the survey questionnaire. Expert choice was use for the analysis and the weightage of the criteria and attributes were obtained. Base on the criteria and attributes weightage the assessment tool was developed and the inspection was carried out. The result suggests that there was very little fire safety provisions in the University female Students‟ hostel and therefore, the building is at very high level risk of fire.

    KEYWORDS : Fire Safety, Assessment, Experts and Analytical Hierarchy Process

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Aminu Umar, Usman Bukar Wakawa, Alkali Ibrahim Abubakar, Elnafaty Abbas Said},
    title = {Development of Fire Risk Assessment Procedure For The University Students' Hostel Buildings In Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {18-21},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37031
    Paper Title :: Strength Of Ternary Blended Cement Concrete Containing Rice Husk Ash And Saw Dust Ash
    Author Name :: Obilade, I. O.
    Page Number :: 22-27
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0381022027

    This paper summarizes the research work on the properties of ternary blended cement concrete containing Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Saw Dust Ash (SDA). Eight mixes of ternary blended cement mixes with 70% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and 30% of combined Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Saw Dust Ash (SDA) was adopted. Compacting factor test was carried out on fresh concrete while Compressive Strength test was carried out on hardened 150mm concrete cubes after 7, 14 and 28 days curing in water. The results revealed that the Compacting factor increased as the RHA percentage increased relative to SDA percentage in the ternary blends. The results also revealed that the Compressive Strength of concrete cubes also increased as the RHA percentage increased relative to SDA percentage in the ternary blends. The Optimum Compressive Strength of all the ternary mixes considered was 70% OPC combined with 25% RHA and 5% SDA with a value of 15.08N/mm2. The results showed that OPC-RHA-SDA ternary blended cement concrete could be used as lightweight concrete in Civil Engineering and Building works.

    KEYWORDS : ternary blended cement concrete, pozzolan, rice husk ash, saw dust ash.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Obilade, I. O.},
    title = {Strength Of Ternary Blended Cement Concrete Containing Rice Husk Ash And Saw Dust Ash},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {22-27},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35127
    Paper Title :: Measurement of Electromagnetic Waves Radiated from Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) for Assessing Exposure Limit in Kaduna State
    Author Name :: Ahmad Aminu || Danladi Agadi Tonga ||
    Engr. Yahaya H. Abubakar || Zakariyya Hassan Abdullahi
    Page Number :: 28-34
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0381028034
    Presently Nigeria is experiencing a steady growth in the telecommunication industry, with about twenty one (21) mobile wireless telecommunication services providers, about fifteen thousand (15,000) Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) spreads across the country, and also One Hundred and seventeen million lines actively connected[1]. There is growing concern among Nigerians about the possible health hazard of electromagnetic waves radiation from the BTS and the mobile handsets. This study focuses on measurement of Electromagnetic waves Radiation (w/m2) radiated from Base Transceiver Stations (BTS). These measurements were carried out using handheld Spectrum Analyzer. Maximum radiation values were measured from (BTS) of the selected sites in Kaduna and the results were compared with the standard provided by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, (ICNIRP, 1998) and a good agreement was obtained.
    Keywords: Electromagnetic waves Radiation, Measurement, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), exposure limit, BTS, received power, Spectrum Analyzer
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ahmad Aminu, Danladi Agadi Tonga, Engr. Yahaya H. Abubakar, Zakariyya Hassan Abdullahi },
    title = {Measurement of Electromagnetic Waves Radiated from Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) for Assessing Exposure Limit in Kaduna State},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {28-34},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27129
    Paper Title :: The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Radiofrequency Dielectric Dispersion Properties Of Bovine Blood.
    Author Name :: Prof.E.H Agba || Dr.T Sombo || Dr.T.A Ige
    Page Number :: 35-38
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0381035038

    The influence of gamma irradiation on the beta dispersion properties of bovine blood has been investigated. The dielectric permittivity, a. c conductivity, relaxation time and spread parameter were determined in the frequency range 0.5MHz to 50.0MHz using gamma irradiation facility (GS 1000), Boonton (7200) impedance meter, Dielectric cell and Signal Generator ( SG 4160). The irradiation doses ranged from 0 Gy to 85 Gy. The result of the investigation revealed that the damage done to the irradiated blood samples increased with gamma irradiation dose.

    KEYWORDS: Beta- dispersion, Blood, Gamma radiation, Relaxation time and permittivity.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prof.E.H Agba, Dr.T Sombo, Dr.T.A Ige},
    title = {The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Radiofrequency Dielectric Dispersion Properties Of Bovine Blood.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {35-38},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37069
    Paper Title :: Stress of Environmental Pollution on Zooplanktons and theirComparative Studies in Dal Lake, Wular lake Ancharlake and Manasbal Lake, inSrinagar, Kashmir.
    Author Name :: Urfan Ali
    Page Number :: 39-44
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0381039044

    Comparison of Zooplanktons at the selected sites of Dal Lake, Wular lake, Anchar lake and Manasbal lake were carried out (July 2000 to Aug 2002 and March 2013 to Apr 2014) to find the changes in the water quality over the years. For physico-chemical analysis of water, sampling was done once in a month and samples were collected from both surface and bottom of the Lake in polyethylene bottles of 1 L capacity from pre-selected sites with the help of Ruttner type water sampler. The water temperature in general ranged from 4-27oC respectively with usual trend maximum in summer and minimum in winter. The pH values fluctuated between 7.1 and 9.3 respectively indicating the Lakes to be on alkaline side. A total of 40 taxa of Zooplankton were recorded during both the periods of study. Previous studies were carried out from July 2000 to Aug 2002, a total of 27 rotifer and 13 crustaceans and from March 2013 to Apr 2014, 8 rotifer and 5 crustacean taxa were recorded respectively. Due to anthropogenic activities the number of zooplanktons has been decreased from last decade in said lakes.

    KEYWORDS:Zooplankton, Dal Lake, Wular lake, Anchar lake and Manasballake , water quality, physico-chemical analysis, rotifer, crustaceans.anthropogenic.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Urfan Ali},
    title = {Stress of Environmental Pollution on Zooplanktons and theirComparative Studies in Dal Lake, Wular lake Ancharlake and Manasbal Lake, inSrinagar, Kashmir.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {39-44},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37066
    Paper Title :: Single Channel Speech De-noising Using Kernel Independent Component Analysis (KICA)
    Author Name :: Miss.Kamble Madhu || Prof. S.L.Sahare
    Page Number :: 45-50
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0381045050

    In this paper, a single channel speech De-noising algorithm is proposed by adding a noisy signal to the observed signal for single channel De-noising using independent component analysis and further the signals are separated. We illustrate Simulation result gives us better De-noising using ICA.

    KEYWORDS: Independent component analysis, Framing, de-framing, Blind source separation.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Miss.Kamble Madhu, Prof. S.L.Sahare},
    title = {Single Channel Speech De-noising Using Kernel Independent Component Analysis (KICA)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {45-50},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37061
    Paper Title :: Health Data Share Service System using REST
    Author Name :: Chandrashekar Bemagoni ||Suresh Babu Kare
    Page Number :: 51-56
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0381051056

    As the technology advanced still we are facing problem in health issues. Mainlywe are facing difficulties in finding a suitable hospital for particular diseases. We need some health tips to maintain our body healthy. We need aware all health treatments. We have to know where and when health camps conducted by government and other organization. We have to know what kind health facility available in hospitals. Weshould knowthe availability of doctors. Complaints from different sources (people, experts). So to solve all of these problems, in this paper, we are mentioning issues facing in the health industry and providing a solution to it.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Chandrashekar Bemagoni, Suresh Babu Kare},
    title = {Health Data Share Service System using REST},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {51-56},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37019
    Paper Title :: Quantum Analysis of Viscosity Coefficient of Multi-Components Liquid Mixtures
    Author Name :: Dikko A. B. || De D. K. || Alkasim A. || Ahmed A. D.
    Page Number :: 57-59
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0381057059

    A liquid mixture viscosity as a function of composition is extremely complex. Theoretical considerations have offered little help in explaining these complexities. Attempts made so far to derive a generalized expression for viscosities of all mixtures resulted in equations with many undetermined constants, and no method allows a reliable prior prediction of these constants. These methods, therefore, are purely descriptive. In this paper, we made an attempt to analyse the viscosity of liquid mixtures employing Schrödinger equation. We came up with a model...

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dikko A. B., De D. K., Alkasim A., Ahmed A. D.},
    title = {Quantum Analysis of Viscosity Coefficient of Multi-Components Liquid
    Mixtures},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {57-59},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35183
    Paper Title :: Present (2014) geochemical and microbial trends of underground water affected by 2012 flooding in nigeria- a case study of oguta area –Niger delta basin of southern Nigeria
    Author Name :: Onunkwo, A. A || Ibeneme S.I || Obioha Y.E
    Page Number :: 60-64
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0381060064

    The study involves the present trends (2014) of Geochemical and microbial parameters of underground water of the areas affected by 2012 flooding in Nigeria with Oguta Areas of Niger Delta Basin of Southern Nigeria as a case study. The work started with the collection of underground water from springs, hand dug wells and water boreholes. Six (6) underground water samples were collected. This involved the examination of the quantity and quality of such parameters as anions, cations and bacterial contents. The equipments used are atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame photometer, ph meter, speaker absorption meter, glass fibre filter, turbimetric and titrimetric methods. Bacterial estimations involved M.P.N technique...

    KEYWORDS: Geochemistry, Nigeria, underground water, flooding, pollution.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Onunkwo, A. A || Ibeneme S.I || Obioha Y.E},
    title = {Present (2014) geochemical and microbial trends of underground water affected by 2012 flooding in nigeria- a case study of oguta area –Niger delta basin of southern Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {60-64},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 33029
    Paper Title :: On Communicative Competence and Students' Performance in English Language
    Author Name :: Opoola B.T || Fatiloro, Oluwayemisi Florence
    Page Number :: 65-68
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0381065068

    Many Nigerian English as L2 students particularly in secondary schools are still finding it difficult to effectively communicate using English as viable medium. Spoken and written texts in English of most students are of no enviable standard. The necessary knowledge in English appears lacking due to absence of sound oral and written drilling in English. This paper therefore, focuses attention on exposition of students to basic communicative competence in English using comparative and pedagogical approaches. The linguistics features of students‟ mother tongues in terms of phonetics and phonological systems as well as syntactic structures are compared with those of English. Thorough drilling in the identical similar and different speech sounds of the students‟ mother tongue and English assisted in no small way in fortifying the students‟ communicative competency in English. This paper supports the notion that any competent user of a language should demonstrate accuracy of the grammatical and vocabulary aspects and also use such linguistic knowledge appropriately. To achieve this, the paper recommends among other things, communicative approach to teaching of English language which enables learners to understand and use utterances rightly in different contexts; also that learners should be exposed to consonant and vowel sounds which are absent from their mother tongues (MT) and also mentions the need for the teacher to drill the taught in extensive reading.

    KEYWORDS: communicative competence, performance, English Language

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Opoola B.T, Fatiloro, Oluwayemisi Florence},
    title = {On Communicative Competence and Students' Performance in English Language},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {65-68},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 08|| Version II || August 2014
    Paper Id :: 37049
    Paper Title :: An Experimental Study of Low Velocity Impact (Lvi) On Fibre Glass Reinforced Polymer (Fgrp)
    Author Name :: S.N.A. Safri||T.Y. Chan||M.T.H. Sultan
    Page Number :: 01-10
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/038201010
    This paper investigates the low velocity impact load and absorbed energy corresponding to the incident impact level of Type C-glass/Epoxy 600 g/m² and Type E-glass/Epoxy 800 g/m² composites. A number of low velocity impact test were performed under various incident impact energies ranging from approximately 5 to 20 J using a drop weight impact tester. Results showed that peak impact load and peak energy increase with an increase in incident impact energy. The absorbed energy increases with an increase in incident impact energy. 10-ply Type E-glass/Epoxy 800 g/m² has a higher impact resistance compared to 10-ply Type C-glass/Epoxy 600 g/m². Therefore, Type E-glass/Epoxy 800 g/m² is recommended as the material for low velocity impact.
    Keywords:Drop Weight Test, Fibre Glass Reinforced Polymer (FGRP), Low velocity Impact (LVI), Impact Damage, Non-destructive Testing (NDT).
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S.N.A. Safri, T.Y. Chan, M.T.H. Sultan},
    title = {A Comparative Study on the Properties of Al-7% Si-Rice Husk Ash and Al-7% Si-Bagasse Ash Composites Produced by Stir Casting},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {01-10},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 37052
    Paper Title :: The Study of Impact Damage on C-Type and E-Type of Fibreglass Subjected To Low Velocity Impact
    Author Name :: N. Razali|| S.S. Sazali || M.T.H. Sultan
    Page Number :: 11-25
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0382011025

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the low-velocity impact on Fibreglass C-type and E-type of 600 g/m2. The aim of this research is to investigate the dynamic response of composite glass fibre under low velocity impact energy, as well as to analyse the impact damages of composite glass fibre structures and analyze the experimental data from impact testing. Specimens from C-type and E- type fibreglass fabricated in 10 layers with size 150 mm x 100 mm, were subjected to low-velocity impact with circular steel impactor at various energy levels from 10 J to 40 J. This experiment was to examine the impact force, impact energy, impact resistance, penetration behaviour and effect of low impact loading corresponding to different energy and velocity of impact.

    Keywords: low-velocity impact, impact force, impact energy, energy absorbed

    @article{key:article,
    author = {N. Razali, S.S. Sazali, M.T.H. Sultan1},
    title = {Analysis of Performance of Jack Hammer to Determine the
    Penetration Rate on Different Rocks},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {11-25},
    month = {August}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37075
    Paper Title :: μ-RANGE, λ-RANGE OF OPERATORS ON A HILBERT SPACE
    Author Name :: Dr. S. K. Singh|| Dr. Gyan Mukherjee|| Dr.Mahendra Kumar Roy
    Page Number :: 26-35
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0382026035

    We have introduced a new type of operator called "Trijection Operator" on a linear space. It is a generalization of projection. We study trijection in case of a Hilbert space. Further we decompose range of a trijection into two disjoint sub-spaces called μ-range and λ- range and study their properties.

    KEYWORDS : Operator, Projection, Trijection Operator, Hilbert space, μ-range and λ- range.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. S. K. Singh, Dr. Gyan Mukherjee, Dr.Mahendra Kumar Roy},
    title = {μ-RANGE, λ-RANGE OF OPERATORS ON A HILBERT SPACE},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {26-35},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37074
    Paper Title :: Development of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Using Stir Casting Method
    Author Name :: M.A. Hassan ||T.C. Ofor||A.M. Usman ||N.Y. Godi
    Page Number :: 36-39
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0382036039

    Aluminium Metal Matrix composites were developed using AL6063 as matrix material and varying % by weight of silicon carbide particulate as reinforcement. AL6063 ingot was melted in an electric furnace, an appropriate quantity of the reinforcement (between 10% and 50% at 10% intervals) was introduced and, using the method of stir casting, the homogeneous mixture obtained were cast in to cylindrical blanks which were further machined to produce appropriate test samples. The samples were tested for tensile, compressive and impact strengths as well as for hardness. Mechanical properties test results indicated improvement, on reinforcement introduction, of up to 48%, 43% and 79% in the values of tensile, compressive, and impact strengths and an improvement of up to 42% in hardness when compared with the respective values for the composites with 0% reinforcement. Tensile strength values from 131.23MPa to 194.60MPa, Compressive strength from 103.70MPa to 167.15MPa, impact strength from 140.09KJm-2 to 250.37KJm-2 and Hardness from 39.78BHN to 56.46BHN were obtained. Micrographic tests revealed equal distribution of reinforcement material at the metal matrix boundaries. The research showed that composites produced by introducing SiC particulate into AL6063 alloy possess superior mechanical and metallurgical properties compared to AL6063; the composite produced can be used in automobile and aerospace industries.

    Keywords: Al6063 Alloy, Mechanical Properties, Metal Matrix composite, Silicon Carbide

    @article{key:article,
    author = {M.A. Hassan, T.C. Ofor, A.M. Usman ,4N.Y. Godi},
    title = { Development of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Using Stir Casting Method},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {36-39},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37068
    Paper Title :: Effects of Sawdust and Rice Husk Additives on Properties of Local Refractory Clay
    Author Name :: M.A. Hassan|| A.M. Yami|| A.Raji|| M.J. Ngala
    Page Number :: 40-44
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0382040044
    The effect of the addition of Sawdust and Rice husk to refractory clay on its properties was investigated. The clay sample was first analyzed to determine its chemical and physical properties. It was then thoroughly mixed with Sawdust and Rice husk separately and standard fireclay brick specimens prepared. They were then tested for properties such as refractoriness, fired shrinkage, apparent porosity and thermal shock resistance. Physical property test results showed that refractoriness reduced from 1300C to 1200C on addition of both Sawdust and Rice husk as additives; shrinkage reduced from 3.89% to 3% on introduction of additives while thermal shock resistance of samples with additives are ten times better; porosity of the sample with Rice husk additive is 36.74%, that of the sample with Sawdust was 45.34% as compared with that of the sample without any additive which was 27.15%. bulk density reduced from 1.98g/cm3 to 1.59g/cm3 and 1.52g/cm3 on addition of Sawdust and Rice husk respectively. Chemical composition tests showed a decrease in silica content from 62% to 54% on addition of additives; alumina content reduced 20% to 12% while iron oxide content increased from 7.58% to 8.38 and 7.99% on the respective addition of Sawdust and Rice husk to the clay material.
    KEYWORDS - additive, porosity, fired shrinkage, refractoriness, insulation, brick.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {M.A. Hassan, A.M. Yami, A.Raji, M.J. Ngala },
    title = {Effects of Sawdust and Rice Husk Additives on Properties of Local Refractory Clay},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {40-44},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38009
    Paper Title :: Bail Decision Support System
    Author Name :: Onyeka Uche Ofili
    Page Number :: 45-66
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0382045066

    This paper is an improvement on previous work especially the work done by Patricia Hassett It has a more expended scope and suggests new technological tools and designs for the bail decision support system. It adapts lessons from effort made in decision support systems for the sentencing domain. And it incorporates new technological developments such as the neural network into the design of a comprehensive decision support system for the bail domain. The end result is a robust and novel bail decision support system design, with detailed systems and user requirements. The decision support system as proposed in this paper should be built on open architecture, should be easily upgradeable, should have a simple interface, built on web technology and easy to use

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Onyeka Uche Ofili},
    title = {Bail Decision Support System.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {45-66},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37080
    Paper Title :: Design of a Digital Baseband Processor for UWB Transceiver on RFID Tag
    Author Name :: G.Sri Naga Chaitanya.|| R.S.Harishraghav.
    Page Number :: 67-76
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0382067076

    This paper shows a novel digital baseband processor designed for UWB Transceiver on RFID tag which reduces the complexity, area and power consumption of the baseband processor. Furthermore, several strategies of reducing the power has explored during the design, so the final power consumption of the baseband processor basically fulfils the ultra low power requirements of the UWB Transceiver.

    KEYWORDS: - UWB Transceiver, RFID tag, digital baseband processor.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {G.Sri Naga Chaitanya, R.S.Harishraghav},
    title = {Design of a Digital Baseband Processor for UWB Transceiver on RFID Tag.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {67-76},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36006
    Paper Title :: Comparative Analysis on Sodium-Based and Polyethylene-Based Greases as Anti-Friction Agents
    Author Name :: Iheme, C.; || Chukwuma, F.O|| Offurum, J.C.
    Page Number :: 77-83
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0382077083

    The activities of greases have been well utilized for regular lubrication purposes, as well as in friction control in machineries. These have, over the years, led to the increased demand for the product, which in turn have opened ways of livelihood to many. But the more attractive this business becomes to the dealers, the more sub-standard products fill up the market, especially in our localities. Many users of the products, thus, resorted to patronizing importers of these products, who deal mainly on Sodium-based greases that are after all not the best (in spite of their cost). The present study tends to draw attention to an alternative 'friction controller' – the Polyethylene Grease (otherwise called Copolymer greases) through a concise comparative analysis with the commonly used Sodium-based grease. The study samples were normally formulated by dispersion of low-density polyethylene in base oil at varying capacities, through saponification, evaporation, milling (homogenization) and filtration of the dispersed thickener in the base oil; Polypropylene was used as an additive to enhance the binding property of the product. A blend of the two grease samples (Sodium and Copolymer) was also obtained at the ratio of 1:3. Results of analysis conducted on the products showed that the Sodium-based grease has a higher dropping point (120-190oC) when compared with the Polyethylene and the blended greases, whose dropping points both fall between 120 – 185oC. The worked penetration for Polyethylene grease was found to be 280-340, while that of the Blended and Sodium are 275-340 and 230-340 respectively. Also, the copolymer grease appeared smooth and soft, while the Sodium grease appeared buttery and fibrous. However, it was demonstrated that the Copolymer grease is of better grade than the Sodium-based grease, and would resist water penetration very readily as well.

    Keywords: Comparative Analysis, Sodium-based, Polyethylene-based, Grease..

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Iheme, C.; Chukwuma, F.O; Offurum, J.C.},
    title = {Comparative Analysis on Sodium-Based and Polyethylene-Based Greases as Anti-Friction Agents},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {77-83},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37079
    Paper Title :: Advanced Embedded Automatic Car Parking System
    Author Name :: R.S.Harishraghav. || G.Sri Naga Chaitanya
    Page Number :: 84-92
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0382084092

    The objective of paper is to develop a system to indicate the vacant lane. The paper involves a system including infrared transmitter and receiver in every lane and a LED display outside the car parking gate. By using this system these people can automatically know which lane is vacant for parking the car. This paper shows the using of two lanes and each lane consists two slots .At the entrance of each slot IR transmitter and receiver pair is arranged for identifying the vacancy of the vehicle. 5V, 500mA regulated power supply, 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Full wave bridge rectifier is used to rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.

    Key Words : LED, IR transmitter, Full wave bridge rectifier

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Chandrashekar Bemagoni, Suresh Babu Kare},
    title = {R.S.Harishraghav. 2,G.Sri Naga Chaitanya.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {84-92},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 08|| Version III || August 2014
    Paper Id :: 37037
    Paper Title :: Overall Equipment Effectiveness Improvement: A Case of injection molding machine
    Author Name :: Mr. Lalit D. Gabahne||Dr. Mahendra M. Gupta||Mr. D.R. Zanwar
    Page Number :: 01-10
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/038301010
    In the generation of agile manufacturing, the machines and its functions are also becoming complex. OEE of a machine plays an important role in present scenario where delivery and quality are of prime importance to customer. The aim is to illustrate the use of SMED tools, TPM and 5S techniques by discussing a novel case study dedicated to the improvement of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). Initially the machine history was analysed which helped in finding the bottleneck machine. The OEE was found to be 62% in the identified bottleneck machine. Further, a TPM team was formed to devise a systematic approach to improve the effectiveness. The project has been addressed in three aspects; namely Availability, Performance and Quality which quantify OEE of a machine. The case study was conducted in M/s Narke Electricals Pvt. Limited, B6, MIDC Hingna, Nagpur. The company which produces injection molded parts in plastic using several presses. A 200 ton Injection Moulding machines had a low OEE with a large variability. This led to the company not satisfying a customer in terms of on-time delivery performance. The large variability OEE led to high costs in terms of work-in-process and re-inspections of the products. Following a Single Minute Exchange of Die, defined the set-up times and Root Cause Analysis to find the reasons for short stoppages. Thus, adding to the objective of OEE improvement as a result. The result obtained from the TPM approach showed that the OEE was improved from 62% to 67% which indicated the desirable level in all manufacturing industry. To sum up, total saving per annum due to increased effectiveness was around Rs.2,04,000.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mr. Lalit D. Gabahne ,Dr. Mahendra M. Gupta ,Mr. D.R. Zanwar},
    title = {Overall Equipment Effectiveness Improvement: A Case of injection molding machine},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {01-10},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 37054
    Paper Title :: Preliminary Field Measurement of the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Migmatite Using N - type Schmidt Rebound Hammer
    Author Name :: Odediran, O. Ayorinde || Bassagi Mopa
    Page Number :: 11-17
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0383011017

    N-type Schmidt rebound hammer data were collected from a low lying Migmatite outcrop in Ilorin. The data were collected with the view to ascertaining the suitability of Schmidt rebound hammer for a quick, cheap and less cumbersome estimation of the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Migmatite. This is important because of the ubiquitous and wide application of Migmamite in Nigeria, especially for construction purposes. The data collection was strictly carried out according to ASTM standard. Nine empirical models suggested by previous workers were used to analyse the data collected. Five of the used models having a range of 75.82MPa – 98.82MPa reasonably predict the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Migmatite in comparison with published data. The three other models with a range of 11.16MPA – 47.27MPa on the contrary, significantly underestimate the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Migmatite. The results show a strength classification of Migmatite and also affirm the possibility of a quick, cheap and easy field determination of the uniaxial compressive strength of Migmatite.

    Keywords:Migmatite, Uniaxial compressive strength, Rebound hammer, Empirical model

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Odediran, O. Ayorinde, Bassagi Mopa},
    title = {Preliminary Field Measurement of the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Migmatite Using N - type Schmidt Rebound Hammer},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {11-17},
    month = {August}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37070
    Paper Title :: Performance Analysis of Dispersion Compensation in Long Haul Optical Fiber using DCF
    Author Name :: Parul Singh|| Rekha Chahar
    Page Number :: 18-22
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0383018022

    In this paper, We investigate post, pre and symmetrical/mix dispersion compensation methods for 40 Gb/s non-return to zero (NRZ) link using standard and dispersion compensated fiber through FBG compensator to optimize high data rate optical transmission. The influence of dispersion of FBG compensator and increases in the power of CW laser has been studied to evaluate the performance of optical communication systems. The simulation model of the WDM based on the Optisystem 12.0 is presented according to the above principle. The simulation results are validated by analyzing the Q-factor and bit error rate (BER) in the numerical simulator. It is found that post compensation performance is good and the input fiber power is taken as 5 to 10dB, the corresponding BER performance is better.

    KEYWORDS : Dispersion compensation, optical communication DCF, Q-factor, simulation.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Parul Singh,, Rekha Chahar},
    title = {Performance Analysis of Dispersion Compensation in Long Haul Optical Fiber using DCF},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {18-22},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37063
    Paper Title :: Shellfish shell as a Bio-filler: Preparation, characterization and its effect on the mechanical properties on glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites
    Author Name :: Lawrence J Fernandes || Vinay B U || Kiran Prakasha A|| Pavitra Ajagol
    Page Number :: 23-26
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0383023026

    In this study, waste shellfish shell (SS) are used as bio filler, which is having a significant odor and, having its high content of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The particles of shellfish shell (SS) was prepared from the sea shellfish shell by crushing, grinding and shearing emulsification. Shellfish shell (SS) filler was introduced on glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. The different volume percentage of SS filler in polymer such as 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% are used. E-glass reinforced epoxy matrix filled with SSp is fabricated by using hand lay-up technique. The attempt has been made in this work to study the mechanical properties like ultimate tensile strength, flexural strength and hardness of the fabricated composites.

    Keywords:E-glass fiber (GF), epoxy, mechanical properties, shellfish shell particulates (SSp).

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Lawrence J Fernandes , Vinay B U , Kiran Prakasha A ,Pavitra Ajagol},
    title = { Shellfish shell as a Bio-filler: Preparation, characterization and its effect on the mechanical properties on glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {23-26},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38006
    Paper Title :: Experimental assessment of bitumen coat-resistance to impact strength corrosion deterioration of low carbon steel using shewart charts
    Author Name :: T.N. Guma || S.Y. Aku || D.S. Yawas|| M. Dauda
    Page Number :: 27-34
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0383027034
    Maximum information on the performance of a production or an experimental process can be obtained by employing statistical methods. A study of various coat-resistance levels to corrosion deterioration of mechanical properties of low carbon steel by some bitumen from Nigerian resources has previously been undertaken through parallel experimental processes. The purpose of this paper is to present an assessment of overall levels of variation in such processes through inferences drawn from impact strength using proper data size and the charts as a case study. 78 ASTM impact specimens were similarly prepared from procured rods of the steel and three clear bitumen samples harvested at different critical resource sites in Nigeria for the study. Three of the specimens as a set were each bath-dip-coated to a working thickness of 0.81mm with a separate bitumen sample and the level of the coating's resistance to corrosion deterioration of impact fracture strength of the specimens determined through the same experimental process. This was repeated at different times with each of the remaining sets. The overall appropriately obtained information was tabulated and analyzed using the charts. The analysis indicated that the quality of the harvested bitumen samples and their corrosion coat protection levels of the steel strength and the overall as-conducted experimental process were in statistical quality control.
    KEYWORDS -Low carbon steel, mechanical properties, deterioration, Nigerian bitumen, protection levels, process, variation, acceptability.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {T.N. Guma, S.Y. Aku, D.S. Yawas, M. Dauda},
    title = {Experimental assessment of bitumen coat-resistance to impact strength corrosion deterioration of low carbon steel using shewart charts},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {27-34},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38011
    Paper Title :: Sources of Financing Shopping Centers in Lagos Metropolis
    Author Name :: Rotimi. B. Abidoye
    Page Number :: 35-39
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0383035039

    The financing of any real estate project has never been an easy task for both individual and institutional developers/investors. In Nigeria financing the development of shopping centers is not an exception because it also requires huge capital to develop like other types of real estate developments. Various sources of shopping center development financing like Condominiumization of shopping centers, finance by trade credit, financing with equity fund, financing through REITs, financing through loan from commercial banks or pension fund administrators, finance by other financial institutions etc were evaluated. Questionnaires were administered on developers of shopping centers in Lagos Metropolis and the data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and presented using descriptive statistical tools (percentile tables). Findings shows that most of the developers used equity fund to finance the development of their shopping centers and most of them are not aware of REITs which is a good source of financing retail properties as it is been practiced in most developed countries. The study recommends that government should create an enabling environment for foreign retail investors to come and invest in Nigeria, retail developers should come together to form an association that will be aimed at assisting members and also they should look into how funds from REITs can be harnessed for retail development.

    Keywords: Lagos Metropolis, retail development finance and shopping centers.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rotimi. B. Abidoye},
    title = {Sources of Financing Shopping Centers in Lagos Metropolis},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {35-39},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38012
    Paper Title :: Development and Quality Evaluation of Unripe Banana Based Sev
    Author Name :: Nishu Mallick || Aditya Lal || Ashwani Kumar Gautam||Nayansi
    Page Number :: 40-44
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0383040044

    The study was conducted to develop Unripe banana pulp based Sev by substituting chickpea flour up to 40 per cent and to examine the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics with respect to storage period. The amount of salt, chilli powder, ajwain and hydrogenated vegetable fat in the formulation should be added at the rate of 2,1,1 and 3 per cent respectively. The fat content of the green banana pulp based Sev was 12.06 per cent less as compared to the control Sev. This is an interesting feature as Sev is basically a fat rich food but the fat content can be reduced by the substitution of chickpea flour with unripe banana. Reduction in fat absorption was because of presence of more Resistant Starch and very less sugar. Resistant starch is shown to improve eating qualities because of its increased expansion, enhanced crispiness and reduced oil pick up in deep fried foods. So, those suffering from Diabetes and Heart diseases can also able to consume this snack. The findings show that by substituting chickpea flour with 40 per cent unripe banana pulp was most suitable and the cost can be reduced by16.24 percent.

    KEYWORDS: - Chickpea flour, Fat, Resistant Starch, Sev, Unripe banana.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nishu Mallick, Aditya Lal, Ashwani Kumar Gautam, Nayansi},
    title = {Development and Quality Evaluation of Unripe Banana Based Sev},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {40-44},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38014
    Paper Title :: Diversity of Fisheries Resources and Fishing Gear Ownerships on Fishing Capture at Surabaya Coastal Waters Indonesia
    Author Name :: Hari Subagio || Supriyatno Widagdo
    Page Number :: 45-51
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0383045051

    Surabaya is a coastal town where some community works as fishermen. Sustainability of fishing activities require good fisheries management efforts. The aim of the study was to describe preparation of fishery resources and diversity of ownership in fishing gear. This study uses survey respondents chairman and member of the group of local fishermen in nine coastal districts of Surabaya. The results showed that type of fishery resources are exploited by fishermen are a small pelagic and bottom fish, crustaceans, bivalves, holothurians, cephalopods, gastropods, and arthropods. Overall fishery resources which have important economic value consists of sixty species. Production volume in 2013 was as much as 9095.68 tons. From the analysis of twenty types of fisheries resources that dominate the catch, and represents 90.64% of total production volume, indicating that the volume of the catch of fishermen during the year was dominated by the criteria of total catches ranging from 5-15 kg/crew/trip. The diversity of resource stocks over a period of one year showed a significance between different months. The diversity of different dosage consequences that fishermen should have more than one type of fishing gear, so that fishermen can still take advantage of the resources throughout the year

    Keywords: Fisheries resources, Ownership of fishing gears, Coastal waters, Surabaya,

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Hari Subagio , Supriyatno Widagdo},
    title = {Diversity of Fisheries Resources and Fishing Gear Ownerships on Fishing Capture at Surabaya Coastal Waters Indonesia},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {45-51},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37022
    Paper Title :: The Status of Agricultural Equipment Fabrication Industry in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Isinkaye, O D || Omotayo k F
    Page Number :: 52-58
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0383052058

    The objective of paper is to develop a system to indicate the vacant lane. The paper involves a system including infrared transmitter and receiver in every lane and a LED display outside the car parking gate. By using this system these people can automatically know which lane is vacant for parking the car. This paper shows the using of two lanes and each lane consists two slots .At the entrance of each slot IR transmitter and receiver pair is arranged for identifying the vacancy of the vehicle. 5V, 500mA regulated power supply, 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Full wave bridge rectifier is used to rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.

    Key Words : LED, IR transmitter, Full wave bridge rectifier

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Isinkaye, O D, Omotayo k F},
    title = {The Status of Agricultural Equipment Fabrication Industry in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {52-58},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 08|| Version IV || August 2014
    Paper Id :: 38025
    Paper Title :: Development of a Modified Rational Model for Flood Risk Assessment of Imo State, Nigeria Using Gis and Rs
    Author Name :: OKORO B. C.|| IBE O.P.|| EKELEME A. C
    Page Number :: 01-08
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03840108

    The financing of any real estate project has never been an easy task for both individual and institutional developers/investors. In Nigeria financing the development of shopping centers is not an exception because it also requires huge capital to develop like other types of real estate developments. Various sources of shopping center development financing like Condominiumization of shopping centers, finance by trade credit, financing with equity fund, financing through REITs, financing through loan from commercial banks or pension fund administrators, finance by other financial institutions etc were evaluated. Questionnaires were administered on developers of shopping centers in Lagos Metropolis and the data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and presented using descriptive statistical tools (percentile tables). Findings shows that most of the developers used equity fund to finance the development of their shopping centers and most of them are not aware of REITs which is a good source of financing retail properties as it is been practiced in most developed countries. The study recommends that government should create an enabling environment for foreign retail investors to come and invest in Nigeria, retail developers should come together to form an association that will be aimed at assisting members and also they should look into how funds from REITs can be harnessed for retail development.

    Keywords: Lagos Metropolis, retail development finance and shopping centers.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {OKORO B. C., IBE O.P. , EKELEME A. C},
    title = {Development of a Modified Rational Model for Flood Risk Assessment of Imo State, Nigeria Using Gis and Rs},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {01-08},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38020
    Paper Title :: Experimental Study On Rice Husk As Fine Aggregates In Concrete
    Author Name :: Obilade, I.O.
    Page Number :: 09-14
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/038409014

    The study was conducted to develop Unripe banana pulp based Sev by substituting chickpea flour up to 40 per cent and to examine the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics with respect to storage period. The amount of salt, chilli powder, ajwain and hydrogenated vegetable fat in the formulation should be added at the rate of 2,1,1 and 3 per cent respectively. The fat content of the green banana pulp based Sev was 12.06 per cent less as compared to the control Sev. This is an interesting feature as Sev is basically a fat rich food but the fat content can be reduced by the substitution of chickpea flour with unripe banana. Reduction in fat absorption was because of presence of more Resistant Starch and very less sugar. Resistant starch is shown to improve eating qualities because of its increased expansion, enhanced crispiness and reduced oil pick up in deep fried foods. So, those suffering from Diabetes and Heart diseases can also able to consume this snack. The findings show that by substituting chickpea flour with 40 per cent unripe banana pulp was most suitable and the cost can be reduced by16.24 percent.

    KEYWORDS: - Chickpea flour, Fat, Resistant Starch, Sev, Unripe banana.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Obilade, I.O.},
    title = {Experimental Study On Rice Husk As Fine Aggregates In Concrete},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {09-14},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36106
    Paper Title :: Comparative Analysis of low area and low power D Flip-Flop for Different Logic Values
    Author Name :: Nitin Kumar Singh Chauhan || Anshul Jain
    Page Number :: 15-19
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0384015019

    Surabaya is a coastal town where some community works as fishermen. Sustainability of fishing activities require good fisheries management efforts. The aim of the study was to describe preparation of fishery resources and diversity of ownership in fishing gear. This study uses survey respondents chairman and member of the group of local fishermen in nine coastal districts of Surabaya. The results showed that type of fishery resources are exploited by fishermen are a small pelagic and bottom fish, crustaceans, bivalves, holothurians, cephalopods, gastropods, and arthropods. Overall fishery resources which have important economic value consists of sixty species. Production volume in 2013 was as much as 9095.68 tons. From the analysis of twenty types of fisheries resources that dominate the catch, and represents 90.64% of total production volume, indicating that the volume of the catch of fishermen during the year was dominated by the criteria of total catches ranging from 5-15 kg/crew/trip. The diversity of resource stocks over a period of one year showed a significance between different months. The diversity of different dosage consequences that fishermen should have more than one type of fishing gear, so that fishermen can still take advantage of the resources throughout the year

    Keywords: Fisheries resources, Ownership of fishing gears, Coastal waters, Surabaya,

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nitin Kumar Singh Chauhan , Anshul Jain},
    title = {Comparative Analysis of low area and low power D Flip-Flop for Different Logic Values},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {15-19},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24084
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of Rubber Seed Oil as Foundry Sand-Core Binder in Castings
    Author Name :: Akor, Terngu
    Page Number :: 20-28
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0384020028

    Amongst oils of Marine, Mineral and Vegetable origins; consumable vegetable oils are the most widely applied in the foundry industry as binders. Their supply is however limited due to competing demands by food and cosmetic industries. A search into the use of non-consumable sources of vegetable oils as core oil for use in casting technology is therefore a necessity. Rubber seed oil was evaluated as core binder in foundry sand, consisting of a mixture of cassava starch; water and silica. An optimum baked strength of 1829kN/m2 was achieved in a mixture consisting of 3% Rubber seed oil, 7% water 0.5%cassava starch and 89.5% sand.

    Key Words : Backed strength; iodine value; cores.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Akor, Terngu},
    title = {Evaluation of Rubber Seed Oil as Foundry Sand-Core Binder in Castings},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {20-28},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38046
    Paper Title :: Propulsion Selection and Analysis for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for SAE Aero Design Series
    Author Name :: Akshay Balachandran || Akshay Shah || Dr Jayaramulu Challa
    Page Number :: 29-35
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0384029035

    Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) conducts 'Aero Design Series' competition annually in the United States of America (USA). This paper explains and details about Propellers and the significance of selecting the optimum one for the respective unmanned aerial vehicle. The propellers were selected on the techniques of methods based on the efficiency of thrust produced. In order to produce the maximum amount of thrust, the study of individual and interactional results of the propellers based on engine and muffler attachments. The major criteria for selection of the propellers were based on noise, downwash, torque and revolution per minute characteristics. The system defined in this paper, is cost effective and rugged. This system can be implemented for various types of UAVs and provides the perfect fit in terms of effective lift, least downwash and ideal stability.

    Key Words : Aero, Propellers, Thrust, SAE, Engine, Muffler

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Akshay Balachandran, Akshay Shah, Dr Jayaramulu Challa},
    title = {Propulsion Selection and Analysis for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for SAE Aero Design Series},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {29-35},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212004
    Paper Title :: Soil fertility improvement by Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A Gray and its effect on cassava performance and yield
    Author Name :: Kolawole. O. K || Awodun, M. A|| Ojeniyi, S. O
    Page Number :: 36-43
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0384036043

    The effects of Mexican sunflower residue mulch on soil properties, growth and tuber yield of cassava were investigated and compared in a research conducted at the Federal College of Agriculture (FECA) and Aule in Akure South Local Government area of Ondo State Nigeria. The mulch was applied at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20tha-1 and the replicated three times. In the tested soils which were sandy loam, soils were deficient in available P but adequate in soil organic matter, N, K, Ca and Mg. The pH was moderate. Soli organic matter, available P and exchangeable K and number of leaves were found to increase with mulch rate up to 20tha-1. Soil temperature was reduced accordingly. Mulch increase cassava establishment and tuber weight significantly (at P>0.005). The 10tha-1 mulch gave highest tuber weight and increased tuber weight by 20% thus 10tha-1 is recommended

    Key Words : Mexican sunflower, soil properties, soil temperature, establishment, tuber weight.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kolawole. O. K, Awodun, M. A and Ojeniyi, S. O},
    title = {Soil fertility improvement by Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A Gray and its effect on cassava performance and yield.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {36-43},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38050
    Paper Title :: Disturbance Observer And Optimal Fuzzy Controllers Used In Controlling Force And Torque In High Performance Drilling Process To Minimize The Cutting Time For Ferrous And Non-Ferrous Industrial Materials
    Author Name :: Singh Rajendra , Tiwari Ashuttosh Kr.,Singh Deepak Kr.
    Page Number :: 44-63
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0384044063

    The automation of machining processes requires highly accurate process monitoring. However, the use of additional sensors leads to a significant increase in the cost and reduces the stiffness and reliability of mechanical systems. Hence, we propose a system called the cutting force and torque observer, which uses a sensor-less and real-time cutting force estimation methodology based on the disturbance observer theory. Monitoring methods using the cutting force and torque observer may enhance the productivity during drilling process in which one of the parameters that significantly affect the cutting process is the shear angle. The determination of the shear angle is very important as it can be used for identifying the machining conditions. In this study, an external sensor-less monitoring system of the shear angle during turning is developed, and its performance is evaluated. This paper deals with Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller and optimal fuzzy logic used in a high performance drilling system for controlling the output obtained. The main objective is to obtain a stable, robust and controlled system by tuning, PID controller and fuzzy-control logic using minimization of the incurred value is compared with the traditional tuning techniques is improved better. Hence that drilling process results estimates the tuning in which PID controller using minimization technique gives less overshoot and better control performance with many advantages such as flexibility, and reduced maintenance time and cost. This 49-rule controller is networked and operates on a CNC machine tool. It is optimally tuned using a known maximum allowable delay to deal with uncertainties in the drilling process and delays in the network-based application

    Key Words : Cutting force and torque, monitoring high-performance drilling process, shear angle, disturbance observer and optimal Fuzzy controllers

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Singh Rajendra , Tiwari Ashuttosh Kr. , Singh Deepak Kr.},
    title = {Disturbance Observer And Optimal Fuzzy Controllers Used In Controlling Force And Torque In High Performance Drilling Process To Minimize The Cutting Time For Ferrous And Non-Ferrous Industrial Materials},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {44-63},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38032
    Paper Title :: Multiband Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna for WLAN
    Application
    Author Name :: Jaijit Singh || Sonam Thakur|| Kanchan Sharma
    Page Number :: 64-68
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0384064068

    A compact single layer Microstrip Patch Antenna (MSA) for 3.6 – 15 GHz WLAN applications is presented in this paper. The implementation of proposed technique is commercially performed using available electromagnetic simulators. These simulators are mainly based on the method of finite difference time domain (FDTD) to achieve the desired specifications. The circular patch antenna with optimal co-axial feed is determined and used for 802.11 WLAN applications. The obtained results show stable radiation characteristics in the desired band. The experimented results for BER and power radiation are also presented.

    Key Words : BER ,BW, Co-Axial Feed , CST, Microstrip Patch Antenna (MSA), PEC, WLAN

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jaijit Singh , Sonam Thakur, Kanchan Sharma},
    title = {Multiband Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna for WLAN Application},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {64-68},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38005
    Paper Title :: Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Alloys with SiC Dispersants
    Author Name :: C. E. Njoku||H. Udomon || C. C. Ugwuegbu || J. U. Anaele || U. S. Ikele
    Page Number :: 69-73
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0384069073

    The mechanical properties of annealed Al-SiC composite were investigated. Various percentages of SiC particles were embedded in Al matrix using stir casting to produce the metal-matrix composite. Annealing of the composites was carried out in a muffle furnace at 340oC for 2 hours. The annealed samples were then subjected to various mechanical property tests. The results obtained showed that increasing the percent reinforcement increased the tensile strength and hardness but reduced the ductility.

    Key Words : stir casting, metal-matrix composite, annealing, strength, hardness, ductility

    @article{key:article,
    author = {C. E. Njoku, H. Udomon, C. C. Ugwuegbu, J. U. Anaele, U. S. Ikele},
    title = {Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Alloys with SiC Dispersants},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {69-73},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38049
    Paper Title :: Geotechnical Investigation for Design and Construction of Civil Infrastructures in Parts of Port Harcourt City of Rivers State, Southern Nigeria.
    Author Name :: Ezenwaka, K.C, ||Ugboaja, A ||Ahaneku, C.V || Ede, T.A
    Page Number :: 74-82
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0384074082

    Before construction activities could begin at any site, engineering geological and geotechnical investigations has to be approved in order to determine the safe bearing capacity of the soil materials and recommend suitable foundation for the structure. In this study, geotechnical investigation for the design and construction of civil infrastructures in parts of Port Harcourt city of Rivers State, Nigeria has been carried out. Fourteen samples of sand and clay from different locations within the Afam Clay Member and Benin Formation were assessed. The Atterberg limit results of the clay samples revealed that the materials are of relatively medium to high compressibility, with the liquid limit (LL) ranging from 28% to 71%, plastic limit (PL) ranging from 10% to 21%, while the plasticity index (PI) ranges from 15 to 54, indicative of medium to low compressive strength. The natural moisture content, with a mean value of 38% was also significantly high, while the unit weight ranged from 15.6KN/m3 to 18.7KN/m3, and specific gravity (SG) values range from 2.27 to 2.72. The sand samples had coefficient of uniformity (Cu) and coefficient of curvature (Cc) values ranging from 2.52 to 5.2 and 0.99 to 1.8 respectively, indicating that the sands are poorly graded and are classified as SP. The in-situ standard penetration test (SPT) on the sand samples has N-values ranging from 20 to 28, showing that the sands are medium dense. The clay samples underlying the study area is likely to have medium to low shear strength as suggested by the values of the strength parameters (mean value of angle of internal friction is 60 and cohesion is 46Kpa), obtained from the triaxial test. The geotechnical behavior of the materials within the study area shows that the cohesive materials failed some relevant material specifications for most civil infrastructures, having ultimate and safe bearing capacity averaging 410.48KN/m2 and 136.83KN/m3 respectively. Thus, they should be avoided as foundation (load bearing) materials during civil constructions, while the cohesion less soil though, of medium dense and poorly graded will serve as better load bearing materials.

    Key Words : Triaxial test, angle of internal friction, Standard Penetration Test, Ultimate Load bearing capacity, safe bearing capacity

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ezenwaka, K.C, Ugboaja, A,Ahaneku, C.V,Ede, T.A},
    title = {Geotechnical Investigation for Design and Construction of Civil Infrastructures in Parts of Port Harcourt City of Rivers State, Southern Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {74-82},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 38034
    Paper Title :: Modélisation de l'érosion hydrique via les SIG et l'équation universelle des pertes en sol au niveau du bassin versant de l'Oum Er-Rbia
    Author Name :: Mohamed Yjjou||Rachid Bouabid ||Abdellah El Hmaidi ||Ali Essahlaoui ||M. El Abassi
    Page Number :: 83-91
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0384083091

    The objective of the present work was to estimate soil losses in the oued Oum Er-Rbia watershed (SW Middle Atlas, Morocco). The adopted method is based on the use of Wischmeier model and geographic information system (GIS). The mean and maximum values of rainfall erosivity factor R were 90 and 119, respectively. The soil erodibility factor K is ranged from 0.01 to 0.54 (mean= 0.33). The topographical factor LS varied from 0 to 216 (mean= 16). Thecombination of different maps related to different parameters (R, K, LS, vegetation cover C and anti-erosive practices P) allowed obtaining the erosion map. The obtained results showed that the erosion affected the entire Oum Rbia watershed, but with different degrees. The mean of rate of soil loss was of 224 t / ha / year, with 45% of the basin area is subject to erosion between 50 and 400 t/ha/year mainly in areas characterized by a steep slope, high erodibility and low vegetation cover which reflects the importance of water erosion in the Oum Er-Rbia watershed.

    Key Words :Oum Er-Rbia watershed, water erosion, Wischmeier model, GIS.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mohamed Yjjou, Rachid Bouabid, Abdellah El Hmaidi, Ali Essahlaoui, M. El Abassi},
    title = {Modélisation de l'érosion hydrique via les SIG et l'équation universelle des pertes en sol au niveau du bassin versant de l'Oum Er-Rbia},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {8},
    pages = {83-91},
    month = {August}
    }