• Volume 2 || Issue 7 || versions 1 || July 2013
    Paper Id :: 26056
    Paper Title :: Physiological, Biochemical and Cellular Changes Associated With the Ripening Of Bitter Less Bitter Gourd (Momordica Dioica Roxb. Ex Willd.) Fruits
    Author Name :: Payal T. Shah ||T. V. Ramana Rao
    Page Number :: 01-05
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02710105
    Fruits of Momordica dioica were selected at seven sequential developmental stages, starting from very young stage to post ripened stage and were analyzed. From the study physiological and biochemical changes it was concluded that gradual decrease was found in chlorophyll-a (5.25 fold), chlorophyll-b (13.0 fold), total chlorophyll (8.23 fold), starch (6.5 fold) and free amino acids (14.4 fold), while in case of total proteins decrease was observed from pre-mature stage to post ripened stage 67.2 percent. In case of RNA, decrease was found 55.1 percent from mature stage to post ripened stage. However, gradual increase level was found only in carotenoids (2.5 fold) and in total sugars (209 percent), non-reducing sugars (317 percent) and phenol (2.9 fold) increase was found from very young stage to pre-ripened stage. In contrast the amount of anthocyanins, reducing sugars and DNA was unstable.Hydrolytic enzymes viz., Amylase, Invertase and Peroxidase; the activity of Amylase decreased from mature stage to post ripened stage (86.73 percent). While activities of Invertase and Peroxidase was noticed in 94.3 percent decreased and 44.64 percent increased from very young stage to mature stage respectively.In contrast, the activities of cell wall degrading enzymes (such as cellulase, polygalactouronase (PG) and pectin methyl esterase (PME)) 6.38 fold increase activity was noticed in cellulase activity from very young stage to ripened stage while during ripening PG activity gradually increased with 2.37 fold, whereas the activity of PME was noticed inconsistent. These biochemical changes also reflect on cellular changes such as increasing cell number, enlargement of cell, decreasing cell content, separation of middle lamella etc., were observed during the mature stage to post ripened stage. The low production of ethylene and an increased rate of respiration indicates that the bitter less bitter gourd fruit falls under the category of climacteric fruits.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Payal T. Shah , T. V. Ramana Rao},
    title = {Physiological, Biochemical and Cellular Changes Associated With the Ripening Of Bitter Less Bitter Gourd (Momordica Dioica Roxb. Ex Willd.) Fruits},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {01-05},
    month = {July}
    }
    Paper Id :: 25009
    Paper Title :: Effect Of Temperature On Methyl Ester (Biodiesel) Yield From Groundnut And Palm Kernel Oils
    Author Name :: IGBOKWE J. O.|| NWAIWU C.F
    Page Number :: 06-08
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02710608
    Methyl ester (Biodiesel) was produced from Nigeria palm kernel and groundnut oils through direct base-atalysed trans-esterification process using methanol and sodium hydroxide as alcohol and catalyst respectively. The trans-esterification process involved 1 litre of palm kernel and groundnut oil each, 200ml of methanol, 1.0% NaOH by weight. The process was carried out at different reaction temperatures in order to examine the effect of temperature on yield. The temperature was varied from 30oC to 70oC. The results show that the methyl ester yield of 87.67% for palm kernel oil reached maximum at 65oC while that of groundnut oil attained maximum value of 82.5% at 50oC. These show that yield increased with temperature up to certain points beyond which it decreased due to increase in miscibility.
    Keywords: Trans-esterification, Temperature, Yield, Methyl Ester.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {IGBOKWE J. O., NWAIWU C.F.},
    title = {Effect Of Temperature On Methyl Ester (Biodiesel) Yield From Groundnut And Palm Kernel Oils},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {06-08},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26147
    Paper Title :: Sea Wave Transmission at the Mangrove Forest of Rhizophora Sp
    Author Name :: Ambar Kristiyanto || Haryo Dwito Armono || Soemarno
    Page Number :: 09-17
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/027109017
    One of the benefits of the Rhizophora sp. mangrove forest in the coastal area is its capability in attenuating the forces of incident waves towards the shore line so that the coastal erosion can be minimized. This study aimed to analyze characteristics of sea waves: wave period (Ti), wave height (Hi) and wave transmission (Ht) through the clumps of Rhizophora sp. at a certain porosity (Np). These characteristics are used in predicting value of the transmission coefficient (Kt). The study began with the making of the canal sized of 30 m x 6.5 m x 1 m; measurement of root diameter, root length and length of the submerged trunk; measurement of wave height, periode of incident wave, and the transmitted wave by using the SBE (Sea Bird Electronics) gauge at an interval distance of 10 m. The results showed that the transmission coefficient is inversely proportional to the value of wave steepness (Hi (gTi2)-1) and porosity (Np). The ability in minimizing sea wave value at Rhizopora sp. class is 57,73 % on the porosity 0,9828.
    Keywords: porosity, Rhizophora sp., transmission coefficient, wave transmission
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ambar Kristiyanto, Haryo Dwito Armono , Soemarno},
    title = {Sea Wave Transmission at the Mangrove Forest of Rhizophora Sp},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {09-17},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26125
    Paper Title :: IPSO+K-Means: Efficient Algorithm For Document Clustering
    Author Name :: V.Saravanakumar
    Page Number :: 18-24
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0271018024
    This paper presents a Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO) and K-means algorithm for solving clustering problems that perform fast document clustering and avoid trapping in a local optimal solution. Recent studies have shown that partitional clustering algorithms are more suitable for clustering large datasets. The K-means algorithm is the most commonly used partitional clustering algorithm because it can be easily implemented and is the most efficient one in terms of the execution time. The major problem with this algorithm is that it is sensitive to the selection of the initial partition and may converge to local optima. So Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO) +K-means document clustering algorithm is performed to get fast document clustering and avoid being trapping in a local optimal solution. The proposed solution generates more accurate, robust and better clustering results when compared with K-means and PSO. IPSO algorithm is applied for four different text document datasets. The number of documents in the datasets range from 204 to over 800, and the number of terms range from over 5000 to over 7000 are taken for analysis.
    Keywords: Clustering, Improved Particle Swarm Optimization, Data mining, K_Means, Cluster Centroid.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {V.Saravanakumar},
    title = {IPSO+K-Means: Efficient Algorithm For Document Clustering)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {18-24},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26101
    Paper Title :: Compensation Power Design Framework For High Performance Asic Liquid Dispenser System (ALDS).
    Author Name :: Jonathan U. Agber, ||Akura Mise, ||Kennedy C. Okafor
    Page Number :: 25-34
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0271025034
    In FPGA/CPLD based designs, the highest efficiency at all load conditions enables system designers to overcome thermal challenges, hence reaching out for a new level of system miniaturization. Besides, with the ever increasing power consumption trend in today's high-performance systems, managing the power within the system design budget is becoming as important as meeting the performance specification of the system design. Managing system power within the budget also has significant impact in maintaining overall system reliability. This paper presents ALDS system model with the synthesis results as well as discusses its energy efficiency and optimization for low power consumption, thus reducing thermal and power component cost as well as increasing overall system reliability.
    Keywords: Miniaturization, Performance, Budget, Reliability, ALDS
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jonathan U. Agber, Akura Mise, Kennedy C. Okafor},
    title = {Miniaturization, Performance, Budget, Reliability, ALDS},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {25-34},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25153
    Paper Title :: Graph Theoratic Techniques for Web Content Mining
    Author Name :: Sandhya|| Mala Chaturvedi || Anita Shrotriya
    Page Number :: 35-41
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0271035041
    Web is a large pool of data and information. On web there are various types of contents they may be in the form of text, images, audio, videos, metadata and hyperlinks. Web content mining encompasses resource discovery from web, document categorization and clustering and information extraction from web pages. In this paper we discuss the graph theoretic techniques for web content mining that are commonly used and compare the result.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sandhya ,Mala Chaturvedi ,Anita Shrotriya},
    title = {Graph Theoratic Techniques for Web Content Mining,
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {35-41},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 7 || versions II || July 2013

    Paper Id :: 24147
    Paper Title :: Graph Performance Evaluation of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plant (ASWTP) At QIT, Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: E. C. Ukpong
    Page Number :: 01-13
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/027201013
    This research was conducted to ascertain the performance of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plant (ASWTP) at QIT, Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of effectiveness of the activated sludge process. The study involved the analysis of the wastewater samples collected at the influent aeration tank and the effluent discharge by standard methods. The performance evaluation was based on the removal efficiency of the characteristic wastewater. The result showed that wastewater had no smell with clear colour at normal temperature and equilibrium pH value of 7. The TSS, TDS, total alkalinity reduction values were 4.68, 8.61 and 0% respectively. The DO value reduction was in the range of 40 to 45% and the BOD and COD values reduced by 28 to 32.79% and 46.42 to 49.54%, respectively. The total coliform removal efficiency was between 17 and 21%. On the basis of the results of the study the wastewater treatment plant, has good potential to produce high quality effluent on a continuous bases. It is recommended that operators of the plant should be adequately trained and maintenance ensured.

    Keywords: Wastewater, efficiency, effluent, activated sludge process, performance
    @article{key:article,
    author = {E. C. Ukpong},
    title = {Performance Evaluation of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plant (ASWTP) At QIT, Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria)
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {01-13},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26153
    Paper Title :: Movement Patterns And Home Range Sizes Of The Rothschild's Giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis Rothschildii) Translocated To Ruma National Park, Kenya
    Author Name :: Anyango Dolphine Caroline ||Were - Kogogo Pamella Jael Adhiambo
    Page Number :: 14-22
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0272014022
    The need for management of small, wild populations has been given limited attention. The Rothschild's giraffe is poorly represented in East Africa, therefore, it is important that its populations and environments should be carefully managed to permit its survival. The objective of this study was to determine the movement patterns and home range sizes of the translocated Rothschild's giraffes in Ruma National Park. Using binoculars, the giraffes were located, aged and sexed. Individuals were recognized by variations in their skin pattern. When a herd was sighted, the direction of movement was observed and the location plotted on a field map using a six-digit code of eastings and northings. The most peripheral points were joined resulting in polygons. Using a planimeter, home range sizes were computed as the polygon areas. Thirty recognizable giraffes exhibited well-defined movement patterns. The extent of movement varied from one vegetation community to another. The home range sizes were small with high percentage overlap values. There were no significant differences in the home range sizes (Mann-Whitney 'U' test = 15, df = 4,5, P>0.05) and in the longest linear distances covered by males and females (Mann-Whitney 'U' test = 13, df 4,5, P>0.05). Apparently, vegetation distribution and disturbance by poachers affected the movement patterns and home range sizes of the giraffes in the study area.

    Keywords: Home ranges, Movement patterns, Translocation.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anyango Dolphine Caroline , Were - Kogogo Pamella Jael Adhiambo},
    title = {Movement Patterns And Home Range Sizes Of The Rothschild's Giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis Rothschildii) Translocated To Ruma National Park, Kenya.)
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {14-22},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26165
    Paper Title :: Isolation and Characterization of Extracellular Thermoalkaline Protease Producing Bacillus cereus isolated from Tannery Effluent
    Author Name :: Tuhina Verma ||Vandana Baiswar
    Page Number :: 23-29
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0272023029
    Twenty three bacterial strains were isolated from treated tannery effluent of Jajmau, Kanpur, India and exhibited variable protease activity as observed by caseinolytic zones on milk agar plates. However, one isolate TVP-9 showed a maximum clearance zone diameter of 39 mm at 37°C and 45 mm at 50°C after 24 h of incubation, indicating its thermostable nature and was selected as the best thermostable alkaline protease producing bacteria. The TVP-9 strain was identified as Bacillus cereus. The bacteria obtained maximum cell density at 28 h, whereas, produced maximum protease of 410 Units/ ml during early stationary phase after 36 h of growth. The enzyme exhibited its optimal activity at pH 9.0, temperature 35-50oC and 0.0 to 2.0% salinity, whereas, significantly active and stable in broad pH (7.0-11.0) and temperature (30-60oC) range and at NaCl concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 3.0%.

    Keywords: Thermoalkaline protease, Bacillus cereus, Tannery effluent, Broad pH and temperature stable, Salinity tolerant.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Tuhina Verma , Vandana Baiswar},
    title = {Isolation and Characterization of Extracellular Thermoalkaline Protease Producing Bacillus cereus isolated from Tannery Effluent)
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {23-29},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26154
    Paper Title :: Application of Dynamic Voltage Restorer in Electrical Distribution System for Voltage Sag Compensation
    Author Name :: Swapnali Hazarika ||Swagata Singha Roy ||Rahul Baishya ||Smriti Dey
    Page Number :: 30-38
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/027203038
    Power quality has become a major area of concern in present era due to the increase in modern sensitive and sophisticated loads connected to the Distribution System. One of the major problems dealt in this paper is the voltage sag which is very severe for the industrial customers as it can cause malfunctioning of several sensitive electronic equipments. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is a custom power device (CPD) that is connected in series with the network to improve voltage disturbance in the electrical system. This paper presents modeling, analysis and simulation of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) in MATLAB SIMULINK. This paper proposes PI controller and discrete PWM generator for control purpose of DVR. Simulation results are also presented to illustrate and understand the performance of DVR under various fault conditions such as three phase to ground, line to line fault etc. The results showed clearly the performance of the DVR in mitigating voltage sags.

    Keywords: Custom Power Device (CPD), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), PI controller, Power Quality Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Voltage Sag
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Swapnali Hazarika,Swagata Singha Roy, Rahul Baishya , Smriti Dey},
    title = {Application of Dynamic Voltage Restorer in Electrical Distribution System for Voltage Sag Compensation)
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {30-38},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26138
    Paper Title :: Simulation of Photovoltaic Cell Using Matlab
    Author Name :: Vijay Garg ||Sandeep Saini
    Page Number :: 39-42
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0272039042
    The rapid trend of industrialization of nations and increased interest in environmental issues recently led us to explore the use of renewable forms such as solar energy. Photovoltaic (PV)generation is gaining increased importance as a renewable source due to its advantages like absence of fuel cost,little maintenance, and no noise and wear due to the absence of moving parts, etc. in particular, energy conversion from solar cell arrays (SCAs) received considerable attention in the last two decades. Photovoltaic array simulations can be used to find better methods to implement (MPPT) maximum power point tracking control for efficient solar power system

    Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV) cell, characteristics of PV cell, Matlab simulation
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Vijay Garg, Sandeep Saini},
    title = {Simulation of Photovoltaic Cell Using Matlab)
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {39-42},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26128
    Paper Title :: The Biomechanics Of Hiv/Aids And The Prediction Of Lambda(  )
    Author Name :: Edison A. Enaibe ||John O. A. Idiodi
    Page Number :: 43-57
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0272043057
    This study presents a model for determining the dynamic mechanical characteristics of HIV/AIDS in the human blood circulating system. Our work assumes that the physical dynamic components of the HIV responsible for their destructive tendency are b , n ,  and k  been influenced by the multiplicative factor whose physical range of interest is 0   13070. We constructed the constitutive carrier wave equation on the basis of the vibratory dynamic components of the human (host) parameters and those of the HIV (parasite) parameters. It is established in this study that when the HIV enters the human blood circulating system, it takes about 60 days before its absolute effects would begin to manifest.This in the literature of clinical disease is referred to as the window period. The negative influence of the HIV in the human system becomes intense and more pronounced when the HIV is about 5 years (60 months) counting from the day it is contacted.This study revealed that AIDS actually results when these destructive dynamic components of the HIV gradually become equal to their corresponding active dynamic components in the human blood circulating system. This is when the range of the multiplicative factor is12803 13070. The time it takes the HIV infection to degenerate into AIDS if uncontrolled is about 7years (84months). The displacement of the carrier wave that describes the biological system of Man finally goes to zero - a phenomenon called death, when the multiplier approaches the critical value of 13070and the time it takes to attain this value is about 11 years (132 months).

    Keywords:latent vibration, carrier wave, 'host wave', 'parasitic wave', multiplicative factor, wave function.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Edison A. Enaibe , John O. A. Idiodi},
    title = {The Biomechanics Of Hiv/Aids And The Prediction Of Lambda (  ))
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {43-57},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24150
    Paper Title :: Model for Vertical Temperature Profile in Waste Stabilization Ponds
    Author Name :: UKPONG, E. C.
    Page Number :: 58-74
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0272058074
    Thermal stratification is a natural phenomenon which occurs in waste stabilization ponds caused by vertical temperature difference which alters the flow patterns in the ponds, affects its performance and design, thereby reducing the efficiency of its operation. This study therefore developed a mathematical model for predicting the vertical temperature profile in WSPs. The solution of the model was obtained using a numerical solution method based on a fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The results were verified with data from several field ponds at different depths. Maximum difference of 19.05% between the calculated and predicted temperature profiles were obtained as shown in the Figures. The coefficients of correlation between the measured and the predicted values range from 0.6774 to 0.9990 as calculated.

    Keywords: Thermal stratification, model, temperature profile, Runge- Kutta and waste stabilization ponds.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {UKPONG, E. C.},
    title = {Model for Vertical Temperature Profile in Waste Stabilization Ponds)
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {58-74},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25111
    Paper Title :: Assessment Of Heavy Metals Content In Soils And Plants Around Waste Dumpsites In Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State
    Author Name :: Ukpong, E. C.||Antigha, R. E.||Moses, E. O.
    Page Number :: 75-86
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0272075086
    The levels of heavy metals were assessed in five randomly chosen dump sites. Twenty soil samples were drawn at the depth of 0-15cm and 15-30cm on each of the two sampling points of the five randomly chosen locations and six samples from three locations away from the dumpsites. The result of the analysis carried out showed that the level of heavy metals were generally higher at surface soils than subsurface soils, with mean values of 1059.2mg/kg and 695.8mg/kg for Iron (Fe) surface and subsurface, respectively against control value of 665.3mg/kg. The mean value for lead (Pb) was 99.1mg/kg and 95.2mg/kg for surface and subsurface, respectively, against control soil of 15.8mg/kg and 13.6mg/kg for surface and subsurface soils, respectively. Nickel (Ni) was 308.5mg/kg and 5.9mg.kg for surface and subsurface, respectively, and a mean value of 1.13mg/kg (surface) and 0.9 (subsurface) for control. Chromium (Cr) was 2.2mg/kg and 2.1mg/kg for surface and subsurface, respectively. The level of Cr in the samples from control site was 0.3mg/kg for surface and subsurface soil. This indicates a higher concentration of heavy metals at the surface soils than subsurface and a high concentration at waste dumpsites than control sites. Assessments of some physicochemical properties of these metals were also carried out. The results show that the soils around the dumpsites were acidic with mean pH of 6.1. Organic matter had a mean value of 4.4%, available phosphorus was 23.3mg/kg, clay was 6.8% and effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) was 10.6%.

    Keywords:Heavy metals, dumpsites, control sites, surface and subsurface soil
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ukpong, E. C. ,Antigha, R. E. ,Moses, E. O.},
    title = {Assessment Of Heavy Metals Content In Soils And Plants Around Waste Dumpsites In Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State)
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {75-86},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 7 || versions III || July 2013
    Paper Id :: 23039
    Paper Title :: Low Energy Design of Buildings in the Tropics; The Case of Lagos, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Michael A. Adebamowoa|| Toks Sangowawa B|| John Godwin.
    Page Number :: 01-08
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02730108
    The paper presents an argument for the provision of air conditioning in office and residential developments in Lagos, Nigeria while noting the international drive for energy conservation and sustainability. An historical perspective of natural ventilation and mechanical cooling is given. Also the outcome of recent studies regarding the comfort criteria for Lagos is discussed. Proposals are proffered for low-energy design of buildings.

    Keywords:Low-energy design, cooling comfort and warm humid climate.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Michael Adebamowoa, Toks Sangowawa , John Godwin},
    title = {Low Energy Design of Buildings in the Tropics; The Case of Lagos, Nigeria}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {01-08},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27009
    Paper Title :: Assessment of the Quality of Water Supplied By Water Vendors to Households in Sabon-Gari Area of Kano, Northern Nigeria
    Author Name :: Bichi, M. H.|| Amatobi, D. A
    Page Number :: 09-17
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/027309017
    The study involved assessment of the quality of drinking water supplied by water vendors to households in Sabon-gari area of Kano City in Northern Nigeria. The quality of the water was assessed at commercial sales points, water vendor's distribution Jeri-cans and household storage tanks. Ninety (90) water samples were collected at 10 locations spread across Sabon-gari and analyzed for physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters. The results obtained were compared with standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) and the European Community (EC). Total Hardness (as CaCO3); Conductivity and Free Chlorine values were not within acceptable limits in most of the samples. Colonies of microorganism were in excess amounts in 9 samples while coliform organism was detected in 19 samples. The percentage of colonies of microorganisms was 27%, 43% and 70% for commercial sales points, hawkers' Jerry-can, and household storage respectively. Also percentage of samples that tested positive to coliform organism was 10%, 20%, and 33% for commercial sales points, hawkers' Jerry-can, and household storage respectively. Thus it was concluded that water quality was compromised at the private commercial supply, during hawker's distribution and in the household storage. It is recommended that the activities of the water vendors need to be regulated and monitored in order to ensure the protection of the public health

    Keywords:Contamination, Drinking water, Water vendors, Households, Water quality.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Bichi, M. H., Amatobi, D. A.},
    title = {Assessment of the Quality of Water Supplied By Water Vendors to Households in Sabon-Gari Area of Kano, Northern Nigeria)
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {09-17},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31087
    Paper Title :: Correlation of Strength Properties of Limestone Deposit in Ogun State, Nigeria with Penetration Rate Using Linear Regression Analysis for Engineering Applications
    Author Name :: Okewale, I. A || Olaleye, B. M
    Page Number :: 18-24
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0273018024
    The research analyzed the correlation of strength properties of limestone deposit in ogun state, Nigeria with penetration rate using linear regression analysis for engineering applications. The research was conducted using the field data and rock samples collected from the two locations, [Sagamu (1) and Ewekoro (2)]. Field data were used for the determination of penetration rate while rock samples were used for the laboratory analysis. The average density and rebound hardness of samples from locations 1 and 2 as determined in the laboratory in order to estimate uniaxial compressive strength are 2.68g/cm3, 32.3 and 2.71g/cm3, 35.1 respectively. The result of Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) as estimated from the correlation chart between average density and Schmidt hardness shows that location 1 has average strength of 61.8 MPa while location 2 has 72.4 MPa. The point load strength index for location 1 has an average value of 1.6 MPa and location2 has an average value of 1.8 MPa while the tensile strength as estimated from point load strength index for location 1 is 2.5 MPa and location 2 is 2.7 MPa. The penetration rate as determined from field data shows that location 1 has an average penetration rate of 0.7 m/min and location 2 has an average penetration rate of 1 m/min. The correlation between the strength properties and penetration rate for location 1 shows that there is a very strong relationship between penetration rate and uniaxial compressive strength, point load strength and tensile strength while location 2 shows that there is a strong relationship between penetration rate and uniaxial compressive strength and a moderate relationship between penetration rate, point load strength and tensile strength..

    Keywords:Correlation, limestone, strength properties, penetration rate, regression analysis
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Okewale, I. A , Olaleye, B. M},
    title = {Correlation of Strength Properties of Limestone Deposit in Ogun State, Nigeria with Penetration Rate Using Linear Regression Analysis for Engineering Applications}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {75-86},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27033
    Paper Title :: A Comparative Analysis of Sorting Algorithms on Integer and Character Arrays
    Author Name :: Ahmed M. Aliyu || Dr. P. B. Zirra
    Page Number :: 25-30
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0273025030
    Most Practical applications in computer programming will require the output to be arranged in a sequential order. A lot of sorting algorithms has been developed to enhance the performance in terms of computational complexity, memory and other factors. This paper is an attempt to compare the performance of two sorting algorithm: Selection and Quick Sort, with the aim of comparing their speed when sorting an integer and string arrays. Analysis of these two sorting algorithm were also carried out. The finding shows that selection sort performs better than Quick sort. The study also indicates that integer array have faster CPU time than string arrays although both have the upper bound running time O (n2).

    Keywords:Algorithm, Time Complexity, Quick Sort, Selection Sort,
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ahmed M. Aliyu, Dr. P. B. Zirra},
    title = {A Comparative Analysis of Sorting Algorithms on Integer and Character Arrays)
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {75-86},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27014
    Paper Title :: A Comprehensive Comparison between LEED and BCA Green Mark as Green Building Assessment Tools
    Author Name :: Alireza Ahankoob, || S.Reza Morshedi.E,|| Kiyanoosh Golchin Rad.
    Page Number :: 31-38
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0273031038
    Remarkable growth in the advanced construction techniques has intensified significantly the needs for having sustainable buildings. Many countries have taken notable steps in this area. These steps have led to introducing sustainable assessment tools. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a program launched by the U.S. Green Building Council for certifying, designing and constructing sustainable buildings. Other countries around the world have also applied sustainable programs to measure their revenue in terms of sustainability. In the Asian region, BCA Green Mark has been developed by Singapore as one of the initiatives in the issues pertaining to green buildings. This paper will examine and compare two international tools: LEED of United States of America and Green Mark of Singapore to specify the scope of the work for each of these standard programs. The findings show that there are some differences in the classified criteria due to functional specifications. It was observed that the LEED green scheme had a wider sustainable scope than BCA green index through all areas of green concepts in new construction projects. These sustainable scopes have been described in detail by relevant tables.

    Keywords:Assessment tools, Criteria, Green building, and Sustainability.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Alireza Ahankoob, S.Reza Morshedi.E, Kiyanoosh Golchin Rad.},
    title = {A Comprehensive Comparison between LEED and BCA Green Mark as Green Building Assessment Tools}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {31-38},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27002
    Paper Title :: The Effect of Social Networking Sites Usage on the Studies of Nigerian Students
    Author Name :: Onyeka Ndidi Camilia, || Sajoh Dahiru Ibrahim & || Bulus Lucy Dalhatu.
    Page Number :: 39-46
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0273039046
    These days most of the students and young adults in Nigerian tertiary institutions are mostly and always engrossed in the social networking site usage. Have you thought of what they might be doing there? This paper surveyed students' social networking sites usage and how it affects them. It examines the role which frequent use of social networking sites playin their studies. Questionnaires were designed and sent out to 600 respondents of the different tertiary institutions in Mubi Educational zone, Adamawa state, Nigeria. A Polytechnic, a State University and a State College of Health Technology were used for the study. Out of the 600 questionnaires distributed, 536 were completely filled and returned giving a return rate of 89%. The data collected were analyzed using frequencies; percentages and graph representations while the hypothesis was tested using chi square (X2). The hypothesis that the frequent use of social networking sites by student of tertiary institutions in Mubi, Adamawa state Nigeria has no effect on their studies was accepted at 5% level of signifance. It was recommended that students should learn to manage their time properly and teachers should use social networking sites to promote teaching-learning process.

    Keywords:Social Networking Sites, Study, SNSs, Tertiary institution, Usage, students
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Onyeka Ndidi Camilia, Sajoh Dahiru Ibrahim , Bulus Lucy Dalhatu.},
    title = {The Effect of Social Networking Sites Usage on the Studies of Nigerian Students}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {39-46},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26005
    Paper Title :: Macro and Micro Morphological Evaluation of Loganiaceae Liana as Medicinal Plants in South-Western Nigeria
    Author Name :: Oduoye, O. T, || Ogundipe, O. T
    Page Number :: 47-52
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0273047052
    Seven Strychnos species (Loganiaceae family) that are constantly being explored for their medicinal values throughout the world were collected from four major extant forests in South-Western part of Nigeria. They are all giant lianas that grow in thick rain forests. Forty two micro and macro morphological characters were assessed for delimitation of these economically important species. Their leaf shapes range from Elliptic, oblong, obovate to oblanceolate. The leaves lengths are between 3.5cm and 11.7cm; widths are between 2.5cm and 5.2cm. They generally possess single or paired hooks as modification for climbing and inflorescence are axillary cymose type. They possess straight to sinuous anticlinal wall pattern and their cell shapes are polygonal to irregular. They are all hypostomatic with paracytic or anomocytic stomata types and two species have non-glandular unicellular trichomes. Principal component analysis (PCA) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) revealed that their leaf shapes, sizes, hook types, epidermal cell dimension, stomata indices, cuticular foldings among other characters are sufficient to delimit these economically useful species in their populations both for their medicinal importance and conservation purposes. Taxonomic key for the species of Strychnos identification was also prepared to facilitate these activities.

    Keywords:Strychnos, Liana, micro-morphology, medicinal, conservation.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Oduoye, O. T, Ogundipe, O. T.},
    title = {Macro and Micro Morphological Evaluation of Loganiaceae Liana as Medicinal Plants in South-Western Nigeria}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {75-86},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26168
    Paper Title :: Job Preference of Private Universities Students in Bangladesh (A Case Study of Some Selected Private Universities)
    Author Name :: Muhammad Alamgir Islam, || Md. Shahidul Islam
    Page Number :: 53-59
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0273053059
    This paper attempts to investigate the job preference of private universities in Bangladesh. A total number of 407 students, irrespective of gender in 45 private universities located in Dhaka city have been interviewed. The major departments that have been chosen by the students for specialization are BBA, CSE, EEE, Textile, Economics and Social Science. Majority of the respondents' preferred field for future career development are banks and business. Gender of the respondents, department of the respondents, family status of the respondents, education qualification of father and region of the respondents the major motivations for the student's career preference. The female respondent would choose others job (Banking, Business, Private Service, Teaching) as occupation likely .108 times more than the male respondent. In this study we use chi square test and logistic regression model for our analysis. The findings of this study may be helpful to the students to build up themselves according to the likelihood of professions to be chosen on the basis of their socio-economic and academic background.

    Keywords:HJob preference, Private Universities, Bangladesh, Chi Square Test, Logistic regression
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Muhammad Alamgir Islam, Md. Shahidul Islam},
    title = {Job Preference of Private Universities Students in Bangladesh (A Case Study of Some Selected Private Universities)}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {75-86},
    month = {July}
    }
     
     
    Paper Id :: 27059
    Paper Title :: Computational Model for the Control of HIV/AIDS Disease In Heterosexual Population
    Author Name :: L.D. Bulus G.M. Wajiga|| P.B. Zirra
    Page Number :: 60-67
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0273060067
    A computational model for the control HIV/AIDS disease in a heterosexual population has been proposed. Results from the numerical experiments show that the control of HIV/AIDS in heterosexual populations is dependent on the following factors: Rate of taking the preventive measures, proportion of the infected taking the preventive measures, average number of contacts, the time of initiation of the preventive measures and the consistency use of the preventive measures by both susceptible and infected. The physical interpretations of the results indicate further that HIV/AIDS can be controlled in finite time under the conditions mention above. Eradication of the disease has been found to be dependent on the rate of use of these preventive measures as indicated by the pictorial representation in Figs2-5. Behavioural change remains the best practices in effective control of HIV/AIDS.

    Keywords:Computation, HIV/AIDS, Heterosexual, Model, Preventive Measures
    @article{key:article,
    author = {L.D. Bulus, G.M. Wajiga and P.B. Zirra},
    title = {Computational Model for the Control of HIV/AIDS Disease In Heterosexual Population}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {75-86},
    month = {July}
    }
    Volume 2 || Issue 7 || versions IV || July 2013
    Paper Id :: 27007
    Paper Title :: Impact of Computer Network Routing On Imprecise Tables and Static Vs Dynamic Routing
    Author Name :: Ashis Saklani ||Praveen Tiwari || Dr.S.C.Dimri
    Page Number :: 01-12
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/027401012
    This research paper Compares mathematically Dynamic Routing and Static Routing.This Research paper Focuses and Examines problems that arise from the fact that dynamic routing never relies on the precise, current information about the network state. It is a normal expectation that dynamic routing has to give better results than a static one. However, it takes some time to collect information about the network current state, and optimization is always done with that imprecise information. This situation is examined by a complete mathematical analysis of a simple network. We show that dynamic routing gives better results than static, as expected, but that the margin is much smaller then intuitively expected. Further analysis shows that that minor advantage can easily be lost if there is even a small error in the dynamic routing tables, and actually dynamic routing can easily become worse than static. Quantitative analysis shows that delays in building routing tables can affect dynamic routing performance unexpectedly strongly. The conclusion is that dynamic routing should not try to adapt to traffic changes very fast.

    Keywords:Routing; Dynamic Routing; Static optimization; Dynamic optimization; OSPF; Modeling; BGP;
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ashis Saklani ,Praveen Tiwari,Dr.S.C.Dimri},
    title = {Impact of Computer Network Routing On Imprecise Tables and Static Vs Dynamic Routing}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {01-12},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26094
    Paper Title :: Research Aspect of Expert system of Indian judiciary of crime against women
    Author Name :: Prof. J. S. Jadhav ||Dr. K. M. Nalawade
    Page Number :: 13-17
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0274013017
    Expert System is nothing but knowledge based system. It is Software package that encodes the knowledge and decision rules of human expertise. This helps us to make our own decisions in problem of particular domain. In simple terms; it is a computer program that uses a direct encoding of human expertise knowledge i.e. processed knowledge to solve any complicated problem .A number of methods can be used to simulate the performance of expert is actually called as knowledge based system. In expert system domain, particular knowledge is combined with inference engine, it processes knowledge encoded in the knowledge base to respond to users request for advice or decision making. This research paper introduces introduction, structure, applications or review of expert system. This paper also discusses the advantages, new tools and various research aspects in expert systems. This paper intends to outline current research trends which are found in expert system in judiciary with special reference to crimes against women in Indian penal code.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prof. J. S. Jadhav,Dr. K. M. Nalawade},
    title = {Research Aspect of Expert system of Indian judiciary of crime against women}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {13-17},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27041
    Paper Title :: Information Technology Applications and Challenges: An Empirical Study of National Sports Associations of Zimbabwe
    Author Name :: Edmore Nhamo || Simbarashe Magonde
    Page Number :: 18-25
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0274018025
    The use of Information Technology (IT) in the training, officiating and management of sport has gained significant ground and has revolutionalized the international sport industry. However in spite of this widespread adoption of Information Technology in the sport industry in developed countries, the situation in Zimbabwe seems to suggest that Information Technology applications in National Sports Associations (NSAs) have remained depressed and have not reached their full potential. This study exposes and discusses both the extent of Information Technology applications and the reasons for the limited utilization. The findings and recommendations provided are expected to help National Sports Associations of Zimbabwe to recognize the gap and develop relevant strategies for improvement. The results indicate that the use of Information Technology applications in National Sports Associations of Zimbabwe is lagging behind. This study recommends that the teacher training curriculum should be changed, National Sports Associations in Zimbabwe should make IT applications an integral part of their strategic plans and invest more in information technology training, equipment and infrastructural development.

    Keywords:Challenges, computer applications, information technology applications, National Sports Associations, Zimbabwe.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Edmore Nhamo, Simbarashe Magonde},
    title = {Information Technology Applications and Challenges: An Empirical Study of National Sports Associations of Zimbabwe}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {18-25},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27056
    Paper Title :: Dextrocardia with Situs Solitus in a Nigerian Cadaver: A Case Report
    Author Name :: Ezejindu D.N. ||Ukoha Ukoha, ||Asomugha A.L, ||Udemezue O.O
    Page Number :: 26-29
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0274026029
    This report describes an adult male cadaver with dextrocardia and situs solitus in a Nigerian cadaver. The photographic illustrations revealed a flattened heart that was flipped to the right thus, transposing the great vessels. The report showed that dextrocardia exists amongst Nigerians and possibly Africans and therefore wish to recommend early medical examination since patients with this condition are unaware of their unusual anatomy until they seek medical attention for an unrelated condition. Early detection may lead to a successful surgical management and consequently offer a safer chance of survival since individuals with this unique variation are more prone to congenital cardiac abnormalities.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ezejindu D.N., Ukoha Ukoha, Asomugha A.L, Udemezue O.O.},
    title = {Dextrocardia with Situs Solitus in a Nigerian Cadaver: A Case Report}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {26-29},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27035
    Paper Title :: Design and Simulation of Range Estimation In Residential Building Using IEEE 802.11b WLAN Networks
    Author Name :: Vijay Rayar
    Page Number :: 30-34
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/027403034
    Location estimation is a critical step for many location aware applications. In this paper we present cost effective and simplified location estimation in residential building. The technique is based only on Received Signal Strength Index (RSSI) measurements taken at receiver nodes using WLAN cards. The localization performance is computed in terms of Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) of range estimate under residential environments which is relatively less complex computation technique. This system is designed and tested in MATLAB tool. Simulation results reveal that the CRLB range estimation has better performance than the multilateration with linearization for access point localization algorithm and Eglis propagation model.

    Keywords:CRLB, Indoor localization, WLAN, MATLAB, RSSI.
    @article{key:article,
    author = { Vijay Rayar},
    title = Design and Simulation of Range Estimation In Residential Building Using IEEE 802.11b WLAN Networks}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {30-34},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27029
    Paper Title :: Design and Physical Implementation of Asymmetric 8T-SRAM Memory Systems
    Author Name :: Narmada.S|| Pramod Kumar.T||Obaleppa R Dasar|| Rajlaxmi Belavadi|| Prof.Rajani. H. P
    Page Number :: 35-41
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0274035041
    Low power and high speed requirement is a challenging task in the design of SRAM memory systems. In this paper two types of 8T-SRAM cells are presented with incorporation of high-Vt transistors at appropriate locations to achieve both dynamic and static power minimization and data stability without disturbing its performance. These 8T-SRAM Cells are designed and simulated using Cadence design tool for 90nm CMOS process technology. The two cells are compared for power dissipation and have power dissipation lower than standard 6T-SRAM cell. Stack 8T-SRAM cell with high-Vt has lower power consumption than dual port 8T-SRAM cell with high-Vt by 2.6 times for dynamic power dissipation, and 15 times for static power dissipation. For 64bit system, compared to dual port 8T-SRAM cells without high-Vt transistors , total power reduced by 11.8 times and 8T-SRAM cell with high-Vt transistors reduced by12.5 times.

    Keywords:data stability, dual Vt SRAM, Low power SRAM.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Narmada.S, Pramod Kumar.T, Obaleppa R Dasar, Rajlaxmi Belavadi, Prof.Rajani. H. P},
    title = {Design and Physical Implementation of Asymmetric 8T-SRAM Memory Systems}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {35-41},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27025
    Paper Title :: Studies on the Properties of Linear Low Density Polyethylene Filled Oyster Shell Powder
    Author Name :: S. C. Nwanonenyi|| M.U Obidiegwu|| T. S. Onuchukwu|| I. C. Egbuna
    Page Number :: 42-48
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0274042048
    Mechanical and end-use properties of linear low density polyethylene filled oyster shell powder (of varying particle sizes 75μm, 125μm and 175μm) as function of filler contents were investigated. The polymer composite was fabricated by mixing LLDPE with 0 to 30 wt % of oyster shell powder using injection moulding machine to obtain a material with enhanced and desired properties. The experimental test on mechanical properties such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break, hardness, flexural test and end-use properties such as flame propagation rate, specific gravity and water absorption were carried out on the composite sample prepared. Experimental results confirmed that polymer composite produced from the combination of oyster shell powder and LLDPE matrix showed increment in tensile strength, tensile modulus, hardness and flexural strength with reduction in elongation at break. Flame propagation rate behaviour of the composite decreased with increase in filler content while the specific gravity and water absorption properties of the composite increased with increase in filler content.

    Keywords:LLDPE, Oyster shell, Flame propagation rate, Water absorption, Mechanical properties.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. C. Nwanonenyi, M.U Obidiegwu, T. S. Onuchukwu, I. C. Egbuna},
    title = {Studies on the Properties of Linear Low Density Polyethylene Filled Oyster Shell Powder}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {01-12},
    month = {July}
     
    Paper Id :: 27005
    Paper Title :: Removal of Noises In Medical Images By Improved Median Filter
    Author Name :: J.M. Waghmare|| Mrs.B. D. Patil
    Page Number :: 49-53
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0274049053
    The impulse noise may present in various images such as binary, gray or in medical images which brings blurring in the image, edges being distorted, poor quality. The impulse noise vulnerable to medical images therefore reduction of such noise from medical images is major concern.For removal of impulse noise many linear and non linear filters are used. But linear filters brings blurring. Therefore noise reduction technique by improved iterative relaxed median filter proposed and effect of noise removal by means of median filtering on fuzzy c means clustering is analysed. The performance and results obtained by proposed method are compared with standard median filter, Centre weighted median filter, hybrid median filter & relaxed median filter.

    Keywords:Improved median filter, Standard median filter, center weighted median(CWM) filter, Impulse noise, Relaxed median filter , Clustering, Hybrid median filters
    @article{key:article,
    author = {J.M. Waghmare, Mrs.B. D. Patil},
    title = {Removal of Noises In Medical Images By Improved Median Filter}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {49-53},
    month = {July}
     
    Paper Id :: 26151
    Paper Title :: The Effects of Moringa Extract On Liver Enzymes Of Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Adult Wister Rats
    Author Name :: Ezejindu D.N., || Chinweife K. C., || Ihentuge C.J.
    Page Number :: 54-59
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0274054059
    This Work Focuses Primarily On The The Effects Of Moringa Extract On Liver Enzymes Of Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Adult Wister Rats. Twenty Wister Rats Weighing Between 140 - 220g Were Used. The Rats Were Divided Into Four Groups Of A, B, C And D Of Five Animals Each. Group A Served As Control And Received 0.5ml Of Distilled Water. Group B, C And D Received Different Doses Of Drugs As Follows: Group B Received 0.8ml Of Extract; Group C Received 0.4ml Of Carbon Tetrachloride While Group D Received 0.4ml Of Tetrachloride And 0.8ml Of Extract. The Administration Lasted For Twenty Eight Days Between The Hours Of 12 – 3:30pm Using Intubation Method. Twenty Four Hours After The Last Administration, Liver Tissues Were Removed And Weighed. Blood For Serum Preparation Were Collected Through Cardiac Puncture. Serum Samples Were Separated From Clot By Centrifugation Using Bench Top Centrifuge. Activities Of Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase Alanine Phosphatase Level And Alkaline Phosphatase Level Were Determined Using Randox Kit Method. The Relative Liver Weight For Carbon Tetrachloride Group Were Significantly Higher (P < 0.001) Compared With The Control. The Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase , Alkaline Phosphate Were Significantly Higher ( P < 0.001) Then The Control. The Values For Group B And D Increased Significantly Relative To Control. The Result Showed That No Adverse Biochemical Changes Are Associated With The Use Of Moringa Extract. This May Be Attributed To Its Anti-Oxidant Properties.

    Keywords:Moringa, Liver Enzymes, Liver Weight, Hepatotoxicity, Wister Rat
    @article{key:article,
    author = Ezejindu D.N., Chinweife K. C., Ihentuge C.J.},
    title = {The Effects of Moringa Extract On Liver Enzymes Of Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Adult Wister Rats.}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {54-59},
    month = {July}
     
    Paper Id :: 26162
    Paper Title :: 53 nm Wavelength Tunability due to a Curvature of S-Bend in 1×2Optical Power Splitter
    Author Name :: Ajay Kumar|| S. K. Raghuwanshi|| Santosh Kumar
    Page Number :: 60-77
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0274060077
    Wavelength tunability is possible by many techniques like MMI coupler, external modulator due to thermal effects on the Mach - Zehnder modulator etc. Our this study demonstrates an easy method to achieve the wavelength tunability without much cumbersome technique discussed in the past. Our study reveals that by using S-bend curvature, we can achieve a smooth transition of power from one port to another port. We have used the standard parameters to design S-bend optical power splitter. This paper discusses the tunability without an external modulator. We have shown through the beam propagation method (BPM) simulation that 53 nm tunability extended from "O-band" to "E-band" as possible by our structure. Our study expected to be an accurate up to error. We have too carried out insertion loss, field propagation through the S-band structures. We have used the transparent boundary condition to avoid any back reflection at the boundary of the S-bend structure. Our waveguide structure maintains single mode operation at an entire structure. The experimental results show that, as the tilt angle increases the normalized optical power decreases for that arm. The results have been verified by MATLAB based simulation as well as OptiBPM software.

    Keywords:Wavelength-tunable; symmetric waveguide; asymmetric waveguide; S-bend waveguide; beam propagation method.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ajay Kumar, S. K. Raghuwanshi, Santosh Kumar},
    title = {53 nm Wavelength Tunability due to a Curvature of S-Bend in 1×2 Optical Power Splitter}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {60-77},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26126
    Paper Title :: Dynamics Growth of Soybeans in Agroforestry System with Fertilization of N, P, Micro Manure and Organic Manure
    Author Name :: Supriyadi |||Djoko Purnomo ||Galih Kusumaningrum
    Page Number :: 78-82
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0274078082
    Soybean is one of agriculture commodity which have many of function and have cultivated by farmers. But one of constraint soybean cultivate is decreasing agriculture farm caused displacing farm function, to overcome this farmers in Gunung Gajah, Cawas, Klaten applied agroforestry system. Agroforestry assesed as one of alternative agriculture system to overcome fast height agriculture farm conversion. The aim of the research was to study the fertilization on soybean, specifying appropriate varietas for the system of agroforestry, and specify requirement of hara of organic and inorganic manure of local resource in organic conducting o] soy crop in farm of agroforestry. The experiment was conducted in inceptisol soil arranged in group randomized device factorial design with factor 1: soy varietas ( Grobogan and of Kaba), and factor 2: manure ( inorganic manure and inorganic manure + organic), every re-treatment combination 3 times. Result of research indicate that wide index leaf, wide of specific leaf, and unit rate leaf not yet optimal and affect at result produce that is biomassa which still under standart that is 98,49 g /m2.

    Keywords:soybean, agroforestry, inorganic fertilizer, organic fertilizer specific location, biomassa
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Supriyadi, Djoko Purnomo, Galih Kusumaningrum},
    title = {Dynamics Growth of Soybeans in Agroforestry System with Fertilization of N, P, Micro Manure and Organic Manure}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {78-82},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 7 || versions V || July 2013
    Paper Id :: 27068
    Paper Title :: Prediction Of Sea Level Rise Impacts On The Coastal Areas Of Surabaya Using GIS
    Author Name :: Viv Djanat Prasita || Engki Andri Kisnarti
    Page Number :: 01-09
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02750109
    This research was conducted to predict the impact of sea level rise in coastal areas of Surabaya. The method used is the field survey and methods of Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The results indicate that the impacts of sea level rise of 1 m is going to inundate coastal areas in Surabaya area of 4,902.06 ha (15.02 %), in ten coastal districts. The largest impact is in the district of Gunung Anyar which is expected to inundate the tourist areas of mangroves.

    Keywords:coastal zone, GIS, inundation, impact, sea level rise
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Viv Djanat Prasita ,Engki Andri Kisnarti},
    title = {Prediction Of Sea Level Rise Impacts On The Coastal Areas Of Surabaya Using GIS}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {01-09},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27089
    Paper Title :: Implementation of Electronic Nose Technique In Explosives Detection
    Author Name :: A.O Afolabi ,T.J Afolabi
    Page Number :: 10-17
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0275010017
    Detection of explosives has become a very important issue in the last few years. The number of terrorist attacks, and suicide bombings in particular, has risen dramatically in the last few years, the explosives used by terrorists and insurgents only give off incredibly small amounts of detectable gas. Existing systems which are capable of detecting compounds in the gas phase at such low levels are large, unwieldy and very expensive, they also have limited sensitivity and selectivity - there is no way to be certain which explosive substance has been detected. As nanomaterials become more readily available for commercial devices, great interest has been shown in using them to develop trace-level detection systems for explosives which overcome all of these issues. Because of the unique nature and properties of nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes, nanowires, and other nanostructures, handheld or portable systems which are sensitive down to the molecular level could well be possible. Therefore this work focuses effort in the use of electronic sensors and pattern recognition technology to imitate the sensing capabilities of the human nose. With the addition of nano-enhanced sensors and heuristic algorithm E-Nose was simulated that can detect and identify incredibly quantities of explosive chemicals.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {A.O Afolabi ,T.J Afolabi},
    title = {Implementation of Electronic Nose Technique In Explosives Detection}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {10-17},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31085
    Paper Title :: Study on Homemade Bio-Pesticides and Organic Pest Management in Organic Farming
    Author Name :: Md. Shafiqul Islam || Akib Morshed
    Page Number :: 18-25
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0275018025
    Homemade bio-pesticides are prepared by household members using local resources without having any scientific study or research. It is usually very old aged trustworthy practices by inherently. The study was conducted overwhelming the period of 3 months started from July 01 to September 01 from concentrating Delduar Upazila under Tangail district with the view to know about homemade bio-pesticides in relation to their use, formulations and safe use in organic farming management. Homemade bio-pesticides are always friendly environment, safe, low cost or free of cost locally available resources utilization system through engaging family labor. The common understanding on homemade bio-pesticides and organic pest management was very positive. Both preventive and control measures were taken by the farmers in the study area. Perching, light trap and cultural practices were very much common in pest management. Neem leaves, Neem kernel, Vasaka leaves, cow dung, cow urine and the use of death craves & goat were widely used for the preparation of homemade bio-pesticides. Most of the respondents were mentioned that caterpillar was controlled through perching. Stem borer, rat, aphids and rice weevils are the common pest for organic crops production. Garlic, Onions, Basil, Sunflower and Marigold were widely used to repel the insect pests. Lack of appropriate formulation, pest specific application, time of application, frequency study on efficacy of homemade biopesticides were lacking from science and statistic back. More research could be helpful in safe use of it and increased the efficacy rate and could be ensured wider acceptance in the organic farming practices

    Keywords:Homemade bio-pesticides; insect repellent crops; preventive measures; control measures; biological control; efficacy
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Md. Shafiqul Islam , Akib Morshed},
    title = {Study on Homemade Bio-Pesticides and Organic Pest Management in Organic Farming}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {18-25},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27085
    Paper Title :: Improve Multi-Dimension Data lookup in P2P DHT-base System
    Author Name :: Iyas Abdullah, Mohammad Alodat
    Page Number :: 26-34
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0275026034
    The Decentralized, Resource Sharing Distributed Environments Such As Computational Grids And Peer-To-Peer (P2P) Storage And Retrieval Systems, A P2P Information Discovery System That Supports Flexible Queries Using Partial Keywords And Wild-Cards, And Range Queries. Users Looking Up Resources Stored In Peer-To-Peer Systems Have Only A Little Information For Identifying Of Resources. In This Paper We Describe Techniques For Indexing Data Stored In Peer Network Base In Distributed Hash Table DHT System Can Look Up For Specific Data To Give It To The Users.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Iyas Abdullah,Mohammad Alodat},
    title = {Improve Multi-Dimension Data lookup in P2P DHT-base System}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {26-34},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27075
    Paper Title :: Synthesis, Characterisation and Photocatalytic Activity Of Cadmium Sulphide
    Author Name :: S. B. KAKODKAR
    Page Number :: 35-38
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0275035038
    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) was synthesized by reaction between cadmium acetate and sodium sulphide. The CdS particles were characterized by IR spectroscopy and UV-DRS. The photocatalytic activity of CdS was tested for degradation of methylene blue, rhodamine B and malachite green as well as photocatalytic reduction of malachite green in presence of EDTA and ascorbic acid as reductants. The catalyst showed high activity for the photocatalytic reduction of malachite green in presence of EDTA.

    Keywords:Cadmium sulphide, UV DRS, photocatalytic activity
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. B. KAKODKAR},
    title = {Synthesis, Characterisation and Photocatalytic Activity Of Cadmium Sulphide}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {35-38},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27040
    Paper Title :: Using Polygamy Technology with FL, GA and NN On Traffic Lights
    Author Name :: Mohammad ALODAT || IYAS AL-ODAT
    Page Number :: 39-45
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0275039045
    recently, multi agent system was developed intelligent techniques through polygamy with Fuzzy logic (FL), Artificial neural network (NN) and genetic algorithm(GA) therefore, a combination has led to the emergence of Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) and Genetic Fuzzy System (GFS), and has a hard challenge because these polygamy design of intelligent systems from different aspects. Each agent uses a multi stage process of learning direct, decision making mechanism and update, adapt their knowledge base, Knowing that he mechanisms learning form the basis for adaptive systems. FNN is a has advantages of both fuzzy expert system become capable of learning (fuzzy reasoning) and artificial neural network become more transparent (self-adapting, self-organizing and self-learning). Compared with traditional control methods for traffic signal find better resolution for optimize is a genetic algorithm. The genetic learning process aims at designing and optimizing the knowledge base. The genetic process is the result of the interaction between the evaluation, selection and creation of genetically encoded candidate solutions, which represent the contents of the knowledge base (KB). The traffic signals control, there are a number of diverse criteria or control objectives, such as maximize safety, minimize delays and minimize environment disadvantage.

    Keywords:Fuzzy logic, Fuzzy Neural Network, Genetic Algorithm, genetic fuzzy systems.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mohammad ALODAT , IYAS AL-ODAT},
    title = {Using Polygamy Technology with FL, GA and NN On Traffic Lights}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {39-45},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24159
    Paper Title :: Study on Sweetmeat Processing in Bangladesh
    Author Name :: Md. Shafiqul Islam, ||Shuvo BasakT
    Page Number :: 46-54
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0275046054
    This study and was conducted at six places over a period of two months started from November, 2012 to December, 2012. The study was concentrated in four areas, a divisional city, a capital city, two small towns and a village. The main objective of this study was to know the present status of sweetmeat processing in Bangladesh and what are problems were they faced. Three types of respondents were selected randomly. Both male and female were considered for the interview. The respondents were interviewed with the structured guided questionnaire in relation to sweetmeat processing, quality & marketing issues. Both dry and wet sweets were produced by the processors. Milk, sugar and flour is the common ingredients for making sweets. In few cases the processors were used food soda, powder milk, Mao milk and red sugar in processing. Respondents were opined that quality is main concern for these industries. They were maintaining quality by using quality ingredients, adopting appropriate technology and deploying them in the process. Two defined sources were recognized by the respondent mostly suppliers and markets are the common sources of ingredients. Peoples were very much fond of and love to eat Chomchom, Rosogolla, Black berry, and yogurt. Few problems were recognized by the respondents of which breaking of sweets, shape is not appropriate and sweets were become hardy. If the perceived problems could be solved by addressing quality inputs, avoiding chemicals and ensuring sound working environment the sector would be healthier in future.

    Keywords:areas, locations, seller, manufacturer, consumer, consumer's choice
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Md. Shafiqul Islam, Shuvo Basak},
    title = {Study on Sweetmeat Processing in Bangladesh}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {46-54},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 7 || versions VI || July 2013 
    Paper Id :: 27119
    Paper Title :: T-Homomorphism of Semispaces in Ternary Semigroups
    Author Name :: Ch. Manikya Rao || D. Madhusudhana Rao || P. Koteswara Rao
    Page Number :: 01-06
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02760106
    In this paper we introduce semispaces and characterize idempotents of rank 1 and exhibit a class of primitive idempotents of rank 1 in the ternary semigrooup of all T-homomorphisms on a semispace. We obtain a characterization of minimal (one sided) ideals in ternary semigroups of T-homomorphisms of a semispace containing all T-homomorphisms of rank 1 and obtain equivalent conditions for the ternary semigroup of Thomomorphisms on a semispace, to be a ternary group.

    Keywords:Ternary semigroup, T-system, fixed element, transitive, irreducible, T-homomorphism, semispace.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ch. Manikya Rao , D. Madhusudhana Rao , P. Koteswara Rao},
    title = {T-Homomorphism of Semispaces in Ternary Semigroups}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {01-06},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27117
    Paper Title :: Performance Analysis of Dwdm System With Different Modulation Techique And Photodiode
    Author Name :: Anushka Agarwal || Semma Garg
    Page Number :: 07-11
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/027607011
    For optical transmission application to perform better it become necessary to have small size, low cost, low BER and low power consumption. In this paper the proposed dense wavelength division network (DWDM) system in 1310 nm wavelength domain over a standard single mode fiber transmission system. No nonlinearities in SMF are taken into consideration. Advance optical modulation technique like EAM and QPSK are stimulated and the result prove that using these modulation technique the 1310 nm wavelength domain network are less complex and of low cost. Two different photodiode PIN and APD are tested on the receiver side. For analyzing the effect of amplification both POST amplification and PRE amplification are tested andthe results obtained can be used in the future network for high speed and greater capacity.

    Keywords:Optical fiber communication, BER,photodiode,wavelength-division-multiplexing and eye opening factor.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anushka Agarwal , Semma Garg},
    title = {Performance Analysis of Dwdm System With Different Modulation Techique And Photodiode}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {07-11},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27109
    Paper Title :: Bancassurance : A Comparative Study on Customer Satisfaction Towards Public and Private Sector Banks in Pathanamthitta District- Kerala
    Author Name :: Joji Rajan M.F.C || Dr. M. Gomatheeswaran,
    Page Number :: 12-18
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0276012018
    A sound and effective banking system is needed for ahealthy economy. The Indian banking system isnot hassle free but it is able to meet the new challenges posed by the technology. In the recentyears new trends have raised in the banking sector. The business of banking around the globe ischanging due to globalization and liberalization.The boundaries that have kept various financialservices separate from each other have vanished. The wave of financial deregulation and thechanges in customer demands paved the way for the emergence of financial conglomerateswhich resulted in "Bancassurance". As a result of the increased competition it makes it difficultfor the banks toretain their customers.This comparative study with public and private sector banks focuses on the level of customer satisfaction on bancassurance services. The population of the study is based on the customers from selected public and private sector banks in pathanamthitta district. The study is based on primary and secondary research..

    Keywords:Banks, Bancassurance, Customer Satisfaction, Public Sector Banks, Private Sector Banks.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Joji Rajan M.F.C , Dr. M. Gomatheeswaran},
    title = {Bancassurance : A Comparative Study on Customer Satisfaction Towards Public and Private Sector Banks in Pathanamthitta District- Kerala}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {12-18},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27094
    Paper Title :: Inherent Energy In Demolition Debris: Re-Use Or Recyle? (A Case Study Of Roads Construction Led Demolition In Gombe Metropolis)
    Author Name :: BASHIR, U. M. || Iro, A. I ||Babanyara, Y. Y.
    Page Number :: 19-24
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0276019024
    The pressure from over exploitation of the natural resources by human on the environment is always in the increase and becoming more apparent every now and then, especially in the construction sector. There is the need for information on which to base sound solutions to the problems protecting the environment and the future planet as a whole. This paper is aimed at discussing that energy that is inherent in the demolition debris (inherent energy) littering around the environment whenever a demolition is carried out, and in many cases inappropriately disposed off. The study reviewed literatures, reports and texts, and drew advantages from within. This study outlined benefits associated with re-use and recycles and offered its recommendations on the premise of benefits found to have been more environmentally profitable.

    Keywords:Inherent energy, demolition debris, re-use and recycling
    @article{key:article,
    author = {BASHIR, U. M., Iro, A. I and ,Babanyara, Y. Y},
    title = {Inherent Energy In Demolition Debris: Re-Use Or Recyle? (A Case Study Of Roads Construction Led Demolition In Gombe Metropolis)}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {19-24},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27093
    Paper Title :: Utilization of Geographic Information System (Gis) In Demographic Analysis Of Census Data In Awka Metropolis In Anambra State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Ogochukwu C. Okeke ||Prof.H,C Inyiama
    Page Number :: 25-29
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0276025029
    When inference is desired regarding some attribute of a particular geographic region, it often happens that data are not directly available for that region. However, it may be that data are available over the same general area, but reported according to a different set of regional boundaries. Recently, powerful computer programs called geographic information systems (GIS's) have enabled the simultaneous display of such "misaligned" data sets. Today, there is a huge amount of data gathered about census and its analysis is not critically done well to bring out some basic and important attributes of the census data. This is usually due to non-availability of the required tools in carrying out that and doing that manually is very cumbersome and tedious. In order to take care of these lapses have necessitated this research work on the utilization of GIS in demographic analysis of census data in Awka metropolis in Anambra state, Nigeria This work focuses on census data from two most recent consecutive censuses conducted between 1991 and 2006. In Anambra state Nigeria, there is always a problem of census enumeration because tools that would help to get actual figures which will help government and individuals in tactful and strategic planning .This software geographic information system (GIS) would help to solve the disturbing problem. The population density map was developed using dot density where each dot represents a population. The output of this is a functional geo-spatial distribution of a population in Awka metropolis.

    Keywords:Demography, GIS ,Census
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ogochukwu C. Okeke , Prof.H,C Inyiama},
    title = {Utilization of Geographic Information System (Gis) In Demographic Analysis Of Census Data In Awka Metropolis In Anambra State, Nigeria}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {25-29},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27047
    Paper Title :: Effect Of Multiple Intelligence Teaching Strategies On Students Achievement and Retention In Chemistry
    Author Name :: Emendu, Nnamdi B. Phd, ||Udogu, M. Phd
    Page Number :: 30-34
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0276030034
    This quasi-experimental research work was carried out to investigate the efficacy of multiple intelligence teaching strategies (MITS) in enhancing chemistry students' achievement. This method was compared with the normal conventional teaching method. Two co-educational secondary schools were selected from urban area of Onitsha educational zone for this study. Chemistry students from one of the two schools were taught chemistry using multiple-intelligence teaching strategy (MITS) who served as the experimental group while the other students from school received instructions through conventional method and served as the control group. The sample size was eight-eight (88) SSII chemistry students who received instructions from selected topics from SS II chemistry syllabus. After the treatment, students who have been pre-tested were posted-tested and this posting testing was repeated after four weeks to monitor knowledge retention. Using teacher made achievement tests the data obtained were subjected to analysis using means, SD, and analysis of ANICOVA at 0.05 significant level. Based on the result finding, discussions, implications, suggestion and recommendation were made.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Emendu, Nnamdi B. Phd, ,Udogu, M. Phd},
    title = {Effect Of Multiple Intelligence Teaching Strategies On Students Achievement and Retention In Chemistry}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {30-34},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26167
    Paper Title :: Spatial Analysis of Police Station/Post Distribution in the Pursuance of Urban Security in Nigeria
    Author Name :: J. J. Dukiya
    Page Number :: 35-41
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0276035041
    Security generally can be defined as freedom and protection from danger and worries, while some authors define social security as being the measures taken to guarantee safety of a country, person, things and value. People need to be assured of safety and security to be able to enjoy life's pleasure without being attacked, keeping valuables without fearing that they may be stolen and so on. Should the people feel unsafe and insecure to enjoy these, they are bound to complain about the ineffectiveness of their own police. Further more, the type of security measure to be employed in any neighbourhood would depend to a greater extent on the proportion of income that the local authority and the individual members of the society are willing to invest into security matter. This paper generally aimed at assessing the spatial distribution of police station/post, their staff strength, the local vigilante groups and the neighbourhood securities. Conclusively, the study finds out that the ratio of the Nigerian police force to the general public is one police man to two hundred and ninety three people(1:293) which is far better than what is obtainable in countries like Canada, Britain and South Africa with about one police man to 400 people although with better services. And that many neihbourhoods in Minna are comparatively safer to live in than other urban centres in Nigeria.

    Keywords:Crime, Neighbourhoods, Police Station, Security And Spatial-Distribution
    @article{key:article,
    author = {J. J. Dukiya},
    title = {Spatial Analysis of Police Station/Post Distribution in the Pursuance of Urban Security in Nigeria}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {35-41},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23054
    Paper Title :: Comparative Study of the Kinetic Parameters of Three ChiselPlows Operating At DifferentDepthsand Forward Speed In A Sandy Soil
    Author Name :: S. A. Al-Suhaibani||A. E. Ghaly
    Page Number :: 42-59
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0276042059
    Tillage is a process of creating a desirable soil condition for seed germination and growth. The tillage of soil is considered to be one of the biggest farm operations as the tillage operation requires the most energy on the farm. Chisel plow is widely used by farmers as a primary tillage tool. Performance data for chisel plow operation is essential in order to reduce the cost of tillage operation. Field experiments were conducted using a fully instrumented MS 3090 tractor to measure the draft of a heavy duty chisel plow in a sandy soil over wide ranges of plowing depths and forward speeds. The data were measured and recorded using an instrumentation system and data logger. The effects of plowing depth and forward speed on draft, unit draft, vertical specific draft, horizontal specific draft and coefficient of pull were evaluated. The results indicated that increasing the plowing depth and/or the forward speed increased the draft, unit draft and vertical specific draft. Also, increasing the plowing depth increased the horizontal specific draft and the coefficient of pull, while increasing the forward speed decreased the horizontal specific draft and the coefficient of pull. About 16.6% of the draft force was directed towards cutting the soil and 83.4% was consumed in pulverization of soil particles. The values of the vertical specific draft were much higher than those of the horizontal specific draft for all plowing depths and forward speeds. The plowing depth had more pronounced effect on the draft, unit draft, specific draft and coefficient of pull than the forward speed. The optimum forward speed was 1.75 m/s. The recommended plowing depth should be based on the type of crop (depth of the root system).

    Keywords:draft, unit draft, specific draft, coefficient of pull, sandy soil, instrumentation, chisel plow.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. A. Al-Suhaibani,A. E. Ghaly},
    title = {Comparative Study of the Kinetic Parameters of Three ChiselPlows Operating At DifferentDepthsand Forward Speed In A Sandy Soil}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {42-59},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26073
    Paper Title :: Origin, Probable Uses And Investigations Of The Hydraulic Connectivities Of The Small Tropical Lakes In Nsukka Se Of Anambra Basin Southeastern Nigeria - A Preliminary Approach To Water Resource Development
    Author Name :: Dr. Nwagbara|| Johnbosco Okechukwu
    Page Number :: 60-69
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0276060069
    The origin, probable uses and the investigation of the hydraulic connections of the small tropical lakes found in parts of Nsukka SE in Anambra River Basin of South-Eastern Nigeria was studied. The aim is to integrate the lake characteristics into the water resource development of the region. The study using various analytical apparatus include measurement of static water levels at different seasons of the year, Hydrogeochemistry of the lakes and emphasis laid on geochemical correlation of the waters of the various lakes. A total of six lake bodies were studied. The concentrations Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, Mn2+, Cl- Pb, Cd, K+, Cu physical parameters, Fe2+, Tds, Turbidity, HCO3- and SO42+ were measured. Water level variation of the lakes were also estimated at both the dry and rainy seasons. The result shows that All the lakes are magnesium rich and have Ca – Mg facies. The lakes are mildly acidic to acidic and have high iron content. Other chemical constituents are in conformity with the acceptable standard of world health organization 1984 for drinking water. The range of abundance of major cations and anions are in the following order. Mg > Ca > Na + K and Cl > SO4 > HCO3. This indicates that magnesium and Chloride are the major dissolved constituents. The lake waters are fresh dominated by magnesium and no dominant anion. The lakes are ideal for industrial, agricultural and domestic uses except that treatment to reduce iron content and elevate the ph is required. Finally, it was discovered that the lakes are Eutrophic, of tectonic origin and connected underground.

    Keywords:small tropical lakes, water resources, development, Anambra drainage basin, se Nigeria Nsukka SE
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Nwagbara, Johnbosco Okechukwu},
    title = {Origin, Probable Uses And Investigations Of The Hydraulic Connectivities Of The Small Tropical Lakes In Nsukka Se Of Anambra Basin Southeastern Nigeria - A Preliminary Approach To Water Resource Development}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {60-69},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26143
    Paper Title :: The Impact of Employee Motivation On Organisational Performance (A Study Of Some Selected Firms In Anambra State Nigeria)
    Author Name :: MUOGBO U.S
    Page Number :: 70-80
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0276070080
    The study investigates the Impact of Employee Motivation on Organisational Performance of selected manufacturing firms in Anambra State. 103 respondents selected from 17 manufacturing firms across the three senatorial zones of Anambra State. The population of the study was 120 workers of selected manufacturing firms in Anambra State. The study used descriptive statistics (frequencies, mean, and percentages) to answer three research questions posed for the study. The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient was used to test the three hypotheses that guided the study. The result obtained from the analysis showed that there existed relationship between employee motivation and the organizational performance. The study reveals that extrinsic motivation given to workers in an organization has a significant influence on the workers performance. This is in line with equity theory which emphasizes that fairness in the remuneration package tends to produce higher performance from workers. The researcher recommends that all firms should adopt extrinsic rewards in their various firms to increase productivity. On the bases of these findings, employers are continually challenged to develop pay policies and procedures that will enable them to attract, motivate, retain and satisfy their employees. The researcher therefore suggest that more research should be conducted on the relationship and influence of rewards on workers performance using many private and public organizations which will be a handy tool that could be used to provide solutions to individual conflict that has resulted from poor reward system.

    Keywords:Employee motivation, organizational performance, remuneration, rewards, job satisfaction, recognition.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {MUOGBO U.S.},
    title = {The Impact of Employee Motivation On Organisational Performance (A Study Of Some Selected Firms In Anambra State Nigeria)}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {70-80},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27020
    Paper Title :: Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Free Convection Flow over an Inclined Plate with Hall Current
    Author Name :: Mohammad Shah Alam ||Mohammad Ali|| Md. Delowar Hossain
    Page Number :: 81-88
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0276081088
    In the present paper is an investigation of heat and mass transfer characteristics of MHD free convection of steady flow of an incompressible electrically conducting fluid over an inclined plate under the influence of an applied uniform magnetic field and the effects of Hall current are taken into account. Using suitable similarity transformations the governing equations of the problem are reduced to couple nonlinear ordinary differential equations and are solved numerically by Runge- Kutta fourth-fifth order method using symbolic software. The solution is found to be dependent on several governing parameters, including the magnetic field strength parameter, Schmid number, the inclination angle from the vertical direction, modified magnetic field and secondary magnetic parameter. The numerical results concerned with the velocity, secondary velocity, temperature and concentration profiles effects of various parameters on the flow fields are investigated and presented graphically

    Keywords:Boundary layer flow, Free convection, Hall current, Heat and Mass transfer, Inclined plate, MHD
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mohammad Shah Alam, Mohammad Ali, Md. Delowar Hossain},
    title = {Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Free Convection Flow over an Inclined Plate with Hall Current}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {81-88},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27065
    Paper Title :: Dynamics of Small Hydro-Power Station (SHS) Turbine for Slow Moving Water Body
    Author Name :: Arinola B. Ajayi ||Frank N. Okafor
    Page Number :: 89-95
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0276089095
    This article presents an analytical technique for theoretical determination of the optimal impact angle of the incident force of the slow moving water bodies on the turbine blade of a small hydro-power station to yield maximum electric power to ensure optimal turbine blade designs for impact angle enhanced efficiency. The process (dynamics) of converting the energy of flowing water bodies to electricity and the quantum of the derivable power depends largely on the head, the speed and the impact angle of the incident force of the water body on the turbine blades. It therefore follows that the determination of the optimal impact angle of the incident force of the water body on the turbine blades for small hydro-power stations (SHS) is of major engineering interest in slow moving water bodies where the head and the speed are relatively 'low'. It also investigated the variation of impact angle with the power output so as to determine the optimal impact angle for maximum power output. This SHS can easily be deployed by small and cottage firms in slow moving waters without elaborate cost and technology, and the electricity generated can be sold to the neighboring consumers thereby reducing their dependency on fossil fuel generators and national grid for electricity thus reducing the carbon foot print of such benefiting communities

    Keywords:Climate change; Electricity generation; Optimal impact angle; Small hydro-power stations
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Arinola B. Ajayi ,Frank N. Okafor},
    title = {Dynamics of Small Hydro-Power Station (SHS) Turbine for Slow Moving Water Body}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {89-95},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27084
    Paper Title :: Labview Based Remote Controlled Automatic & Manual Bell For Boarding and Day Schools
    Author Name :: Joseph Habiyaremye
    Page Number :: 96-102
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02760960102
    A LabVIEW based automatic or manual school bell is a project which shall help head- teachers to remotely control the ringing of a bell either automatically or manually in their schools.In this system, all bell timings and durations are predefined and depend on: School type (day or boarding)or School organization. These different timings are defined in LabVIEW's block diagram part. The front panel will be user interface, from the user interface: i. The user(head-teacher) will start by entering the current time, from his/her watch for initialization purpose ; ii. The user can manually switch ON the bell, for example in case of urgent meeting; iii. The user can know the current teaching hour, the current teaching period; iv. The user can know if the bell is ringing or not; as the bell is remotely controlled At the end or starting of each time slot, LabVIEW will generate a signal through Arduino microcontroller which is interfaced to a Zigbee transceiver and this Zigbee will transmit this information to a second remote Zigbee which is interfaced to an AC bell through a MOSFET and Relay. The time duration for the bell to ring is defined in LabVIEW itself. The connection of Arduino to LabVIEW requires a plug in called LIFA (LabVIEW interface for Arduino) .The Zigbee transceiver are configured by help of X-CTU,TMFT or any other Terminal software by using AT commands (Zigbee series 2 are used).The Zigbee modules are configured in IO scheme; network scheme also can be used if some other controls are added to the system. This project, an installer can be done for easy distribution. This project can even be used in colleges and universities as well as in some companies

    Keywords:Arduino Uno, AT commands, LabVIEW, LIFA, ZigBee Network.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Joseph Habiyaremye},
    title = {Labview Based Remote Controlled Automatic & Manual Bell For Boarding and Day Schools}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {96-102},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27099
    Paper Title :: Improvement Of Ra Value Of Boring Operation Using Passive Damper
    Author Name :: Kanase Sandip S||Patil Jaydeep S ||Jadhav Sainand M
    Page Number :: 103-108
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/027601030108
    In industries, boring operation suffer vibrations due to high over hang of the tool. In this paper presents the improvement of surface finish of boring operation using passive damper. By mounting this passive damper on the standard boring bar available in the market and using the standard practice of boring operation i.e. applying routine machining parameters an experiments were conducted on reliable CNC turning center machine. The results obtained were found satisfactory and indicates that passive damper can be used for minimizing the effects of vibrations which ultimately results into enhancement of surface finish.

    Keywords:Boring Bar, Passive Damper, Ra Value.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kanase Sandip S,Patil Jaydeep S ,Jadhav Sainand M},
    title = {Improvement Of Ra Value Of Boring Operation Using Passive Damper}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {103-108},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27123
    Paper Title :: Leaf Epidermal Analysis for Diagnosis of Enigmatic Strychnos Species in Nigeria
    Author Name :: *Oduoye, O. T|| Ogundipe, O. T.||Olowokudejo, J. D.
    Page Number :: 109-119
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/027601090119
    Ten species of Strychnos were collected from Oban group of Forest (Cross River State, Nigeria) without their inflorescence which hindered their complete identification. Their leaves sizes, shapes, stems coloration and other morphological characters show considerable variations. Anatomical results of their leaf epidermal structures were used to delimit these sterile species. The epidermal cell shapes are polygonal and irregular. Their anticlinal wall patterns are straight, curved or undulate. The epidermal cell numbers are between 87 and 280. Epidermal cell lengths are between 7μm and 38μm. Stomata types are generally paracytic and their indices vary between 5.8 and 11.3. Their trichomes are simple unicellular with lengths between 12μm and 155μm. Both cluster analysis and scatter plots revealed that SID1 and SID2 are very similar species; 94 % similarity. Principal component analysis revealed that epidermal cell number, length, width; trichome; stomata number and indices formed the major components delimiting these species among the 36 characters observed. There are 3 clusters formed which corresponded to 3 sections in Strychnos classifications.

    Keywords:Anatomy, Strychnos, Enigmatic, Oban, Classification, variations
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Oduoye, O. T, Ogundipe, O. T., Olowokudejo, J. D.},
    title = {Leaf Epidermal Analysis for Diagnosis of Enigmatic Strychnos Species in Nigeria}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {109-119},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27111
    Paper Title :: Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Mobile Handoff on FPGA
    Author Name :: Krupa Rasane || Nayan Jadhav
    Page Number :: 120-125
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02760120125
    Present wireless communication offers flexibility and mobility across cellular system. The modern cellular systems deploy smaller cells to accommodate large number of users. Due to smaller cell size area, probability of Mobile Station (MS) crossing the cell boundary increases. Thus to provide seamless connection across the cell boundary, a process called handoff has to occur i.e. when MS moves from one Base Station (BS) to another, the ongoing calls are transferred to another BS which gives best connectivity to the MS. This paper consists of a Fuzzy logic based Handoff Decision (FHD) approach to predict the correct and efficient handoff decision, thus preventing unnecessary handoffs and therefore ensure the Quality of Service (QoS). The Matlab tool is used for designing the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) to process the handoff decision metrics and the proposed FHD is implemented on FPGA. A hardware implementation provides faster handoffs decision making compared to a software approach. Also, FPGA implementation offers flexibility, and reduced design time, this device is chosen to implement the Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) for handoff decision.

    Keywords:FHD, QoS, FIS, FLC, FPGA.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Krupa Rasane , Nayan Jadhav},
    title = {Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Mobile Handoff on FPGA}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {120-125},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27105
    Paper Title :: Study on Development of Hydrogen Generator for Hydrogen Gas Production
    Author Name :: Arinola B. Ajayi || Olayiwola O. Akerele
    Page Number :: 126-130
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/027601260130
    This paper presents the development of hydrogen generator to produce hydrogen gas from electrolysis of water. The generator housing is made of cylindrical shaped Perspex with screwed cover made of the same material. The electrodes were made from scrapped lead from old battery lead terminals. The electrolyte is distilled water containing sodium hydroxide. The hydrogen gas produced is 27 liters when an electric current of 60 amps was passed through the electrolyte for 30 minutes. This is generator can be easily replicated with materials readily available.

    Keywords:Hydrogen gas, water electrolysis, hydrogen gas production, Energy carrier.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Arinola B. Ajayi ,Olayiwola O. Akerele},
    title = {Development of Hydrogen Generator for Hydrogen Gas Production}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {126-130},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27070
    Paper Title :: Investigation of the Effect of Angle of Cover Inclination on the Yield Of A Single Basin Solar Still Under Makurdi Climate
    Author Name :: Edeoja || Alex Okibe || Unom, Fadoo
    Page Number :: 131-138
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/027601310138
    Five single basin solar stills with varying angles of inclination of the covers but having the same aperture area of 0.24m2 were designed and constructed. Angles of inclination of 4o, 7o, 10o, 13o and 15o were chosen arbitrarily. Measurements of temperature, solar radiation and ,volume of water produced were carried out for eight (8) days. The data was used to compute the efficiencies of the stills. The still with an angle of inclination 15o had the highest efficiency of 0.585 and also produced the highest mean volume of water produced of 62.9cm3. The results indicate that the optimum angle of inclination for simple basin solar stills for Makurdi location is greater than 15o as shown by the characteristic trend lines for the water volume/efficiency against cover inclination. This is a useful observation and will erase the usual tendencies of utilizing low angles as efforts to optimize still productivity in Makurdi continue

    Keywords:Solar still, angle of inclination, insolation, temperature difference, daytime yield, characteristic trend line.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Edeoja, Alex Okibe , Unom, Fadoo},
    title = {Investigation of the Effect of Angle of Cover Inclination on the Yield Of A Single Basin Solar Still Under Makurdi Climate}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {7},
    pages = {131-138},
    month = {July}
    }