•                   
    Volume 03 || Issue 06|| Version I ||June 2014
    Paper Id :: 34085
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial activity of Ageratum conyzoides (L) on some clinical bacterial isolates
    Author Name :: O.P. Odeleye||J. O Oluyege ||O. A Aregbesola||P.O Odeleye
    Page Number :: 01-05
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/036010105
    The antimicrobial effects of ethanolic extract of Ageratum conyzoides against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Shigella dysenteriae was determined using the Agar-well diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) as well as the phytochemical properties of the extract on the test isolates were also examined using the standard methods. The phytochemical components of the ethanolic extract of the A. conyzoides include tannin, alkaloids, steroid, saponin, phenol, flavonoids, triterpenes glycosides and carbohydrate. All the test organisms were susceptible to ≥50mg/ml of the extract. The MIC and MBC of the ethanolic extract of the A. conyzoides against S. aureus and E. coli was 120mg/ml, while that of P. aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae were 160mg/ml and 200mg/ml of the extract, respectively. The result of this study suggests that the ethanolic extracts of A. conyzoides could be suitable for the treatment of diseases/infections caused by S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli and Shigella dysenteriae.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial, Phytochemical, Ethanolic, Susceptible. Minimum inhibitory Concentration, Minimum bactericidal concentration
    @article{key:article,
    author = {O.P. Odeleye, J. O Oluyege , O. A Aregbesola, P.O Odeleye},
    title = {Evaluation of preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial activity of Ageratum conyzoides (L) on some clinical bacterial isolates},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {01-05},
    month = {June}
    }
    Paper Id :: 35120
    Paper Title :: Application of the Frontal Advance Equation to a linear system during MEOR
    Author Name :: Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin Jacob||Pepple, Dasigha Daniel
    Page Number :: 06-10
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0360106010

    Microbe concentration during Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is an important factor for consideration during this tertiary recovery technique. The injection of microbes into reservoirs with the intention of exploiting certain recovery mechanisms such as viscosity reduction, IFT reduction, wettability alteration etc, can turn detrimental to the whole recovery process without proper monitoring. The frontal advance equation for a secondary recovery process is modified to account for microbial concentration with respect to time, distance, water cut and fluid saturation in a porous media, assuming no in-situ bacteria in the reservoir to distort the certainty of concentration prediction. Results reveal a decrease in the concentration of microbes with distance and a somewhat inverse relationship between the microbe concentration and the water cut.

    Keywords : Bacteria, concentration, microbes, MEOR, water cut.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin Jacob, Pepple, Dasigha Daniel},
    title = {Application of the Frontal Advance Equation to a linear system during MEOR},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {06-10},
    month = {June}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35172
    Paper Title :: Analysis of Defects in Metal Inert Gas Welding Of A312tp316l Stainless Steel Pipe Using Taguchi Optimization Method And Testing
    Author Name :: Rajendra singh ||Dr. SS Dhami
    Page Number :: 11-22
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03601011022

    Research on welding of materials like stainless steel is still critical and ongoing. An attempt has been made to analyze the effect of process parameters in qualitative manner for welding of A312TP316L steel using processes of Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG). Taguchi method is used to formulate the experimental layout. Exhaustive survey suggest that 5-9 control factors viz., arc voltage, arc current, welding speed, nozzle to work distance and gas pressure predominantly influence weld quality, even plate thickness and backing plate too have their own effect. Design of experiments based on orthogonal array is employed to develop the weldments. The weldments are subjected to testing to find the qualitative properties. The data obtained is checked for adequacy based on ANOVA. The result computed is in form of contribution from each parameter, through which optimal parameters are identified for minimum defects. The data in the present work is collected using eddy current, radiography and hardness testing and results are quantified accordingly. The testing of specimens indicated, the presence of defects like LOP, LOF, Blowhole, and Cracks

    KEYWORDS : Stainless steel, welding defects, Taguchi analysis, microstructure, MIG, parametric contribution, charpy, brinnel hardness, eddy current and Radiography test.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rajendra singh ,Dr. SS Dhami .},
    title = {Analysis of Defects in Metal Inert Gas Welding Of A312tp316l Stainless Steel Pipe Using Taguchi Optimization Method And Testing},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {11-22},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35052
    Paper Title :: Detection of local intrusion to avoid damage of global effects
    Author Name :: N. Alekhya|| Dr.N.Chandra SekharReddy|| S.Srinivas
    Page Number :: 23-26
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03601023026
    The present security technologies have some drawbacks with the security performance and cost. The paper presents an automatic security chain to accomplish security protection. It uses the concept called swarm intelligence as a reference to the "intrusion detection system" but it has a difficulty to find the exact local actions which are performed at the host & nodes in the networks. By this intruders may damage the local actions which are performed at the host and nodes of the networks. The paper implements an algorithm that helps to find the correct local actions at host and nodes in the networks and also reduces the global effects damaged by the intruders
    Keywords:DLAD, Swarm Intelligence, Intrusion Detection, AODV, DSDV.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {N. Alekhya, Dr.N.Chandra SekharReddy, S.Srinivas},
    title = {Detection of local intrusion to avoid damage of global effects},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {23-26},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35166
    Paper Title :: RF-ID Based Touch Screen Museum Guide System
    Author Name :: Mr.L.R.Patil|| Mr.H.T.Ingale||Dr.K.P.Rane||Mrs.S.K.Chaudhari
    Page Number :: 27-31
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03601027031
    exchange earnings, investment and regional development. The goal of the system is to provide correct and easy information to the tourist, to make tourism attractive. Visitors are not always able to be given a guided tour at the museums. However, the learning outcome is related to the skills of the guides that explain the things. In order to provide a self-learning environment, interactive device were designed to provide relevant content, when the visitors are browsing by themselves. The objective was to replace the manual guide. Guides use various pedagogical strategies to make the contents interesting. In order to provide personalized learning, (Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) technology is used to associate each user with a unique identification. RFID comprises a reader and a tag. The reader receives the identity of an object from the embedded tag wirelessly using radio waves and then compares it with the corresponding identification stored in the database. When a match is found, detailed information is retrieved and user can able to listen the audio clip of the painting, with these our project is providing images related to that painting.. So the user can take a audio as well as image tour of the museum. This seminar focuses on to make a user friendly device for making easy guide line to tourist with combination of audio and image facility.
    Keywords:Museum Guide System, RFID, Reader, Tag, Touch Screen
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mr.L.R.Patil, Mr.H.T.Ingale, Dr.K.P.Rane },
    title = {RF-ID Based Touch Screen Museum Guide System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {27-31},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35157
    Paper Title :: Security Using Colors and Armstrong Numbers
    Author Name :: S. Jambhale|| S.Bakde|| P.Kedar|| Prof. S. R. Patil
    Page Number :: 32-37
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03601032037
    In real world, data security plays an important role where confidentiality, authentication, integrity, non repudiation are given importance. The universal technique for providing confidentiality of transmitted data is cryptography. This paper provides a technique to encrypt the data using a key involving Armstrong numbers and colors as the password. Three set of keys are used to provide secure data transmission with the colors acting as vital security element thereby providing authentication. In the present world scenario it is difficult to transmit data from one place to another with security. This is because hackers are becoming more powerful nowadays. To ensure secured data transmission there are several techniques being followed. One among them is cryptography which is the practice and study of hiding information.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. Jambhale, S.Bakde, P.Kedar, Prof. S. R. Patil},
    title = {Security Using Colors and Armstrong Numbers},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {32-37},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35117
    Paper Title :: Flexural Characteristics of Rattan Cane Reinforced Concrete Beams
    Author Name :: Obilade, I.O.||Olutoge, F.A.
    Page Number :: 38-42
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03601038042

    The potentials of Rattan Cane as a reinforcement material in concrete beams were investigated. The principal objective was to determine the flexural behaviour of Rattan Cane Reinforced Concrete Beams. Tensile strength tests were conducted on rattan cane samples to assess their qualities as reinforcement material. Singly Steel Reinforced and Singly Rattan Cane Reinforced Concrete Beams of 750mm length having 150mm width and depth were compared with Plain Concrete Beam in this research work. The flexural strength, load carrying capacity and deflection characteristics of each beam were observed and compared. It was discovered that using Rattan Cane as reinforcement can increase the load carrying capacity of beams. It was also discovered that for Singly Rattan Cane Reinforced Concrete Beam, the load carrying capacity increased by about 20% over that of the plain concrete beam having the same dimensions while for Singly Steel Reinforced Concrete Beam, the load carrying capacity increased by about 2.3 times over that of the plain concrete beam having the same dimensions. Further studies are also recommended on the use of Rattan Cane as reinforcement in concrete.

    KEYWORDS: Concrete, Beams, Steel, Rattan Cane

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Obilade, I.O.; Olutoge, F.A.},
    title = {Flexural Characteristics of Rattan Cane Reinforced Concrete Beams},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {38-42},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35112
    Paper Title :: Influence of Annealing on the Morphology and Optical Properties of Chemically Fabricated Amorphous CuSe Thin Films
    Author Name :: Usoh, Chizomam|| Okujagu, Charity || Owate, Israel
    Page Number :: 43-50
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03601043050

    Thin films of CuSe have been deposited on glass slides from alkaline bath employing chemical bath deposition method. Films were annealed at 573k to study their properties. Both the as-deposited and annealed films were found to be amorphous which was detected by the SEM microscopy and confirmed by the X-ray diffraction. The optical properties were studied in the wavelength range 320nm – 900nm. Peak values of 96.10%, 46.43% were observed for absorbance and reflectance which increased on annealing while transmittance decreased. Average values of refractive index which ranged between 2.14 – 2.62 increased to 2.16 – 3.33 on annealing. As-deposited band gap which ranged between 2.35ev and 2.60ev were found to reduce on annealing to the range 2.10ev – 2.40ev. Films could be used as absorber materials in solar cells and as window layer in photovoltaic cells. The high refractive index qualifies them for use in optoelectronic devices.

    KEYWORDS: Amorphous, Annealing, band gap, Copper selenide, deposition

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Usoh, Chizomam; Okujagu, Charity and Owate, Israel },
    title = {Influence of Annealing on the Morphology and Optical Properties of Chemically Fabricated Amorphous CuSe Thin Films},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {43-50},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35173
    Paper Title :: Analysis of Option Trading Strategies as an Effective Financial Engineering Tool
    Author Name :: Prof. Shalini H S || Dr. R. Duraipandian
    Page Number :: 51-58
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03601051058
    Financial engineering is the use of mathematical techniques to solve financial problems. It carries different meanings with respect to different sectors. It uses tools and knowledge from the fields of computer science, statistics, economics and applied mathematics to address current financial issues as well as to devise new and innovative financial products. It is sometimes referred to as quantitative analysis and is used by regular commercial banks, investment banks, insurance agencies and hedge funds. Financial engineering has led to the explosion of derivative trading that we see today. Since the Chicago Board Options Exchange was formed in 1973 and two of the first financial engineers, Fischer Black and Myron Scholes, published their option pricing model, trading in options and other derivatives has grown dramatically. This paper analyses the use of different option trading strategies as an effective tool in Financial Engineering which are used as an effective tool for managing risk in both bullish and bearish markets.
    Keywords:Bearish markets, Bullish markets, Call Options, Financial Engineering, Option trading Strategies, Put Options.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prof. Shalini H S , Dr. R. Duraipandian},
    title = {Analysis of Option Trading Strategies as an Effective Financial Engineering Tool},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {51-58},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35067
    Paper Title :: Biosorption of Copper and Chromium from Industrial Waste Water
    Author Name :: S.Rajarathinam||V.Arutchelvan
    Page Number :: 59-64
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03601059064
    In this present work, biosorption process has been implemented for heavy metals of Chromium (Cr) and Copper (Cu) by using Thespesia populnea, from the industrial waste. In this experiment, 100 ml (millilitre) quantity of constant sample dosage has been taken for each and every test, by using spectrophotometer. Experiments have been carried out for finding the variation in pH, biosorbent concentration and percentages of removal of metals with variation of time interval. The outcome result shows that, less pH value and best biosorbent concentration obtained by Cr then Cu, followed by the increase in percentage of removal by Cr then Cu, variation of time interval. Mechanisms of metals sorption by Thespesia populnea have given by better fits for Freundlich and Langmuir models
    Keywords:Biosorption, Cr; Cu Heavy Metal, Industrial Waste, Isotherms, Thespesia populnea
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S.Rajarathinam ||V.Arutchelvan},
    title = {Biosorption of Copper and Chromium from Industrial Waste Water},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {59-64},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 06|| Version II ||June 2014
    Paper Id :: 33146
    Paper Title :: Supply Chain Management Optimization Problem
    Author Name :: Engr. Dr. Uzorh,A.C|| Nnanna Innocent
    Page Number :: 01-09
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03620109
    Supply chain management SCM has becoming a topic of critical importance for both companies and researchers today. Supply chain optimization problems considered are formulated as linear programming problems with costs of transportation that arise in several real-life applications. This work develops linear programming method for solving the cost-related problems. The proposed method attempts to minimize the total transportation costs with reference to available resources (trucks and manpower) at the plants, as well as at each depot. Sensitivity Analysis SA was employed to investigate how a change in the model data changes the optimal solution. An industrial case is used to demonstrate the feasibility of the applying LP method to a real transportation problem.However, the research finding shows that 39.20% of the company total expenditure under transportation sector for six years was on maintenance alone, while 20.50%, 8.79% and 5.05% was on Fuel, drivers welfare and loading/offloading respectively.This study would assist the top management in ascertaining how many units of a particular product should be transported from plant to each depot to that the total prevailing demand for the company's product is satisfied, while at the same time the total transportation costs are minimized.This study will enable companies to take advantage of this opportunity to improve on their supply chain.The objective of this paper was twofold: (1) To determine the best transportation schedule that minimizes the total transportation costs with supply and demand limits and (2) To identify a research area for future research in this area. More specifically, this paper reviewed the major decision areas in supply chain management and identified areas for future research consideration that will facilitate the advancement of knowledge and practice in the area of supply chain optimization.Based on the existing body of research in supply chain management, suggestions were made for future research in the following three areas: (1) Evaluation and development of supply chain performance measures, (2) development of a model that can integrate the four major decision areas in supply chain management. (3) Consideration of issues affecting supply chain modeling.
    Keywords: Supply chain management, Transportation model, Linearprogramming, Sensitivity analysis.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Engr. Dr. Uzorh,A.C; Nnanna Innocent},
    title = {Supply Chain Management Optimization Problem},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {01-09},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35184
    Paper Title :: Basement Depth Estimates Of Sokoto Sedimentary Basin, Northwestern Nigeria, Using Spectral Depth Analysis
    Author Name :: Bonde,D. S||Udensi E.E||,Raij. K||Joshua, B. W||Abbas M
    Page Number :: 10-14
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0362010014
    Basement depth estimation of Sokoto Sedimentary Basin was carried out to determine the sedimentary thickness in all parts of the basin, The total magnetic field values of the basin, obtained by digitizing the contour maps of the basin, which was used to produce the composite map of the area. The Sokoto Basin is situated between latitudes 10o 30″ N to 14o 00″ N and longitude 3 o 30″ E to 7o 00″ E with an estimated area of 59,570 km2.Spectral depth analysis was carried out on each of the twenty nine aeromagnetic sheets covering the basin, to estimate the depths to basement. The results of the spectral studies indicate an increase in sedimentation northwards, with several depressions on the basement rock. Two prominent magnetization layers of depths varying from 0.04 km to 0.95 km and 0.36 km to 2.88 km were observed. The areas, where higher sedimentary thicknesses are observed such as sheets No 31(TalataMafara), sheet no.12 (Isa) and sheet no. 13(Gandi) are the most probable sites for prospect of hydrocarbon accumulation in the basin.
    Keywords: Geophysical investigation; Basement Depth;Composite map; Sedimentary thickness; Anomalies.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Bonde,D. S, Udensi E.E ,Raij. K ,,Joshua, B. W ,Abbas M},
    title = {Basement Depth Estimates Of Sokoto Sedimentary Basin, Northwestern Nigeria, Using Spectral Depth Analysis.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {10-14},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35091
    Paper Title :: Solving Machine Shops Scheduling Problemsusing Priority Sequencing Rules Techniques
    Author Name :: Engr. Dr. A.C. Uzorh|| Nnanna Innocent
    Page Number :: 15-22
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0362015022
    This paper considers a scheduling problem with component availability constraints in a machine shop of only one engine expert. The instruments used were personal interview and observations along the production line. Two priority sequencing rules were compared in an extensive numerical study. Results show that the Earliest Due Date(EDD) rule is better than theShortest Processing Time(SPT) rule with respect to average past due (keeping promises to customers), but worse with respect to average flow time for the set of jobs in this study. Also EDD schedule gave better customer service, as measured by the average hours past due, and a lower maximum hours past due (22 versus 24).However, the SPT schedule provided a lower average flow time. In general, the SPT priority rule will push most jobs through the system to completion more quickly than will the other rules.Speed can be an advantage—but only if jobs can be delivered sooner than promised and revenue collected earlier. If they cannot, the completed job must stay in finished inventory. Consequently, the priority rule chosen can help or hinder the firm in meeting its competitive priorities, therefore, management's choice depends on which performance measure it values the most. More experimentation should be conducted before a final choice is made.
    Keywords: Job scheduling, Machine Shop, processing time, Optimization scheduling.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Engr. Dr. A.C. Uzorh , Nnanna Innocent},
    title = {Solving Machine Shops Scheduling Problemsusing Priority Sequencing Rules Techniques},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {15-22},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 33147
    Paper Title :: Solution to Power Generation Shortages Using Solar Energy
    Author Name :: Engr. Dr. A.C. Uzorh || Nnanna Innocent
    Page Number :: 23-27
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0362023027
    Power supply has been identified over the years as one of the key motivating factors for the development of manufacturing activities and all other industrial undertakings in Nigeria and all over the world. This study investigates two conditions namely: (1) Cost of Power supply backedup by energy from generator set and (2) Cost of Power supply backedup by solar energy. Data was collected through questionnaire and personal interview.In the previous research on the impact of poor electricity supply to the industries was limited to Power supply backed up by energy from generator set. Due to current needsand desire for renewable energy, because it is cheap and safe to exploit, thiswork investigatesthe difference in cost of Power supply backed up by energy from generator set and cost of Power supply backed up by solar energy.The research findings show that the average cost per unit of power consumption per KWh is between N59.29 for solar energy; N20.88 for grid electricity and N83.50 for energy from generator. Comparatively, results obtained from the investigations showed that it is much cheaper and safer to provide reliable power for manufacturing activities using power supply backed up by solar energy as better alternative to solve problem of power shortages in Nigeria.Finally, the study concludes with a number of recommendations that can assist Nigeria government in finding a lasting solution to the problem of power shortages in Nigeria.
    Keywords:solar energy, hydro power, photovoltaic cell, electricity consumption.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Engr. Dr. A.C. Uzorh||Nnanna Innocent},
    title = {Solution to Power Generation Shortages Using Solar Energy},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {23-27},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35144
    Paper Title :: Evaluation and Re-Designing Of a File Retrieving System in A Village Medical Center
    Author Name :: O.A. Olalere||B.Olayiwola||P.A. Adedeji
    Page Number :: 28-35
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0362028035
    The need for ease of files retrieval by the hospital record office is the epicenter for this study. It was discovered that the current file retrieval system was not conducive for effective office productivity. Hence the need to redesign a file that is both convenient, in term of retrieval and at the same time saves time. This will help to control how patient's data are stored and retrieved.This work evaluated the filing system of a village medical center. For this purpose, the work-study approach was employed to evaluate the file retrieval system in the office. The productivity index for the old system of filing was obtained at 0.290 and the new filing system was calculated as 0.528, which shows a 49.3% increment when compared to the old filing system.After a careful evaluation of the new filing system, we concluded that the ease of retrieving the newly developed files is more preferable in terms of time reduction and accessibility. The time obtained in retrieving old files from the cabinet is much when compared to that of the newly developed files. Therefore the workers were adjudged to be more productive when searching and retrieving files from the cabinet when using this new system of filing.
    Keywords: File retrieval system, productivity index, standard time, time study, work-study.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {O.A. Olalere||B.Olayiwola||P.A. Adedeji},
    title = {Evaluation and Re-Designing Of a File Retrieving System in A Village Medical Center},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {28-35},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35160
    Paper Title :: Scaling the Information Extraction from Unstructured and Ungrammatical Data Sources on Web
    Author Name :: Madhavi. K. Sarjare || S.L.Vaikole
    Page Number :: 36-45
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0362036045
    Information Extraction (IE) on the web is the task of automatically extracting knowledge from text. Web Information Extraction (WIE) systems have recently been able to extract massive quantities of relational data from online text. This massive body of text which are now available on the World Wide Web do presents an unparalleled opportunity for information extraction. However, this information extraction on the Web is challenging due to the vast variety of distinct concepts and structured expressed. The explosive growth and popularity of the worldwide web has resulted in a huge amount of information sources on the Internet. However, due to the heterogeneity, diversity and the lack of structure of Web information sources, access to this huge collection of information has been limited to browsing and searching.
    Keywords: Natural Language Processing, Reference set, Nested String List, Hypertrees.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Madhavi. K. Sarjare, S.L.Vaikole},
    title = {Scaling the Information Extraction from Unstructured and Ungrammatical Data Sources on Web},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {36-45},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35131
    Paper Title :: Single area load frequency control problem using particle swarm
    optimization
    Author Name :: Mr. V. Giri Babu || Sri. B. Hemanth || Sri. T. Sandeep Kumar || Dr. B. Venkata Prasanth
    Page Number :: 46-52
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0362046052
    This paper deals with a novel method of quenching transients of load frequency of a single area power system.The load frequency power system dynamics are represented by selecting deviation in frequency and its derivatives as variables. The validity of this model was compared in terms of its uncontrolled response obtained in the earlier work [1]. This new model representation is used for further studies in this paper. For a practical single area power system the behaviour of uncontrolled system with range of values of regulation constant (R) and for various load disturbances (ΔP) are obtained. The responses of single area power system with range of values of load changes for different switching times, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) control are evaluated. The time of state transfer in general is increasing with increase of load disturbance. When fuzzy control is applied the frequency transients are quenched at much faster rates without any oscillations.
    Keywords: Load frequency control, Transient response, Single area power system and PSO controller
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mr. V. Giri Babu, Sri. B. Hemanth,
    Sri. T. Sandeep Kumar, Dr. B. Venkata Prasanth,},
    title = {Single area load frequency control problem using particle swarm
    optimization},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {46-52},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35164
    Paper Title :: Gain Enhancement of Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna using
    EBG
    Author Name :: R. Dhanalakshmi || Santhosh Kumar || R. Srinivas
    Page Number :: 53-57
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0362053057
    This paper presents a micro strip patch antenna through EBG process with the slotting technique in order to enhance the gain. Performance parameters like Gain, VSWR, and Radiation pattern have been obtained for slotted Microstrip patch antenna through EBG. The statistical results show that the gain of the Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna increases. The modelling of the proposed antenna and parameters evaluation of proposed antenna has been implemented in Finite Element Method (FEM) based software 'High Frequency Structure Simulation' (HFSS) ver. 10.0
    Keywords: Microstrip Patch Antenna, Gain enhancement. Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
    @article{key:article,
    author = {R. Dhanalakshmi, Santhosh Kumar, R. Srinivas,},
    title = {Gain Enhancement of Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna using
    EBG},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {53-57},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35191
    Paper Title :: Inhibiting Action Of Tetra-N-Butyl Ammonium Bromide And Tetra-N-Butyl Ammonium Iodide On The Corrosion Behaviour Of Za-27 Alloy In 1m Na2so4"
    Author Name :: Lokesh H. B || Sanaulla P.F || Bheema Raju V. B
    Page Number :: 58-68
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0362058068
    The inhibition of the corrosion of ZA-27 in 1M Na2SO4 by tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) and tetra-n-butyl ammonium iodide (TBAI) salts has been investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization. The results obtained in weight loss studies shows that these investigated compounds are good inhibitors and their inhibition efficiencies (IE %) increase with the increase of inhibitor concentration, whereas decreases with increase in immersion time and temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization studies demonstrate the inhibitors under investigation act as mixed type inhibitors and inhibitors changes the mechanism of hydrogen evolution. Effect of temperature is studied between 303 and 333 K differing by 10K. The mechanism of adsorption had been explained on the basis of chemical structure of the investigated inhibitors. It was found that there is a good agreement between the different tested techniques. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) was used to evaluate the surface morphology and surface coverage inhibited and uninhibited samples of ZA-27 alloy. The effect of corrosion on the surface morphology of the ZA-27 alloy sample was analyzed by recording the SEM images of the alloy samples.
    Keywords: Corrosion inhibition, Quaternary ammonium salts, Potentio dynamic polarisation, scanning electron micro scopy. Taffel extra polation, ZA-27 alloy
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Lokesh H. B, Sanaulla P.F, Bheema Raju V. B},
    title = {Inhibiting Action Of Tetra-N-Butyl Ammonium Bromide And Tetra-N-Butyl Ammonium Iodide On The Corrosion Behaviour Of Za-27 Alloy In 1m Na2so4"},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {58-68},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35192
    Paper Title :: Analysis on X-Ray Parameters of Exposure by Measuring X-Ray Tube Voltage and Time of Exposure
    Author Name :: D.Tilak Raju || K.Shanthi
    Page Number :: 69-73
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0362069073
    One of the typical human diagnostic techniques is x-ray. The x-ray examination depends on the range of radiation given to the subject. The radiation from the x- ray depends primarily upon the x-ray tube current (mA) tube voltage (kVp) and exposure time (s). These parameters define the dosage. The aim of this work is to explore and analyze the x-ray exposure parameters levels which helps to diagnose and also has some hazardous health effects upon human exposure or the tissue which is being irradiated. Work has been carried out on people of different age groups ranging from 5yrs – 70 yrs. X -ray projections have been considered and the parameters influencing the radiography are being observed and are tabulated. Relations between the tube voltages (kVp) and exposure time (ms) have been closely observed and analysis have been done. This paper our reference levels for x-ray radiographic projections are carried as per the specifications of AERB and NRPB
    Keywords: kVp (Kilo Voltage Peak), mA (Milli Amperes)
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D.Tilak Raju, K.Shanthi},
    title = {Analysis on X-Ray Parameters of Exposure by Measuring X-Ray Tube Voltage and Time of Exposure},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {69-73},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 06|| Version III ||June 2014
    Paper Id :: 34125
    Paper Title :: Effect of operating speed, moisture content of soil and approach
    angle of sweep on specific draft and weeding efficiency
    Author Name :: U. S. Kankal || V.P.Khmabalkar || D.S.Karale || S.M.Nage
    Page Number :: 01-09
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0363001009
    The highest cost of weeding contributes more losses due to various reasons. To overcome of weeding problem, self propelled low cost drag type weeder was designed, developed and tested at the College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur. Three ranges of approach angles 0 60 , 0 70 and 0 80 , forward speeds viz. 0.28 m/s, 0.42 m/s and 0.56m/s and moisture contents 13%, 15% and 18% were optimized on the basis of lowest specific draft and highest weeding efficiency. An approach angle of 70 degree at a forward speed of 0.42 m/s at 15% moisture contents of soil was optimized as it resulted in lowest specific draft as 0.619 N/mm and highest weeding efficiency as 89.58%.
    Keywords: Approach angle, moisture content, specific draft, weeder
    @article{key:article,
    author = {U. S. Kankal, V.P.Khmabalkar, D.S.Karale, S.M.Nage},
    title = {Effect of operating speed, moisture content of soil and approach
    angle of sweep on specific draft and weeding efficiency},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {01-09},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35163
    Paper Title :: Evaluating the impact of risk factors on construction projects cost in Nigeria
    Author Name :: Luka Goji Tipili || Muhammad Sa'adiya Ilyasu
    Page Number :: 10-15
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0363010015
    One of the challenges facing the construction in Nigeria is how to assess the risk of cost overruns and deliver projects within budget. These risks can cause losses that lead to increase in costs, time delays and lack of quality of projects. The purpose of the paper is to identify and assessed the likelihood of occurrence and degree of impact of the risk factors on construction projects within the Nigerian construction industry. In view of the foregoing, the objectives are to establish a relative significance index score for the most important risk factors affecting the performance of the projects. A self administered questionnaire was employed to the construction industry professional for their responses on the likelihood of occurrence of risk factors and the impact of these risk factors on project performance. A total seventy Eight questionnaires were sent to construction industry professionals which comprises of Contractors, Architects, Quantity Surveyors and Engineers but Fifty Eight was return which was later analyzed using descriptive statistic and analyses of variance ,(ANOVA) and subsequently exposure rating levels were determined which enable the categorization of the probability- impact score in Low, medium and high levels. Results of the study indicate a disparity of the ranking of the degree of occurrence and impact among the group. Based on the composite of risk factors, the cost related risk and time related risk was found to be the most likely to occur and have the most impact on project, whereas environmental risk factor was found to be low weighted risk, as it had the least likelihood to occur and the least impact score.
    Keywords: Risk factors, Risk management, Construction industry, Construction project cost, Nigeria
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Luka Goji Tipili, Muhammad Sa'adiya Ilyasu},
    title = {Evaluating the impact of risk factors on construction projects cost in Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {10-15},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35182
    Paper Title :: Removing atmosphric noise using channel selective processing for visual correction
    Author Name :: Rajbeer Kaur || Er. Aman Saini
    Page Number :: 16-21
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0363016021
    In this paper, we propose an effective image fog removal technique from a single input image. The approach uses extraction of minimized values of statistics of the fog-free outdoor images. It is based on a key observation–most images in fog-free outdoor images contain some pixels which have low values of luminescence in at least one color channel. Using this model, we can directly estimate the effective density of fog and recover a high quality fog-free image. The parameter of calculating the effective light intensity also gives the scattering estimates of the atmospheric light, the combined Laplace of the air-light is and minimum values gives us the basic map of light spread which is further used in the restoration of intensity. The transmission of intensity between the calculated fog values in the image give the estimate for the local transition between the intensity values, this factor helps in the color restoration of the affected image and estimates the proper restoration of image after removal of dense fog particles. The visibility is highly dependent on the saturation of color values and not over saturation, which accounts for image quality improvement. Results on various images demonstrate the power of the proposed algorithm.
    Keywords: Air-light, image restoration, intensity transmission, Laplace estimation, Min. values from channels, Padding.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rajbeer Kaur, Er. Aman Saini},
    title = {Removing atmosphric noise using channel selective processing for visual correction},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {16-21},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36002
    Paper Title :: Analysis and Implementation of bidirectional DC to DC Converter by using Fuzzy logic Controller
    Author Name :: Ganji Sai Kumar || G. Ramudu || D. Vijay Arun
    Page Number :: 22-39
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0363022039
    The circuit configuration of the proposed converter is very simple. The proposed converter employs a coupled inductor with same winding turns in the primary and secondary sides. Many bidirectional dc–dc converters have been researched. The bidirectional dc–dc flyback converters are more attractive due to simple structure and easy control. However, these converters suffer from high voltage stresses on the power devices due to the leakage inductor energy of the transformer. The objective of this proposed methodology is to develop fuzzy logic controller on control boost dc-dc converter using MATLAB@Simulink software. The fuzzy logic controller has been implemented to the system by developing fuzzy logic control algorithm. The design and calculation of the components especially for the inductor has been done to ensure the converter operates in continuous conduction mode. The evaluation of the output has been carried out and compared by software simulation using MATLAB software between the open loop and closed loop circuit. The simulation results are shown that voltage output is able to be control in steady state condition for boost dc-dc converter by using this methodology
    Keywords: Bidirectional dc–dc converter, coupled inductor.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ganji Sai Kumar, G. Ramudu, D. Vijay Arun},
    title = {Analysis and Implementation of bidirectional DC to DC Converter by using Fuzzy logic Controller},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {22-39},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36005
    Paper Title :: Research on the Effect of Focus and Stress on the Realization of Intensity in Chinese
    Author Name :: Maolin Wang
    Page Number :: 40-45
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0363040045
    In this paper, the average intensity and the effect of focus and stress on it for disyllabic words in Chinese is analyzed. The key words in the experiment are 20 verbs, occurring in sentence medial position, and the subjects are eight native speakers of standard Chinese. Average intensity is analyzed, and results show that the average intensity of the rhyme is greater than that of the onset. Due to consonant voicing, for the onset, under unfocused condition, the intensity of unstressed syllable is greater than that of the stressed one, while for the rhyme, under focused condition, that of stressed syllable is greater than the unstressed one.
    Keywords: Intensity, focus, stress, syllable
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Maolin Wang},
    title = {Research on the Effect of Focus and Stress on the Realization of Intensity in Chinese},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {40-45},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35132
    Paper Title :: Proximate and phytochemical compositions of napoleona vogelii hook fruit
    Author Name :: IGIDI, O. J.||EDENE C. E.
    Page Number :: 46-51
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0363046051
    Chemical analyses were carried out to determine the proximate and phytochemical compositions of Napoleona Vogelii fruits locally sourced from Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Results for proximate analysis of the fruit showed the moisture content of 69%, protein 1.93% fat 2.1%, crude fibre 16%, ash 3.5% and carbohydrate 7.47%. There was a low level of phenol, saponin and HCN with the values of 3.8 mg/kg, 0.75% and 3.382 mg/kg respectively, and a significant presence of flavonoid, alkaloid and tannin, which were 4.65%, 0.8% and 333.4 mg/kg respectively. These nutrients and phytochemicals present in the wild fruit indicated the beneficial effects of the plant. It is recommended that industries should boil the fruit to reduce the level of toxicants in the fruit when using it as supplement.
    Keywords: Napoleona Vogelii, AOAC, food, proximate, phytochemical, nutrient
    @article{key:article,
    author = {IGIDI, O. J., EDENE C. E.},
    title = {Proximate and phytochemical compositions of napoleona vogelii hook fruit},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {46-51},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36049
    Paper Title :: Success and Failure Factors of Indian Construction Companies
    Author Name :: Abhijeet Gadekar|| Dr.S.S.Pimplikar
    Page Number :: 52-58
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0363052058
    Company success and failure is not only extremely disruptive to an industry but may also cause significant rippling effects in an economy. Construction companies are vulnerable to bankruptcy due to the fragmented nature of the industry, high competition, the high uncertainty and risk involved, and considerable fluctuations in construction volume. It is important to recognize any potential company success and failures at the earliest opportunity. Previous research work by authors consisted of conducting survey among 7 construction companies in which cash flow management was identified as important factor. Previous research work was taken further to investigate into detail. Within this context, a survey was carried amongst 30 Indian construction companies which are divided into three categories – large, medium and small. Point rating technique is used to determine the factors
    Keywords: Construction company, Entrepreneurship, Failure factors, Indian construction ,Success factors.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Abhijeet Gadekar, Dr.S.S.Pimplikar},
    title = {Success and Failure Factors of Indian Construction Companies},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {52-58},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35023
    Paper Title :: A Novel Electromagnetic Field Detector for Extremely Low Frequency Energy
    Author Name :: Z. H. Bohari|| M. F. Sulaima|| M. N. M. Nasir|| W. M. Bukhari|| M. H. Jali|| M. F. Baharom
    Page Number :: 59-67
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0363059067
    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) produce huge impact in any modern society. It is well known that a strong electromagnetic field can cause acute effects, such as burns. The mechanisms behind such effects are sustainable. However, the concerning effect on long-term exposure to weak fields may prove bad influent towards human physical. Because the exposures are widespread, even small health effects can have profound public health implications. This project designed an Electromagnetic Field Detector (EMF) which can detect the radiation especially on electronic device. This EMF has many types of radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, gamma-rays, x-rays and etc. The EMF sensor described, measures the range of radiation in very low frequency in range of 50 Hz. The circuits can assess the range of radiation from EMF source, such as electrical socket outlet when it switched through LED indicator. The pulsation of radiations can be visualized through the flashing of LEDs. This project presents the sensor operating principle, design of the project and processing sensor data, and some preliminary experimental results. In this project, Proteus Software used to design and simulate the circuit and then proceed with the hardware based on Proteus circuit.

    Keywords: electromagnetic field (EMF), pulsation radiation, Proteus..
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Z. H. Bohari , M. F. Sulaima, M. N. M. Nasir, W. M. Bukhari, M. H. Jali, M. F. Baharom},
    title = {A Novel Electromagnetic Field Detector for Extremely Low Frequency Energy},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {59-67},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36036
    Paper Title :: Multi-Biometric Person Authentication System Using Speech, Signature And Handwriting Features
    Author Name :: Girija M K || Sowmya K S
    Page Number :: 68-74
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0363068074
    Biometric Technologies are automated methods for verifying or recognizing the identity of a living person based on physiological or behavioral characteristics. Multimodal Biometric Systems are those which utilize more than one physiological or behavioral characteristic for enrollment, verification or identification. Speaker Recognition is the task of recognizing the speakers using their speech signal. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) of speaker is determined by extracting and analyzing speaker – specific features from the speech signal. Signature Recognition is the task of recognizing signatories by using their signatures. Features like Horizontal Projection Profile (HPP), Vertical Projection Profile (VPP) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) are determined. Handwriting biometric feature can also be used for person authentication, since handwriting has been trained during initial days of learning of language; it is possible to find more regular and reliable results using this feature. In this project, we develop a Multimodal Biometric System using speech, signature and handwriting features, with the objective of improving performance and robustness. For identification and verification, we use MATLAB 7.14 to determine MFCC, HPP, VPP, DCT coefficients
    Keywords: Biometrics; Speaker recognition; Signature recognition; Handwriting recognition; Multimodal system.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Girija M K, Sowmya K S},
    title = {Multi-Biometric Person Authentication System Using Speech, Signature And Handwriting Features},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {68-74},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36044
    Paper Title :: Estimation of Runoff Yield for Nira Deoghar Catchment Using Different Empirical Equations.
    Author Name :: D.K.Khopade || Prof. R.A. Oak
    Page Number :: 75-81
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0363075081
    One of the major problems confronted by the hydrologists for many years is the prediction of runoff from a given basin for a known rainfall. This problem is so complex that its complete solution is practically impossible, as there are numerous factors which affect the runoff process. In this situation, development of a rainfall runoff model is important in Nira Deoghar Dam catchment located at latitudes of northern 18˚6'18" and longitudes of eastern 73˚43'36" in Pune District of Maharashtra. The proposed study on rainfall-runoff modeling over the Nira Deoghar Catchment is essential to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of excess water available in the catchment which has supposed to be harvested and can be utilized for irrigation. By considering the above said aspect the rainfall-runoff studies were carried out by using various rainfall-runoff empirical formulae. There are only two rain gauge stations located in the catchment namely Shirgaon and Deoghar and data available is only for 18 years (1981-1997). So due to limitations in available data the rainfall data from adjacent Dhom catchment can be taken for analysis with thirty one years of monthly and annual rainfall (1967-1997).
    Keywords:Empirical formulae, Nira Deoghar catchment, Rainfall-Runoff relation, Runoff, Yield
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D.K.Khopade, Prof. R.A. Oak},
    title = {Estimation of Runoff Yield for Nira Deoghar Catchment Using Different Empirical Equations.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {75-81},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 06|| Version IV ||June 2014
    Paper Id :: 36019
    Paper Title :: An Analysis on Iris Segmentation Method for Non Ideal Iris Images like off-axis angle and distance acquired
    Author Name :: Ibrahim Khaleelulla Khan || M.J Yogesh
    Page Number :: 01-06
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03640106
    Iris segmentation is initial and crucial operation performed in iris recognition. The precise iris segmentation is essential for the success of the iris recognition, and therefore the high performance for iris recognition system. Most iris segmentation approaches proposed in the existing literature require iris images taken in ideal conditions, which prevents their effective real-time applications and makes the system highly sensitive to noise. This paper presents a fast and efficient iris segmentation methodology for iris images taken in non-ideal conditions especially for off-axis iris images and distantly acquired images. First we describe the procedure for segmenting off axis iris images next for distantly acquired images. Three major procedures involved in the proposed iris segmentation approach, namely iris/pupil detection, boundary localization, and Unwrapping, were carefully designed in order to avoid redundant and unnecessary image processing, and most importantly, to protect the integrity of iris quality information. The iris images are taken from CASIA V4 database. As a consequence, the iris recognition system that incorporates the proposed iris segmentation algorithm is capable of offering recognition performances comparable with those reported by other state-of-the-art methods.
    Keywords: Iris segmentation, Off-axis, Non-ideal, distance, CASIA 4
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ibrahim Khaleelulla Khan , M.J Yogesh},
    title = {An Analysis on Iris Segmentation Method for Non Ideal Iris Images like off-axis angle and distance acquired},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {01-06},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36081
    Paper Title :: Design of File System Architecture with Cluster Formation Along With Mount Table: A Review
    Author Name :: Sheetu Sharma ||Vikas Gupta
    Page Number :: 07-11
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/036407011
    A keyword cluster is used in the hash table to find corresponding cluster having all related files. And then all the files related to that keyword are displayed. Then, upon selection of one file, the whole content belonging to that file is displayed. This research is focused on solutions to get or retrieve data from large data source in less time and at less computation cost. Query optimization filters important words as keywords and then these are passed to hash table, i.e. indexing technique is used which finds corresponding value. In a cluster, same type of data is presented in different types of file formats .There is currently considerable enthusiasm around the MapReduce (MR) paradigm for large-scale Data analysis [17]. Although the basic control flow of this framework has existed in parallel SQL database management systems (DBMS) for over 20 years, some have called MR a dramatically new computing model [8, 17]. In this paper, description & comparison of both paradigms on an open source version of MR as well as on parallel DBMS have been carried out. The observed performance of these DBMSs was strikingly better. This gives a boost to the idea of implementing clustering in Query Optimization.
    Keywords:MR paradigm, Query Optimization.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sheetu Sharma, Vikas Gupta},
    title = {Design of File System Architecture with Cluster Formation Along With Mount Table: A Review},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {07-11},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36077
    Paper Title :: Preprocessing Technique for Discrimination Prevention in Data Mining
    Author Name :: Jagriti Singh ||Prof. Dr. S. S. Sane
    Page Number :: 12-16
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0364012016
    Data mining is an important technology for extracting useful knowledge in large collections of data. To extract knowledge without violation such as privacy and non-discrimination is most difficult and challenging. Unjustified distinction of individuals based on their membership in a certain group or category are referred as discrimination. In this paper, we will learn a classifier that optimizes accuracy of its predictions on test data, but does not have discrimination. Data preprocessing techniques such as massaging the dataset by changing class labels, and reweighing or re-sampling the data, help in removing the discriminations or biased data.
    Keywords: Anti Discrimination, Data Mining, Discrimination Prevention Technique, Preprocessing Technique, Massaging
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jagriti Singh ,Prof. Dr. S. S. Sane},
    title = {Preprocessing Technique for Discrimination Prevention in Data Mining},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {12-16},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36058
    Paper Title :: FPGA Implementation of SOC Architecture for Spacecraft Application
    Author Name :: Kiran Kumar B.G || Dr. Kaushik Bhattacharyya
    Page Number :: 17-24
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0364017024
    The high performance and rich functionality is more preferable for consumer. This drives the semiconductor manufacturing industry to the integration of multiple complex components in a single chip. This is achieved by integrating all the components into a single chip. This paper is concerned with the design of SOC (system on chip) for detecting and correcting the error which may occur in the memory unit due to radiation in LEO (lower earth orbit) and due to stuck-at faults in memory unit in space station. The error free data is feed to the predestined processor using the serial communication protocol (UART) and perform its function specified in the data input which is sent from the ground station. The integration of SRAM (Static Random Access Memory), EDAC unit (Error Detection and Correction), Router and UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter) performs the error detection and correction operation. The processor which is used outside the SOC performs the specified operation. The results are analyzed for SPARTAN3 and SPARTAN3E FPGA devices. This architecture using VIRTEX 5 FPGA device makes a trade-off between frequency and time delay with 48% increase in operating frequency and having a minimum time delay of about 5%.
    Keywords:system on chip, lower earth orbit, EDAC unit, Static RAM, UART
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kiran Kumar B.G ,Dr. Kaushik Bhattacharyya},
    title = {FPGA Implementation of SOC Architecture for Spacecraft Application},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {17-24},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36057
    Paper Title :: Design and Implementation of Gabor Type Filter on FPGA
    Author Name :: Sunitha M K || Harsha B K
    Page Number :: 25-31
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0364025031
    A Field Programmable Gate Array implementation of the Gabor-type filter is presented. The implementation uses the forward Euler approximation. In, this paper the details of the realization of Gabor filter architecture using the floating – point operations are discussed The paper presents, a brief mathematical overview of the Gabor-type filters which involves floating point arithmetic operation analysis results, the architectural details of the Gabor-type filter, and, the structure of the FPGA implementation is given. Finally implementation results are discussed. Simulation and Synthesis is done using Xilinx ISE design suite. Verilog HDL will be used as a description language for mapping algorithm in VLSI and hardware implementation on SPARTAN-3E FPGA.
    Keywords: Gabor filter, FPGA, Euler approximation, floating point arithmetic
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sunitha M K , Harsha B K},
    title = {Design and Implementation of Gabor Type Filter on FPGA},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {25-31},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34068
    Paper Title :: Influence of ph and storage period on haemolysin bl (hbl) production by B.cereus from pasteurized milk during refrigerated storage
    Author Name :: Bello, S. || Whong, C.M.Z. ||Abdullahi, I.O.
    Page Number :: 32-36
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0364032036
    A study was conducted to determine the effects of pH and storage period on the ability of B.cereus to produce haemolysin BL diarrhoeal enterotoxin (HBL) in Brain heart infusion broth (BHI). Wild B.cereus strains standardized to 1 Mcfarlands standard (about 8.5 log 10 CFU/ml) isolated from raw cow milk was inoculated into pasteurized milk samples at pH levels of 6.3, 6.4, 6.7 and 6.8. Milk samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (4-10oC) and isolates tested for their ability to produce the HBL enterotoxin in Brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at intervals of 24 hours for a period of 72 hrs. Enterotoxin assay was carried out with RPLA-BCET toxin detection kits (Oxoid) which is specific for the L2 component of the HBL diarrhoeal enterotoxin. Toxin titres of for isolates ranged from < 2 ng/ml for B.cereus cells from milk samples at pH 6.8 following 48 hours of storage to ≥64ng/ml for isolates from milk at pH 6.3 following 24 hours of storage and pH 6.7 after 48 hours of storage. Pearson correlation established a positive correlation between toxin titre production and B.cereus counts at the end of storage periods. DNA amplication by PCR revealed the presence of at least one hbl gene in isolates from milk samples at varying pH levels and storage periods, including non- enterotoxin producing isolates. Results imply the HBL diarrhoeal enterotoxin expression could be suppressed in some B.cereus milk isolates following refrigerated storage at some pH levels. Results also infer the possibility of sustained heritable traits of suppressed HBL toxin expression in some B.cereus milk isolates. Results also highlight the impact of storage conditions on hbl genes detection by PCR in the same B.cereus strain from milk samples.
    Keywords: B.cereus, pasteurized milk, refrigeration, HBL diarrhoeal enterotoxin.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Bello, S., Whong, C.M.Z., Abdullahi, I.O.},
    title = {Influence of ph and storage period on haemolysin bl (hbl) production by B.cereus from pasteurized milk during refrigerated storage},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {32-36},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35142
    Paper Title :: Study of Optical Properties of Transition Metal Oxides on the Basis of Energy Band and Energy State Analysis
    Author Name :: Surendra Kumar Singh || Dr. Raja Chauhan
    Page Number :: 37-40
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0364037040
    By Optical Properties is meant a material's response to exposure to electromagnetic radiation and, in particular, to visible light. In this article we will discuss the optical properties of Transition Metal Oxides on the basis of band structure. The energy band structure of 3d transition metal oxides are very helpful to determine their magnetic, electrical and optical properties. On the theory of energy band analysis of the scandium, titanium and vanadium oxides it is found that nonbonding 3d orbitals of neighboring cations overlaps each other and forms a 3d conduction band. 3d orbitals does not overlap with the oxides of other 3d metals. Due to this fact the 3d electrons remains in isolated energy states. In addition to this, transport of electrons takes place through the process of electron exchange between cation neighbors and also involves an activation energy. Conduction in these oxides includes transport of high mobility holes in the 2p band of the oxygen lattice and of low-mobility holes and electrons in the 3d levels of the cation lattice[1]. The transition metal oxides combines with other elements and this combination results in the synthesis of new compounds of different properties. These compounds ranges from chemical bonding from ionic (Oxides) through covalent (Sulphides, Arsenides) to metallic (Carbides, Nitrides). This range in the valence character provides a vast variety of energy band structures and transport processes. This in turn provides great field for theoretical and experimental investigations.The energy band structure of the solid is its most fundamental aspect. The main focus of this paper is to provide tentative energy band scheme for the 3d oxides. Due to the lack of reliable experimental data about single-crystal material, the proposed energy band can be regarded as tentative only. But at the same time it provides useful input for the experiment in future.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Surendra Kumar Singh, Dr. Raja Chauhan},
    title = {Study of Optical Properties of Transition Metal Oxides on the Basis of Energy Band and Energy State Analysis},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {37-40},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36025
    Paper Title :: Application of indegenous space technology to land use/cover mapping for cassava yield prediction in Nigeria
    Author Name :: OlogehIdowu O || Sobanke Victor O
    Page Number :: 41-49
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0364041049
    Nigeria is a nation who abandoned agriculture for oil earnings. This action resulted in food exports and thus food insecurity in the country. Agriculture has been the main source of foreign earnings for the nation before the discovery of oil, and can still be if enough attention is paid to the sector. One of the crops that can eradicate food insecurity in Nigeria and also earn foreign exchange is cassava. Cassava is the most consumed crop in Nigeria, and a crop whose products can be exported for foreign earnings. The Obasanjo government revived agriculture in Nigeria and especially paid attention to cassava cultivation for both national and international consumption; it also initiated and promoted the importance of space technology to economic development. NigeriaSat-1, a Nigeriansatellite has a lot of application areas, one of which is precision agriculture. As part of the effort to increase cassava production in Nigeria, the use of space tools (use of NigeriaSat-1 images and other satellite images) has been considered and adopted. This paper is on predicting cassava yield using NigeriaSat-1 images to create a land use/cover map on an eight hectares cassava farm in Kwali local government of the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria.
    Keywords: Space Technology, Satellite imageries, Cassava yield, Land use/cover map, Crop yield prediction
    @article{key:article,
    author = {OlogehIdowu O, Sobanke Victor O},
    title = {Application of indegenous space technology to land use/cover mapping for cassava yield prediction in Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {41-49},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36037
    Paper Title :: Active damping of output LC filter resonance for vector controlled VSI- fed AC motor drive
    Author Name :: Sindhu Shankar || Prof. K. V. Devadas || Prof. K. Suryasen
    Page Number :: 50-56
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0364050056
    For longer life of alternating-current (ac) machines, it is desirable to feed them by sinusoidal voltages. This can be achieved by connecting an LC filter between the voltage source inverter and the motor. However, the LC filter creates unwanted oscillation at system resonant frequency. A resistance connected in series with the capacitor is a solution to damp out the resonant frequency oscillation, but this damping technique increases loss in the system. In this paper, a simple active damping technique is proposed for lossless damping of vector-controlled ac motor drives with an LC filter. In the proposed technique, the resistance drop is emulated in the control using the terminal motor voltages. The proposed technique is carried out in the three-phase domain for better accuracy of the control. The proposed technique neither affects the dynamic response of the drive nor changes the design of the standard vector control loops. Results from experimental ac motor drives are presented.
    Keywords: Active damping (AD), induction machine, LCfilter, synchronous machine, vector control.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sindhu Shankar, Prof. K. V. Devadas, Prof. K. Suryasen},
    title = {Active damping of output LC filter resonance for vector controlled VSI- fed AC motor drive},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {50-56},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24001
    Paper Title :: Erratic Power Supply and Socio- Economic Development in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Adeoye. O .S || Titiloye. S. O
    Page Number :: 57-60
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0364057060
    This paper appraises the structure of power supply in Nigeria. Data were sourced through the conduct of interview with electricity consumers and the use of questionnaires for selected areas of Ado-Ekiti in order to determine the level of power supply in one year (2012). The frequency of power outages for the areas under consideration was determined and the effects of constant power failure on the socio-economic development of the metropolis were adequately assessed. Recommendations were made to proffer solution to erratic power supply in the metropolis with a view of improving the level of power supply.
    Keywords: Development, Erratic, Outage, Power, Supply
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adeoye. O .S, Titiloye. S. O},
    title = {Erratic Power Supply and Socio- Economic Development in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {57-60},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36015
    Paper Title :: Physio-chemical Analysis of Gwarmi Clay Deposit, Wurno Local Government Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: S. Aliyu || B. Garba || B.G. Danshehu || G. M. Argungu
    || A. D. Isah
    Page Number :: 62-67
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0364062067
    The Chemical composition and physical properties of Gwarmi clay deposit in Wurno Local Government Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria has been investigated. The physical properties investigated were firing shrinkage, bulk density, apparent porosity, cold crushing strength, thermal shock resistance and refractoriness. The chemical analysis was performed using X-Ray Fluorescent (XRF) method, while the physical properties investigations were carried out following American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) stipulated standards. The result of the chemical composition shows that, the clay is rich in Oxides of Silica (SiO2), Aluminum (Al2O3), and Iron (Fe2O3) with other oxides in trace amount. The Clay has a very low firing shrinkage of 1.5%, and higher water absorption of 14.95%. It has porosity of 19.0%, cold crushing strength of 304.55%kg/cm2and thermal shock resistance of 20 cycles. The investigated properties proved that Gwarmi Clay deposit belongs to kaolinic fireclay deposit. The clay deposit can be used as refractory materials as well as in the development of load bearing structures such as improved cook stoves.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. Aliyu, B. Garba, B.G. Danshehu, G. M. Argungu, and A. D. Isah},
    title = {Physio-chemical Analysis of Gwarmi Clay Deposit, Wurno Local Government Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {62-67},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36053
    Paper Title :: Sensorless Control Algorithm For High Dynamic Performance PMSM
    Author Name :: Shruthi N M || Dr. Shivanna S || Prof.K.V.Devadas
    Page Number :: 68-72
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0364068072
    A low-time-consuming and low-cost sensorless-control algorithm for high-dynamic performance permanent-magnet synchronous motors, both surface and internal permanent-magnet mounted for position and speed estimation is introduced. This control algorithm is based on the estimation of rotor speed and angular position starting from the back electromotive force space-vector determination without voltage sensors by using the reference voltages given by the current controllers instead of the actual ones. This choice obviously introduces some errors that must be vanished by means of a compensating function. The novelties of the proposed estimation algorithm are the position-estimation equation and the process of compensation of the inverter phase lag that also suggests the final mathematical form of the estimation. The mathematical structure of the estimation guarantees a high degree of robustness against parameter variation. The proposed low-cost sensorless-control algorithm shows the high dynamic performances of the sensorless-control system also with reduced equipment.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Shruthi N M, Dr. Shivanna S, Prof.K.V.Devadas},
    title = {Sensorless Control Algorithm For High Dynamic Performance PMSM},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {68-72},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36060
    Paper Title :: Neural Network Based User Interface for Accident Forecast in Manufacturing Industries
    Author Name :: Adedeji, P.A. || Olalere, O.A. || Adebimpe O.A. || Olunusi S.O.
    Page Number :: 73-79
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0364073079
    Safety in manufacturing industries nowadays can be seen to be gaining grounds of which its importance can neither be underestimated nor overemphasized. As a matter of facts, many industries have embraced an appraisal in their safety department by selecting specific safety interventions on which budget is to be made for the year. A critical look at selected safety interventions like personal protective equipment, motivation for workers, accident investigation, awareness creation, training, and guarding, shows that a judgmental approach to their selection in other to allocate funds for their execution often results into over allocation or under allocation of funds without reducing the number of accidents. This paper has been able to design a user-friendly interface to simulate cost expended over certain safety interventions and the corresponding number of accidents recorded for a period of sixteen years using artificial neural network. The model was then used to predict number of accidents given the budget on the interventions for further years. The user friendly interface was developed which can be used by manufacturing industries to simulate budgets on commonly employed safety interventions and expected number of accidents based on a successfully trained neural network algorithm with a regression value of 0.99952.
    Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Safety Intervention, Graphical User Interface (GUI),
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adedeji, P.A., Olalere, O.A., Adebimpe O.A., Olunusi S.O.},
    title = {Neural Network Based User Interface for Accident Forecast in Manufacturing Industries},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {73-79},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36084
    Paper Title :: Synthesis and application of urethane as corrosion inhibitor for ZA-27 in 0.5M NaCl
    Author Name :: Vanitha G.K || Lokesh H. B || Bheema Raju V. B
    Page Number :: 80-89
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0364080089
    Urethane was prepared from Naptho[2,1]furan -2-carbixyazide and chloramphenicol. The inhibition of the corrosion of ZA-27 in 0. 5 M NaCl by urethane has been investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization. The results obtained in weight loss studies, show that these investigated compounds are good inhibitors and their inhibition efficiencies (IE %) increase with the increase of inhibitor concentration, whereas decreases with increase in immersion time and temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization studies demonstrate the inhibitors under investigation act as mixed type inhibitors and inhibitors changes the mechanism of hydrogen evolution. Effect of temperature is studied between 303 and 333 K differing by 10K and determination of activation parameters is also discussed. The mechanism of adsorption had been explained on the basis of chemical structure of the investigated inhibitors. It was found that there is a good agreement between the different tested techniques. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) was used to evaluate the surface morphology and surface coverage inhibited and uninhibited samples of ZA-27 alloy. The effect of corrosion on the surface morphology of the ZA-27 alloy sample was analyzed by recording the SEM images of the alloy samples.
    Keywords: Corrosion inhibition, urethane, ZA-27 alloy, NaCl, Potentio dynamic polarisation, Taffel extra polation, Scanning electron microscopy.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Vanitha G.K, Lokesh H. B, Bheema Raju V. B},
    title = {Synthesis and application of urethane as corrosion inhibitor for ZA-27 in 0.5M NaCl},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {80-89},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36086
    Paper Title :: A review on functionally graded materials
    Author Name :: Shahistha Aysha CPM || Binol Varghese || Anjali Baby
    Page Number :: 90-101
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03640900101
    In this paper a new and robust class of materials, widely referred to as Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) has been introduced. FGMs are entirely different from conventional alloys or composites in which the mechanical properties such as Young's modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, shear modulus of elasticity, and material density, vary smoothly and continuously in preferred directions. These are a class of nature inspired materials. In this study, an overview of fabrication processes, areas of application, the various analytical approaches available in the literature for FGM modeling are presented and the vast application of this novel material has been illustrated using a case study in which behaviour of a latest material referred to as Functionally Graded Shape Memory Alloy composites (FG-SMA) has been analyzed. . Here, the work mainly concentrates on the transformation behaviour of FG-SMA composites subjected to thermal loading.
    Keywords: Functionally Graded Materials, Processing Technique of FGM, Applications, Phase Transformation.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Shahistha Aysha CPM, Binol Varghese, Anjali Baby},
    title = {A review on functionally graded materials},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {90-101},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35088
    Paper Title :: Text Based Hybrid Clustering Algorithm Using FAST and Semantic Similarity Algorithm
    Author Name :: D. Thamizhmani || Mrs. V. M. Gayathri
    Page Number :: 102-107
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/036401020107
    Efficient estimation of semantic similarity between the words plays an important role in various tasks on the web such as document clustering, community mining, relation extraction, and automatic metadata extraction. An experiential method is proposed to provide a semantic based search that uses the technical English dictionary and the second is page count based metric and a text snippet based metric retrieved from a web search engine for two words. In particular, we characterize a variety of word co-occurrence measures using page counts and assimilate those with lexical patterns extracted from the text snippets. To classify the frequent semantic relations that exist amongst two set of words, we suggest a novel pattern extraction algorithm and a pattern clustering algorithm. The finest grouping of page counts-based co-occurrence measures and lexical pattern clusters is learned using support vector machines. Moreover our experimental results show that the method is reasonable and effective.
    Keywords: Relation extraction, Community mining, Document clustering, Metadata extraction, Semantic similarity, Page count, Snippet
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D. Thamizhmani, Mrs. V. M. Gayathri},
    title = {Text Based Hybrid Clustering Algorithm Using FAST and Semantic Similarity Algorithm},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {102-107},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 06|| Version V ||June 2014
    Paper Id :: 35113
    Paper Title :: Role & Importance of Lean Manufacturing in Manufacturing Industry
    Author Name :: Sumit Kumar Singh || Kuldeep Sharma || Deepak Kumar
    || Tarun Gupta
    Page Number :: 01-14
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/036501014
    As the competition in market is growing at a very fast pace, one can survive in today's industrial world by adopting the philosophy of Lean Manufacturing. In order to stay competitive, producing cheaper products at a faster rate Lean Manufacturing would help the industry. This paper highlights the Lean Manufacturing with its principles, tools & techniques so as to give an advantage by using these tools and techniques. With the help of these tools & techniques a better idea can be generated about the product flow in the organisation, value addition to the product through various processes and the time taken to produce the same. Lean Manufacturing helps to identify the different types of wastes and defects during manufacturing and take the remedial steps to eliminate them.
    Keywords: Kaizen, Kanban, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), Cellular Manufacturing, Just In Time (JIT).
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sumit Kumar Singh, Kuldeep Sharma, Deepak Kumar, Tarun Gupta},
    title = {Role & Importance of Lean Manufacturing in Manufacturing Industry},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {01-14},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36038
    Paper Title :: IMPACT OF ADVANCES ON BENEFICIARIES OF UNION BANK OF INDIA : AN EMPIRICAL STUDY
    Author Name :: Dr. (Smt.) Rajeshwari M. Shettar
    Page Number :: 15-24
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0365015024
    This article aims at presenting a portrait of Impact of Advances on Beneficiaries of Union Bank of India. Beneficiaries were selected from Union Bank of India's branches at Dharwad District. The sample size of 300 beneficiaries was selected on the basis of stratified random sampling method. Data was processed and tabulated using Microsoft Excel-2007 software, then the data were analyzed with reference to the objectives and hypothesis by using differential analysis like chi-square test, unpaired t-test and one way ANOVA by using SPSS 16.0 statistical software and the results are obtained. The study found that, there has been a considerable change in the net income of the beneficiaries. The results shows that, there has been a considerable increase in the income level, assets, status, employment, level of education, number of earning members in the family and the like. The study also reveals that, there is a positive socio-economic impact of advances on beneficiaries.
    Keywords: Loan Products, Advances, Beneficiaries, Socio - Economic Impact.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. (Smt.) Rajeshwari M. Shettar},
    title = {IMPACT OF ADVANCES ON BENEFICIARIES OF UNION BANK OF INDIA : AN EMPIRICAL STUDY},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {15-24},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36071
    Paper Title :: Object Tracking Techniques for Video Tracking: A Survey
    Author Name :: Mansi Manocha || Parminder Kaur
    Page Number :: 25-29
    Paper Index :: : : 09.1913/0365025029
    Object detection and tracking are the tasks that are important and challenging in various computer vision applications such as surveillance, vehicle navigation, and autonomous robot navigation. Video surveillance works in a dynamic environment, especially for humans and vehicles. It is a technology helpful in fighting against terrorism, crime, public safety and for efficient management of traffic. Detection of moving objects from a video is important for object detection, target tracking, and understanding behaviour in video surveillance. Tracking of stationary foreground regions is one of the most important requirements for surveillance systems based on the tracking of abandoned or stolen objects or parked vehicles. To detect stationary foreground objects, the use of Object tracking techniques is the most popular choice. The objective of this paper is to highlight the various techniques of object tracking. This paper shows how one can simplify tracking by imposing constraints on the motion or appearance of objects. Prior knowledge about the number and the size of objects, or the object appearance and shape helps to simplify the problem. Numerous approaches for object tracking have been discussed.
    Keywords: tracking, frames, pixel, detection, tracking, spatial
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mansi Manocha, Parminder Kaur},
    title = {Object Tracking Techniques for Video Tracking: A Survey},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {25-29},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36079
    Paper Title :: A particle Swarm Optimization-based Framework for Agile Software Effort Estimation
    Author Name :: Manga I || Blamah NV
    Page Number :: 30-36
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0365030036
    Software effort and cost estimation process in any software engineering project is a very critical component. The success or failures of projects depend heavily on the accuracy of effort and schedule estimations. The paper examined A Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Framework for Agile Software Effort Estimation. Traditional approaches were used to estimate effort for agile projects, but they mostly result in inaccurate estimates. This paper aimed at the application of some Particle swarm optimization framework as a soft computing technique for agile software development methodology effort estimation. The paper also identified project that uses agile development methodology, later applied Particle Swarm Optimization to minimize project duration and effort required to build software. Finally the PSO model improves the effort and time estimation accuracy by minimizing these parameters and the estimates values are close to the actual results. Generally, the acceptable target value for Mean magnitude of relative error (MMRE) is 25%. It indicates that the magnitude of relative error (MRE) for each project for the established estimation model should be less than 25% on the average. A software development effort estimation method with a smaller MMRE value than the one with bigger MMRE value gives better estimates than a model with a bigger MMRE value. The MMRE obtained from the paper indicated that the MMRE value for effort is 5.12% less than the normal established estimation model.
    Keywords: Optimisation, effort estimation, agile, software
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Manga I , Blamah NV},
    title = {A particle Swarm Optimization-based Framework for Agile Software Effort Estimation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {30-36},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36128
    Paper Title :: Feasibility Study of Bellary Nala Irrigation Project
    Author Name :: Sreedevi R || Shreedhar R
    Page Number :: 37-45
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0365037045
    Gravity dams are solid concrete structures that maintain their stability against design loads from the geometric shape, mass and strength of the concrete. The purposes of dam construction may include navigation, flood damage reduction, hydroelectric power generation, fish and wildlife enhancement, water quality, water supply, and recreation. The design and evaluation of concrete gravity dam for earthquake loading must be based on appropriate criteria that reflect both the desired level of safety and the choice of the design and evaluation procedures. In India, the entire country is divided into 4 seismic zones, depending upon the severity of the earthquake intensity. Thus, the main aim of this study is to design high concrete gravity dams based on the U.S.B.R. recommendations in seismic zone II of India, for varying horizontal earthquake intensities from 0.10 g - 0.30 g with 0.05 g increment to take into account the uncertainty and severity of earthquake intensities and constant other design loads, and to analyze its stability and stress conditions using analytical 2D gravity method. The vertical, principal and shear stresses are also obtained. Feasibility studies are carried out to design a concrete gravity dam for horizontal earthquake intensity greater than 0.30 g without changing other loads and or dimension of the dam and keeping provision for drainage gallery to reduce the uplift pressure significantly.
    Keywords: Comparison; Concrete Gravity Dam; Dam Failure; Design; Earthquake Intensity, Stability and Stress
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sreedevi R, Shreedhar R},
    title = {Feasibility Study of Bellary Nala Irrigation Project},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {37-45},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36119
    Paper Title :: Analysing Forward Difference Scheme on Huffman to Encode and Decode Data Losslessly
    Author Name :: Adamu M. Garba || P. B. Zirra
    Page Number :: 46-54
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0365046054
    Data can be characters in text file, numbers that are samples of speech or image waveforms, or sequences of numbers that are generated by other processes,[1]. This type of data can be saved or transmitted over the Internet from one point to another through a communication channel. Data usually sent is in the form of binary digits (bits) called packets. Communication channel, however, has some overheads, which includes speed of transmission and bandwidth. For this reason, there is need to reduce the size of data to be transmitted through the reduction of redundancies in the data to be transmitted, that is, compression. This paper proposed a new algorithm, which encodes data as well as decodes or regenerates the replica of the encoded data. Using Forward Difference Scheme on Huffman, the character positions(C) can be transformed to sets of delta differences (D). The D values are later regenerated into Fixed Length Code (FLC) values using the twos complement. The FLC values are going to be used to further compute the new probabilities (Pnew), which could be used to encode data using Huffman's algorithm.
    Keywords: Data Compression, Forward Difference, Lossy , Lossless, Huffman
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adamu M. Garba, P. B. Zirra},
    title = {Analysing Forward Difference Scheme on Huffman to Encode and Decode Data Losslessly},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {46-54},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36105
    Paper Title :: Quality of life in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and its correlation with severity of illness
    Author Name :: Sanjibani Panigrahi || Rajendra Kumar Acharya
    || Mukesh K Patel || Kalpesh V Chandrani
    Page Number :: 55-60
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0365055060
    With the advent of deinstitutionalization there is increasing interest in the quality of life of caregivers of patients of schizophrenia all over the world. Quality of life of 50 caregivers of schizophrenia patients were evaluated using Q-LES-Q-SF. Severity of Schizophrenia was evaluated using PANNS scales. Quality of life was found to be moderately low. Parents of patients had the poorest quality of life compared to caregivers in other relationships. Quality of life in caregivers was negatively correlated with PANSS general psychopathology score and PANSS total score.
    Keywords: Caregivers, PANSS general psychopathology score, PANSS total score, Schizophrenia, Quality of Life
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sanjibani Panigrahi, Rajendra Kumar Acharya, Mukesh K Patel, Kalpesh V Chandrani},
    title = {Quality of life in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and its correlation with severity of illness},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {55-60},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36098
    Paper Title :: China's increasing soft power; Implications for the United States
    Author Name :: Muhammad Daim Fazil
    Page Number :: 61-67
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0365061066
    China in current years has been pursuing its national interests through its global workout of economic and soft power as it projects a non-aggressive, friendly diplomacy to states in emergingareas. China is consuming its soft power plan to stimulate its own national interests, than of becoming a direct challenge to U.S.It is China's swiftdevelopment that is motivating its state advancement forward, and the country's requirement for natural resources, feasible export markets, and political impact has lead China to intensify its activities with emerging countries. The emphasis of Chinese inventiveness in many countries is confirmingits access to feasible energy sources and soft power plays a substantial role in setting energy affiliation in the Middle East, Latin America, Africaand elsewhere.At present China lacks a synchronized national soft power scheme and considers its soft power as protective and largely responsive, a standpointenvisioned to dispeluncertainties in other countries of a China threat.China has not pursued to swap or to replace U.S. in its part of security source in the Middle East, South East Asia or somewhere else. But the economic engagements even in American neighboring countries have triggered a sort of competition and apprehensions in the views of policy makers of U.S.Thus, U.S. policy makers should be familiar with China's intentions of upholding its own economic growth and internal strength as they craft strategies to guarantee that the US encourages its own proceduresefficiently.
    Keywords: China, Diplomacy, Investment, Soft Power, United States
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Muhammad Daim Fazil},
    title = {China's Increasing Soft Power: Implications for the United States},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {61-66},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 06|| Version VI ||June 2014
    Paper Id :: 36014
    Paper Title :: Logistic Regression: A Paradigm for Dichotomous Response Data
    Author Name :: Ogunfiditimi, Franklin (Ph.D) || Oguntade, Emmanuel
    Page Number :: 01-05
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03660105
    Poverty is seen as a disease that has infected many homes in different countries of the world which need urgent and immediate treatment for Millennium Development Goals to be achieved or actualised. This article presents the theoretical basis for binary response data set, as well as the empirical results of the analysisof demographic data obtained from various households in Gbagyi Community of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria.The study examines the prevalence rate and possible causes of poverty in Dobi, Gwako and Bako communities in Gwagwalada Area Council with the application of Logistic Regression Model. The empirical analysis reveal that socioeconomic status and level of education of household head are inversely related. It also shows a strong association between poverty and level of income of household head. While age, size, assets of household head and other demographic variables considered show various levels of insignificance in the estimated model. Ageing increases the likelihood of poverty while literacy, family size, sex decreases the chance .Based on the empirical results, the researcher recommends the establishment of more public schools so as to increase their level of education, provision of basic social amenities as well as encourage family planning among rural dwellers so as to serve as booster of socio economic status and prevent poverty trap in time.
    Keywords: Logit Model, Odds Ratio, Probability Model, Dichotomous data, Poverty, poverty trap.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ogunfiditimi, Franklin (Ph.D) || Oguntade, Emmanuel},
    title = {Logistic Regression: A Paradigm for Dichotomous Response Data},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {01-05},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211095
    Paper Title :: Discerning Group-Type Analysis of Crude Oils from Osso Platform, Nigeria, Using Vibrational Spectroscopy with Multivariate Statistics
    Author Name :: Etukudo, Ifiok U. || Okop, Imeh J. || Obadimu, Clement O.
    Page Number :: 06-17
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/036606017
    Operationally, twenty samples of particle -rich crude oils from Osso-Platform were quantitatively fractionated into saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA) by asphaltenes precipitation in n-hexane and high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The newly developed and fully automated HPLC method has a sample capacity of 0.6g of crude oil. The spectroscopic probe technique captured infrared(IR). The crude oil have been characterized by vibrational spectroscopy in the infrared(IR) region. Principal component analyses (PCA) of the data sets from IR was performed so that broad spectrum and exploratory data analyses could be conducted. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression models were built for each SARA component from IR data to predict the amount of SARA components. These models successfully fitted the experimental data from IR analyses and indicated good predictive ability for the crude oil composition. The regression models from IR were not modeled properly for aromatics and asphaltenes but were properly analyzed and modeled excellently for saturates and resin components. For SARA determination, IR spectroscopy appears to be a favourable alternative to the more time-consuming fractionation method.
    Keywords: Particle-rich Oils, Vibrational spectroscopy, Principal Component Analysis, Partial least- square(PLS) Regression Models
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Etukudo, Ifiok U., Okop, Imeh J., Obadimu, Clement O.},
    title = {Discerning Group-Type Analysis of Crude Oils from Osso Platform, Nigeria, Using Vibrational Spectroscopy with Multivariate Statistics},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {06-17},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211048
    Paper Title :: Nutritional and Anti Nutritional Characteristics of Some Dominant Fungi Species in South Western Nigeria.
    Author Name :: Adeduntan , Sunday Adeniyi
    Page Number :: 18-24
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0366018024
    This study was carried out in three forest reserves of the southwest, Nigeria (Akure forest reserve, Omo forest reserve, Eda forest reserve), examining the nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics of six dominant fungi species (i. e. Trametes vesicolor, Pleurotus sajor cajor, Xylaria polymorpha, Xylaria hypoxylon, Auricularia-auricularia judae and Coltricia perennis). The proximate analysis, the crude fibre, the crude protein, the fat content and the ash content were determined. For the anti-nutrient composition, oxalate, phytate, tannin and the flavonoid content were also determined. The mushroom contained 0.855-0.225mg/g of oxalate, 11.535-3.705mg/g of phytate, 0.116-0.035mg/g of tannin, 4.795-0.925mg/g of flavonoid. The mushroom species also contained 7.645-0.610 of the ash content, 17.500-3.720 of crude protein, 36.805-2.490 of crude fibre and 5.875-0.345 of the fat content. The mushroom species contained 0.235-0.29 of calcium, 0.264-0.515 of magnesium and 45.81-137.72 of phosphorus.
    Keywords: Nutrition, anti nutrients, minerals, dominant, mushrooms.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adeduntan , Sunday Adeniyi},
    title = {Nutritional and Anti Nutritional Characteristics of Some Dominant Fungi Species in South Western Nigeria.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {18-24},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34147
    Paper Title :: Integral Solutions of Binary Quadratic Diophantine equation...
    Author Name :: M.A.GOPALAN || R.ANBUSELVI
    Page Number :: 25-29
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0366025029
    Non – trivial integral solutions for the binary quadratic diophantine equation...
    Keywords: Binary quadratic, integral solutions MSC 2000 Subject classification number: 11D09
    @article{key:article,
    author = {M.A.GOPALAN , R.ANBUSELVI},
    title = {Integral Solutions of Binary Quadratic Diophantine equation...},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {25-29},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32048
    Paper Title :: Effects Of Crude Oil Spill In Germination And Growth Of Hibiscus Esculentus (Okra) Inbayelsa State Niger Delta Region Of Nigeria
    Author Name :: Cara FiriAppah || D. C. Okujagu || S. E.Bassey
    Page Number :: 30-40
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0366030040
    The effects of crude oil in plant germination and growth were investigated using Hibiscus esculentus. A total of 15 pots having 2 viable. Hibiscus esculentus seeds each; containing 20 kg of loamy soil were investigated. Pots were used as control experiment, 5 had crude oil applied before planting seeds at levels of 100ml 150ml, 200ml, 250ml and 300ml and 5 had crude oil applied in soil after germination of seeds. It was observed that seeds in the control pots had normal growth, where as in the crude oil applied soil before planting, seeds had no germination and those in crude oil applied soil after planting, the plants had stunted growth.
    Keywords: Crude oil, hibiscus esculentus, seeds, growth, and germination
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Cara FiriAppah, D. C. Okujagu, S. E.Bassey},
    title = {Effects Of Crude Oil Spill In Germination And Growth Of Hibiscus Esculentus (Okra) Inbayelsa State Niger Delta Region Of Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {30-40},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36154
    Paper Title :: Bus Stand Lamp Using Piezoelectric Energy
    Author Name :: M. N. M. Nasir|||M. N. Aziz ||Z. H. Bohari ||H. I. Jaafar ||Mohd Hafiz Jali|| M. K. Nor
    Page Number :: 41-45
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0366041045
    The development of piezoelectric energy harvester has rapidly becoming an attractive research in these few years mainly due to the largely use of semiconductor in power supply technology. Harvesting ambient vibration energy using piezoelectric element has become an interesting topic since the technology is using the free energy source, which can reduce a significant value in cost development. The prototype of bus stand lamp using piezoelectric energy was developed to show the concept of the harvester system. The objective of this product is to overcome the lacking lighting system problem for bus stand at rural place. By using the free energy source, which is gain from the people walking across this area, the piezoelectric disc was placed on the floor whereby the location of the piezoelectric disc is determined based on the maximum harvesting output power when people step on it. Power that harvested will then be stored in the super capacitor or battery before delivered to the load. The light emitting diode (LED) is used as the supply of the light to the bus stand since the energy efficiency of LED is higher compared to the traditional lighting. Two experiments were conducted to determine the maximum output of piezoelectric harvesting base which from the experimental results, it shows that a significant
    output voltage and current of 0.372A and 0.421A respectively is successfully generated which then can be use to charge the battery.
    Keywords:piezoelectric, super capacitor, harvester.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {M. N. M. Nasir, M. N. Aziz , Z. H. Bohari , H. I. Jaafar , Mohd Hafiz Jali, M. K. Nor},
    title = {Bus Stand Lamp Using Piezoelectric Energy},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {41-45},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36153
    Paper Title :: An Engineering Ethics Case Study Review: Petrobras P-36 Accident
    Author Name :: O. A. A. Ghani|| M. Z. Kamruzaman|| M. F. Sulaima|| M.N. Othmand
    Page Number :: 46-50
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0366046050
    In 2001, the world largest oil production in the coast of Brazil was sank due to the series of explosions. This accident claimed 11 lives of crew members and 1 of 4 main support columns affected and lame. The purpose of this case study is to learn from previous experience about the engineering failure from engineering ethics viewpoints which cover the responsible of an engineer to keep safety of people around and maintain of environmental care.
    Keywords: Case study, engineering failure, environmental care, engineering safety.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {O. A. A. Ghani, M. Z. Kamruzaman, M. F. Sulaima, M.N. Othman.},
    title = {An Engineering Ethics Case Study Review: Petrobras P-36 Accident},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {46-50},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36150
    Paper Title :: Glaucoma Detection in Color Fundus Images Using Cup to Disc Ratio
    Author Name :: Sobia Naz ||Sheela N Rao
    Page Number :: 51-58
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0366051058
    GLAUCOMA is a group of diseases that can damage the eye's optic nerve and result in vision loss and permanent blindness. Glaucoma is a disease characterized by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). This increased IOP leads to damage of optic nerve axons at the back of the eye, with eventual deterioration of vision. CDR is a key indicator forthe detection of glaucoma. The ratio of the size of the optic cup to the optic disc, also known as the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), is one of the important clinical indicators of glaucoma, and is currently determined manually by trained ophthalmologists, limiting its potential in mass screening for early detection. In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the CDR automatically. Preprocessing methods such as anisotropic filtering have been performed. Automatic disc extraction is done using 3 techniques 1) Edge detection method, 2) Optimal thresholding method, and 3) Manual threshold analysis. Threshold level-set method is used for the detection of cup. The methods have been tested on the images in the publicly available DRIVE database.
    Keywords: Color Fundus Images,Glaucoma,Optic Cup,Optic Disc,Cup-toDisc Ratio(CDR).
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sobia Naz , Sheela N Rao},
    title = {Glaucoma Detection in Color Fundus Images Using Cup to Disc Ratio},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {51-58},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36072
    Paper Title :: Structure and Displacement Characteristics of the Brage Fault, Northern North Sea Sedimentary Basin
    Author Name :: Adiotomre E. E.
    Page Number :: 59-67
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0366059067
    3-D seismic analysis of the Brage fault zone reveals it is over 21 km is strike length and has a maximum displacement of about 610 ms TWTT. The along strike trace of the Brage fault is characterized by four geometric fault segments identified as A, B, C, and D. Geometrical distribution, structural and displacement characteristics were use in delineating the fault segments along the fault trace. Geometric fault segments A and B are northern segments; segment C is a middle segment, and segment D is a southern segment. Geometric fault segment A occurs with a strike length of about 6 km from its northern tip and with a maximum displacement of 610 ms TWTT. Geometric fault segment B is about 4 km in strike length from its northern tip and with has a maximum displacement of 440 ms TWTT. Geometric fault segment C is about 5 km in strike length, and has maximum horizon offset of 330 ms TWTT. Geometric fault segment D has a length of about 7 km from its southern tip, and with a maximum displacement of 480 ms TWTT. Minima displacement and abrupt changes in fault strike marks the boundaries of the fault segments. Consequently, jog structures characterize the along strike traces of the Brage fault. A prominent structural feature associated with the southern and northern domains of the Brage fault is the Brage Horst that formed in the intervening blocks between the Brage fault and opposite dipping faults. The Horst structure tapers from its southern part where it is about 2.4 km wide to its northern region where it is about 300 m in width. The interaction between the geometric segments controls the present day structural geometry of the Brage fault.
    Keywords: Brage fault, displacement, geometric fault segments, geoframe, horst structure, northern North Sea.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adiotomre E. E.},
    title = {Structure and Displacement Characteristics of the Brage Fault, Northern North Sea Sedimentary Basin},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {59-67},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36059
    Paper Title :: Influence of Wheat on Nutritional Qualities of Pleurotus Florida Cultivation
    Author Name :: Adeduntan S.A.
    Page Number :: 68-78
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0366068078
    This research was under taken with the aim of determining the influence of wheat substrate on nutritional quality of P. florida. Pleurotus florida was cultivated on different wood species (Gmelina arborea and Ceiba pentandra) as source of treatments. The nutritional quality in terms of ash, moisture, fibre, fat and protein content and the anti-nutrient factors such as oxalate, phytate, alkaloid and tannin were also examined. It was discovered that the moisture content of the mushroom is generally high. It was also revealed that the mushroom is an excellent source of protein and fibre. The fibre percentage gotten the mushroom cultivated on Ceiba pentandra substrates is higher than on Gmelina arborea and. Protein content on dry matter basis ranged between 22-47%.
    Keywords: Susbstrate, Mushroom, Pleurotus florida
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adeduntan S.A.},
    title = {Influence of Wheat on Nutritional Qualities of Pleurotus Florida Cultivation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {68-78},
    month = {June}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 33027
    Paper Title :: The effect of solute concentration on activation energy change of
    a solution and the determination of solute concentration in the
    solution
    Author Name :: Dikko A. B. || Yerima J. B.
    Page Number :: 79-85
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0366079085
    Time of flow, reduced time ratios, viscosity coefficients, reduced viscosity ratios, change in activation energies of distilled water, powdered Dano milk-water mixtures and Glucose-water mixtures, were determined through a simple constructed capillary viscometer. It was observed that activation energy change increases linearly with increase in solute concentration in a solvent. Simple techniques were developed that can determine solute concentration in a solvent at 308 K, by placing the value of the reduced time ratio
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dikko A. B., Yerima J. B.},
    title = {The effect of solute concentration on activation energy change of
    a solution and the determination of solute concentration in the
    solution},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {79-85},
    month = {June}
    }