• Volume 2 || Issue 12|| versions 1 || December 2013
    Paper Id :: 27043
    Paper Title :: Waterfronts Redevelopments in Port Harcourt Metropolis: Issues and Socio-Economic Implications for Urban Environmental Management
    Author Name :: Obafemi, Andrew A. (Ph.D)||Odubo, Tonye V
    Page Number :: 01-14
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201001014
    This paper examines the issues involved in waterfronts slums demolition, the fears expressed by the residents affected, as well as the constraints that the implementation of the demolition policy would have to grapple with, while weighing the pros and cons of the policy in the light of best practices for urban renewal programme. It weighs the arguments of those who see these areas as dysfunctional settlements opting for clearance or redevelopment, with the functionalist who believe that the area should be rehabilitated as they perform both social and economic functions. It submits that a sudden and complete clearance may be very expensive, counterproductive or may even compound redevelopment and intensifies housing problems, while arguing for "Rehabilitation and Renovation‟ approach to urban renewal. Where this is not feasible to achieve, then a gradual (Phasing) redevelopment process be adopted, such that the total area for demolition will be subdivided into phases, cleared and redeveloped one after the other.
    Keywords: Energy, Manufacturing, Productivity
    @article{key:article,
    author = {1Obafemi, Andrew A. (Ph.D) and Odubo, Tonye V},
    title = {Waterfronts Redevelopments in Port Harcourt Metropolis: Issues and Socio-Economic Implications for Urban Environmental Management},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {01-14},
    month = {December}
    }
    Paper Id :: 211033
    Paper Title :: A comparison of Supplementary Controllers for Stability in Conventional With and Without Wind Turbine Farm Power Systems
    Author Name :: A. U. Lawan || j.S Kazaure
    Page Number :: 15-23
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201015023
    This paper presents some polynomial approximations and pole placements control approaches to a multimachine power systems all in-cooperating a supplementary controllers designed based on the state feedback control and static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) as a primary controller. The linear mathematical model of STATCOM is used in the systems and the proposed approach is tested on power system with and without the additional controllers in two different power system; wind farm and conventional power network by digital computer simulation programs for different types of loading and disturbances. Comparisons of these results have shown the effects and advantages of feedback supplementary control introduction in power systems.
    Keywords: STATCOM, Polynomial Algorithms, Windfarm, supplementarydamping
    @article{key:article,
    author = {A. U. Lawan And j.S Kazaure},
    title = {A comparison of Supplementary Controllers for Stability in Conventional With and Without Wind Turbine Farm Power Systems},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {15-23},
    month = {December}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211034
    Paper Title :: Studies on Effects of Building Internal Pattern on Downlink Mobile Phone Signal Strengths and Power Loss
    Author Name :: T. A Danladi || A. U. Lawan ||M. Aderinola
    Page Number :: 24-30
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201024030
    Quality of Radio propagation and power are governed by mechanisms such as reflection, diffraction and scattering from various objects and building which is dependent on some specific features of its internal structure. This research investigated the two major radio systems used in cell phones which are GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) and CDMA (Code division multiple access) communication technologies, also four (4) international Mobile phone service providers (GSM and CDMA) are used for the studies in five (5) different locations studying their signal power strengths through four different buildings/object's made of different materials. The selected areas are in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. HF2025E (700MHz-2GHz) spectrum analyzer was used to carried out the measurements serving as receiver recorded the averaged signal strength level at each point. The downlink frequency bands of five service providers; GSM: Airtel (955-960MHz), MTN (950-955MHz), Glo (945-950MHz), and Etisalat (890-895MHz) while for the CDMA; Starcomm (1883-1888MHz) is considered. Results obtained showed that the mud building/rusted corrugated iron sheet roof presents highest signal losses, followed by mud building/unrusted corrugated iron sheet roof then sandcrete building/rusted corrugated iron sheet while the sandcrete building/unrusted corrugated iron sheet roof presents lowest signal losses Also for each of the network and environment considered, path loss exponent and standard deviation were also determined in each case
    Keywords: Path Loss, Standard Deviation, Cell Phones, Rusted/Unrusted Building
    @article{key:article,
    author = {T. A Danladi and A. U. Lawan And ,M. Aderinola},
    title = {Studies on Effects of Building Internal Pattern on Downlink Mobile Phone Signal Strengths and Power Loss},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {24--30},
    month = {December
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211092
    Paper Title :: Peristaltic motion of a Micropolar fluid under the effect of a magnetic field in an inclined channel
    Author Name :: S. V. H. N. Krishna Kumari. P||Saroj D Vernekar ||Y. V. K. Ravi Kumar
    Page Number :: 31-40
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201031040
    Mathematical modeling and numerical solution are presented for the flow of a Micro polar fluid under the effect of magnetic field in an inclined channel of half width 'a' under the considerations of low Reynolds number. A long wavelength approximation is used to solve the flow problem. The effect of various parameters on the pumping characteristics is discussed through graphs.
    Keywords: Peristalsis, Micropolar fluid, Magnetic field, inclined channel.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. V. H. N. Krishna Kumari. P, Saroj D Vernekar, Y. V. K. Ravi Kumar},
    title = {Peristaltic motion of a Micropolar fluid under the effect of a magnetic field in an inclined channel},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {31-40},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211093
    Paper Title :: Analisis Of Important Factors Evaluation Criteria For Green Building
    Author Name :: Miftahul Huda||Titien Setiyo Rini||Johan Paing||Agus Purwito
    Page Number :: 41-47
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201041047
    The concept of Green Building is one of the energy saving measures that can be applied to a building. This concept will be more energy efficient because they are designed, constructed and operated to minimize the total environmental impact. The concept of Eco-campus,one of which includes the application of green building have started to be developed in several universities since the past few years. This research is a case study of the application of the assessment criteria of green building in the Wijaya Kusuma University Surabaya (UWKS) campus buildings. The purpose of this study was to assess the rating criteria and the application of green building criteria in buildings on UWKS based on the national standard of Green Building Council Indonesia (GBCI). The method of research is done in stages, firstly, major building criteria selected by respondents according to GBCI standard criteria by interview or Likert scale (1-5) questionnaire. Secondly, based on the main criteria chosen, then direct measuring is done in some buildings that was selected by sampling purpose. The study concluded that the main criteria that is required UWKS building to have in order to perform as a green building according to GBCI includes: 1) the condition of temperature and humidity 2) room lighting levels, 3) water use efficiency 4) utilization of alternative water resources, 5) the efficiency of energy usage and 6) natural lighting. The results of the study also concluded that the campus buildings UWKS at this time has rating value of 65.22% (gold) according to GBCI. To raise the rating to green campus (eco campus) in the future, suggestion was given to the manager of campus buildings in order to undertake real efforts to improve the campus infrastructure according to GBCI.
    Keywords:eco-campus, green building, GBCI, UWKS.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Miftahul Huda, Titien Setiyo Rini, Johan Paing, Agus Purwito},
    title = {Analisis Of Important Factors Evaluation Criteria For Green Building},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {41-47},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211094
    Paper Title :: Enhancement of stability in multibus system using Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)
    Author Name :: Sangeetha C.N
    Page Number :: 48-53
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201048053
    In recent days most of the power system controlling techniques depends on the fast acting power electronic based FACTS Controllers. This paper describes a suitable approach to compensate the active and reactive power and also to damp out the oscillations in a multibus (six bus) power system using Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC). The power system under consideration is simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The dynamic Performance of SSSC is presented by voltage and current waveforms obtained for a selected bus in a six bus system.
    Keywords: ctive and Reactive power, FACTS, Multibus system, Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sangeetha C.N},
    title = {Enhancement of stability in multibus system using Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {48-53},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27080
    Paper Title :: Hospital Prevalence of Hepatitis B & C Co- Infection with Tuberculosis: {A Case Study of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
    Author Name :: D. W. Taura|| A. Hassan||M. Dahiru||A. M. Yayo
    Page Number :: 54-57
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201054057
    Epidemiological studies were carried out among 1320 patients admitted at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) concerning the prevalence of hepatitis B & C and Co – infections with TB over a period of four years (2008 – 2012) .The grand diagnostic kits were used to analyze blood samples for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) while sputum samples were analyzed for TB using the Zel Nielsen (ZN) staining technique. The aim of the present research is to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the prevalence of Hepatitis B & C co – infection with Tuberculosis (TB) in a well defined hospital based population. From the study, the overall sero-prevalence of hepatitis B and C were found to be 8.0% and 4.7% respectively. The relative risk of infection was found to be higher in males than in females (p>0.05) for the two hepatitis markers. Out of 1320 subjects screened 196 (14.8%) were smear positive for TB out of which 17(8.7%) were co-infected with HBV while 29(14.8%) were co-infected with HCV. Viral hepatitis constitutes a major public health problem worldwide. The consequences of chronic liver diseases put a considerable economic burden upon the communities afflicted with the diseases.
    Keywords: Co-infections, HIV, Prevalence, TB and Viral infections.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D. W. Taura, A. Hassan, M. Dahiru, A. M. Yayo},
    title = {Hospital Prevalence of Hepatitis B & C Co- Infection with Tuberculosis: {A Case Study of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {54-57},
    month = {December}

    }
     
     
    Paper Id :: 29002
    Paper Title :: Piezoelectric ZnO thin films by rf magnetron
    Author Name :: R. Ondo-Ndong|| H. M. Omanda|| Z. H. Moussambi|| A. Eya'a Mvongbote|| H. Gnanga|| A.J. Abogo Mebale|| A. Foucaran
    Page Number :: 58-64
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201058064
    ZnO thin films were deposited on silicon substrate by RF magnetron sputtering using metallic zinc target. A systematic study has been made of the influence of the target to substrate distance and the RF power on the films structural properties. They exhibited a c-axis orientation of below 0.32° FWHM of X-ray rocking curves, an extremely high resistivity of 1012 Ωcm and an energy gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. It was found that a substrate temperature of 100°C, very low gas pressures of 3.35x10-3 Torr in argon and oxygen mixed gas atmosphere giving to ZnO thin films a good homogeneity and a high crystallinity. Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators have been fabricated by stacking different layers of Pt/ZnO/Pt on a silicon substrate which could be used for the fabrication of humidity sensors based on the quartz microbalance principle
    Keywords: ZnO; R.F sputtering magnetron; X-ray diffraction; piezoelectric
    @article{key:article,
    author = {R. Ondo-Ndong, H. M. Omanda, Z. H. Moussambi, A. Eya'a Mvongbote, H. Gnanga, A.J. Abogo Mebale6 and A. Foucaran},
    title = {Piezoelectric ZnO thin films by rf magnetron},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {58-64},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 210029
    Paper Title :: A Latent Class Analysis of Student Science Attitudes, Perceived Teacher Support and STEM Career Attainment
    Author Name :: Karen Nylund-Gibson||Marsha Ing||Kyusang Park
    Page Number :: 65-70
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201065070
    There is a global need to increase the number of students pursuing science and mathematics careers to fill 21st century occupations. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of teachers in encouraging students to pursue these types of careers. Latent class analysis is used to analyze survey responses from a nationally representative sample of seventh graders from the United States (N = 2,835). Students were surveyed about their interest in science, their perceptions of the utility of science, and their perceptions of their science teachers' support to pursue careers in science. Findings indicate that there are students who are interested in science careers but do not perceive that their science teachers encourage this interest. Interest and perceived support from teachers were related to student science career attainment approximately 20 years later. These findings have implications for preparing teachers to support student careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics
    Keywords: education, science, mathematics, teachers, students, perceptions
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Karen Nylund-Gibson, Marsha Ing, Kyusang Park},
    title = {A Latent Class Analysis of Student Science Attitudes, Perceived Teacher Support and STEM Career Attainment},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {65-70},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211043
    Paper Title :: Investigation into the Effect of Pesticide application on Soil and Environment with Crop Protection Machine in Southern Adamawa state
    Author Name :: D.A.Mada|| I.D.Hussaini
    Page Number :: 71-76
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201071076
    An extensive field study and investigation shows the negative impact of pesticide on soil and environmental pollution. This summary information in southern Adamawa state, Nigeria with current knowledge of pest application with crop protection machine at recommended levels, rarely had detrimental effect on human and microbial activities in the soil. They had effect on population of bird species that feed on insects and invertebrate killed by pesticide. It kills the blooming species of insects that pollinates plants. Over 10-20% population of natural honey bee use for food were reduced in the study zone. Available information raises in this study regarding the long term exposure to pesticide had lead to 164 contracted diseases, 103 poisoned, 101 hospitalized and 28 untimely dead of farmers. More information from this study that fresh source of drinking water and underground water in rural areas had been contaminated by surface run off, percolation, spillage and leaching through water ways or drainage. Investigation carried out in the field study that 59% of operators, farm workers and stock holders are not using personal protective equipment. The device and clothing that protect the human body from contact with pesticide and pesticide residue is not common in the study zone.
    Keywords: Crop protection machine, Effect, Environment, Pesticide, Soil
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D.A.Mada, I.D.Hussaini},
    title = {Investigation into the Effect of Pesticide application on Soil and Environment with Crop Protection Machine in Southern Adamawa state},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {71-76},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211058
    Paper Title :: Improvement of DC link voltage in D-Statcom based on Fuzzy logic
    Author Name :: K Siva kumar|| Dr.Venu gopal.N
    Page Number :: 77-84
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201077084
    The fuzzy logic based supervisor varies the proportional and integral gains of the PI controller during the transient period immediately after a load change. An improvement in the performance of the controller is obtained because of appropriate variation of PI gains using expert knowledge of system behavior and higher sampling during the transient period a DSTATCOM, which is one of the custom power devices, is used to control the terminal voltage. In a DSTATCOM, generally, the dc capacitor voltage is regulated using a PI controller when various control algorithms are used for load compensation. However, during load changes, there is considerable variation in dc capacitor voltage which might affect compensation. In this work, a fuzzy logic based supervisory method is proposed to improve transient performance of the dc link.. A 50% reduction in the error in dc link capacitor voltage during load change compared to a normal PI controller is obtained. The voltage waveform also has a faster settling time. The efficacy of the proposed strategy is proved using detailed MATLAB simulation studies.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {K Siva kumar, Dr.Venu gopal.N,},
    title = {Improvement of DC link voltage in D-Statcom based on Fuzzy logic},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {77-84},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211081
    Paper Title :: A New Approach Based on Sinusoidal PWM Inverter with PI Controller for Vector control of Induction Motor
    Author Name :: Nirban Chakraborty||Prof. Goutam Kr. Panda|| Prof. Pradip Kr. Saha
    Page Number :: 85-91
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201085091
    This paper is mainly based on the vector control of Induction motor (IM). The analysis of mathematical model of IM, with the powerful simulation modeling capabilities of Mat lab/ Simulink is given here. The entire module of this IM is divided into several independent functional module such as IM body module, Inverter module, coordinate transformation module and Sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) production module and so on. With the help of this module we can analyze a variety of different simulation waveforms, which provide an effective means for the analysis and design of the IM control system.
    Keywords: Clarke Transformation, Park Transformation, Mathematical model of Induction motor, Sinusoidal pulse width modulation, Vector control
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nirban Chakraborty, Prof. Goutam Kr. Panda, Prof. Pradip Kr. Saha},
    title = {A New Approach Based on Sinusoidal PWM Inverter with PI Controller for Vector control of Induction Motor},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {85-91},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212001
    Paper Title :: Throughput Comparison Results of Proposed Algorithm with Existing Algorithm
    Author Name :: Naveen Kolhe|| Nikhat Raza
    Page Number :: 92-98
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021201092098
    It is known that encryption is one of the strongest security solutions for database, but developing a database encryption strategy must take many factors into consideration. Basically encryption should be performed where data is originating. This paper examines the various issues of implementing database encryption and makes recommendations. This paper is concluding with a benchmark using the proposed design criteria like proposed encryption/decryption algorithm. Presented results are showing the performance of the proposed algorithm.
    Keywords: Algorithm, Cryptography, Database, Decryption, Encryption
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Naveen Kolhe, Nikhat Raza},
    title = {Throughput Comparison Results of Proposed Algorithm with Existing Algorithm},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {92-98},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 12|| versions 2 || December 2013 
    Paper Id :: 211070
    Paper Title :: Scheduling And Dropping Policies in Vehicular Delay Tolerant Network
    Author Name :: Milind R. Penurkar ||Aditi B. Gajipara
    Page Number :: 92-98
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02120201010
    Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networking (VDTN) is projected as a new alternative of a delay tolerant network (DTN), designed for vehicular networks. The characteristic of VDTN are intermittent connectivity, high node mobility and shorted contact duration. Due to this messages are sent with more amount of delay and still so many of the messages are dropped. As VDTN networks are resource controlled, i.e. in terms of communication bandwidth and storage space, main challenge is to have scheduling and dropping policies that can get better overall performance of the network. This article investigates various scheduling and dropping policies in different routing scheme. We also have developed some new policy and compared its performance with other existing policies. It has been seen that our developed policies ought to give better results for an improved network performance in terms of delivery ratio and average delivery delay.
    Keywords: Vehicular Delay Tolerant Networks; Delay-Tolerant Networks; Scheduling and Dropping Policies
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Milind R. Penurkar , Aditi B. Gajipara},
    title = {Scheduling And Dropping Policies in Vehicular Delay Tolerant Network},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {01-10},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211086
    Paper Title :: A Survey of Classification Methods and Applications for Sentiment Analysis
    Author Name :: M.Govindarajan || Romina M
    Page Number :: 11-15
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021202011015
    The amount of data readily available is far beyond our capacity to analyze and understand. The internet revolution has added to this problem by having billions of customer's review data in its repositories. This has provoked an interest in sentiment analysis and opinion mining in the recent years. People have to rely on machines to classify and process the data as there are terabytes of review data available for a single product. In order to predict the customer sentiments it is very important to analyze the reviews as it not only helps in increasing profits but also goes a long way in improving and bringing out better products. The main problem in this sentiment analysis understands the use of negation and the classification of positive and negative sentiments recorded by the users as the syntax and semantics of the language varies according to the dialect, it is difficult to categorize an opinion. This paper presents a survey regarding the presently available techniques, applications and problems that appear in the field of opinion mining.
    Keywords: sentiment mining, negation, syntax and semantics
    @article{key:article,
    author = {1M.Govindarajan , Romina M.},
    title = {A Survey of Classification Methods and Applications for Sentiment Analysis},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {11-15},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211091
    Paper Title :: Phytoremediation Efficiencies of Water Hyacinth in Removing Heavy Metals in Domestic Sewage (A Case Study of University of Ilorin, Nigeria)
    Author Name :: Ajibade F. O. || Adeniran K.A. ||Egbuna C. K.
    Page Number :: 16-27
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021202016027
    Sewage treatment is posing serious techno-economic problems in cities, particularly in underdeveloped countries. A new technology, sewage purification by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), is a feasible solution. This paper studied the suitability and efficacy of water hyacinth in domestic sewage treatment. The study was carried out in the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. Three treatments of water hyacinth replicated two times were used in the study. These treatments include no water hyacinth (control), 1kg and 2kg water hyacinth plant density cultures. The system was designed based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Sewage samples were collected during the growth of water hyacinth. Purification of water hyacinth on sewage was rapid during the first three weeks in the sewage cultured with water hyacinth (especially 2kg water hyacinth plant density) and there was low absorption in nutrients in the last two weeks when attaining maturity. Parameters such as Cl-, Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb, K, F-, Nitrate and Sulphate were drastically reduced from 9mg/l to 3.33 mg/l, 1.25 mg/l to 0.36 mg/l, 0.3mg/l to 0 mg/l, 0.5mg/l to 0.08mg/l, 0.2mg/l to 0.01 mg/l, 1.7 mg/l to 0.17mg/l, 0.7 mg/l to 0.08mg/l, 8.6mg/l to 0.03mg/l, 17.5mg/l to 6.20 mg/l respectively throughout the course of the study. Also, the 2kg water hyacinth plant density cultured in the sewage purifies more compared to the 1kg water hyacinth plant density which is moderate and minimal in the control
    Keywords: Heavy Metals, Phytoremediation, Sewage, Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ajibade F. O. , Adeniran K.A. ,Egbuna C. K.},
    title = {Phytoremediation Efficiencies of Water Hyacinth in Removing Heavy Metals in Domestic Sewage (A Case Study of University of Ilorin, Nigeria)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {16-27},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211052
    Paper Title :: Building Modern Network Infrastructure for Tencel Europe Enterprise
    Author Name :: Laith K. Farhan Al-Bayati
    Page Number :: 28-38
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021202028038
    The study contained design of Tencel Europe Network. We implemented an Ethernet technology in five building. The network design connected to a one central point called backbone by suitable cables that has been designed with Gigabit Ethernet. Each building in the network connected with Local Area Network (LAN). The study led us to get high speed, enough bandwidth, greater capacity, in addition, to reduce cost and connection between network segments. Also we got to mind the budget allocated for this project before we did it on the real world. Tencel Europe Network were built and simulated in IT Guru software
    Keywords: Tencel Europe Network, Ethernet Technology, Local Area Network,OpenNet IT Guru software
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Laith K. Farhan Al-Bayati},
    title = {Building Modern Network Infrastructure for Tencel Europe Enterprise},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {28-38},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212001
    Paper Title :: Toward Understanding the Smart Home Automation Concept Using KNX Protocol
    Author Name :: Dr. M. A. El-Dessouki
    Page Number :: 39-57
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021202039057
    This paper shows the KNX application model as the basis of the smart home automation concept implementation. The distribution details of lighting system in a mosque using the KNX protocol is presented. The paper discusses the distribution of lighting technique. The distribution is done according to the Egyptian code. A safety design for this building is constructed. It compares the distribution technique with and without KNX protocol.
    Keywords: lighting, flat, distribution, KNX, cost, optimization
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. M. A. El-Dessouki},
    title = {Toward Understanding the Smart Home Automation Concept Using KNX Protocol},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {39-57},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212024
    Paper Title :: Effect of Grinding Temperature during Cylindrical Grinding On Surface Finish of Al/Sic Metal Matrix Composites
    Author Name :: Dr.C.Thiagarajan, Dr.S.Somasundaram, Dr.P.Shankar
    Page Number :: 58-66
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021202058066
    This paper deals with an experimental study to study the effect of operating temperature on the grindability of Al/SiC metal matrix composites (MMCs) during cylindrical grinding. The machining of MMCs is a vital area to be focussed because finishing processes, such as grinding, to obtain a good surface finish and damage free surfaces, are essential for the application of these materials. Though, the grinding of MMCs has received significant attention so far, no detailed study on the effect of grinding temperature on the grindability of Al/SiC composites has been carried out. In the present work, experiments were carried out to study the effect of cylindrical grinding parameters such as wheel velocity (VS), work piece velocity (VW), feed, and depth of cut, and the percentage of SiC volume fraction on the responses, such as grinding force (Ft), surface roughness (Ra), and grinding temperature (Tg). Though three responses were measured during experimentation, this paper focuses widely on grinding temperature only. In the volume fraction study, the Tg values increase with an increase in percentage of SiC volume fraction. In the parameter study, the Tg values are scattered in the range of 740–856°C at the lower and higher levels of grinding parameters. Surface integrity of the ground surfaces was assessed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result of this paper concludes that the surface finish and surface integrity of the ground surface is significantly affected by the effect of grinding parameters on the grinding temperature.
    Keywords: grinding parameters, grinding responses, SiC volume fraction, surface roughness, grinding temperature
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr.C.Thiagarajan, Dr.S.Somasundaram, Dr.P.Shankar},
    title = {Effect of Grinding Temperature during Cylindrical Grinding On Surface Finish of Al/Sic Metal Matrix Composites},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {58-66},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211063
    Paper Title :: Production of Austempered Ductile Iron with Optimum Sulphur Level for Effective Mechanical Properties
    Author Name :: Dr A. G. F.ALABI||Engr F. I ALUKO
    Page Number :: 67-71
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021202067071
    This research work is on the production of austempered ductile iron with optimum sulphur level for effective mechanical properties. Austempered ductile iron is a new material obtained from ductile iron. It has attracted considerable interest because of its excellent properties such as good ductility, good wear resistance, and high strength to mention but a few. The main objective is to produce a ductile iron of various compositions and heat treating it to obtain the required austempered ductile iron (ADI). The raw materials used include the following: scraps of engine block made of grey cast iron, graphite, Ferro-silicon magnesium, Ferro-silicon manganese, and powdered graphite and Ferro-silicon. Rotary furnace was used to melt the materials. The molten metal was poured into the already prepared mould for casting. Five other castings were carried out following the same procedure but with varying amount of Ferro-silicon manganese in order to vary the sulphur content and the compositions. Thus the ductile iron was produced. This was later heat treated to produce the Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr A. G. F.ALABI,Engr F. I ALUKO},
    title = {Production of Austempered Ductile Iron with Optimum Sulphur Level for Effective Mechanical Properties},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {67-71},
    month = {December}

     
    Volume 2 || Issue 12|| versions 3 || December 2013 
    Paper Id :: 29072
    Paper Title :: Incidence of Extended Spectrum β-lactamase Producing Bacteria and Multidrug Resistance Strains from Processed Meat 'Suya' Sold in a University Community
    Author Name :: Adenaike, O., ||Olonitola, O.S.||Ameh, J.B.||Whong, C.M.Z.
    Page Number :: 01-06
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0212030106
    Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing Enterobacteriaceae notably E.coli that are also multidrug resistance (MDR) have emerged worldwide as a frequent cause of infection in hospitals and in the community. A total of forty (40) isolates identified as E.coli were obtained from 150 samples of processed meat 'suya' sold in a University community. The isolates were screened for ESBL production and confirmed using double disk synergy test (DDST). Resistance to cefpodoxime or ceftriaxone indicated potential ESBLs production while multidrug resistance (MDR) was taken as resistance to four or more antibiotics. Eighteen (45%) of the isolates were found to be ESBLs producers while multidrug resistance was exhibited by 22 (55%) of the isolates...
    KEY WORDS: ESBLs, "suya‟, DDST, MDR, MAR index
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adenaike, O., Olonitola, O.S., Ameh, J.B. ,Whong, C.M.Z.},
    title = {Incidence of Extended Spectrum β-lactamase Producing Bacteria and Multidrug Resistance Strains from Processed Meat 'Suya' Sold in a University Community},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {01-06},
    month = {December}

     
    Paper Id :: 212003
    Paper Title :: Succinct Observation on Resource Management In Cloud Environment
    Author Name :: Akilandeshwari.K
    Page Number :: 07-13
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02120307013
    Cloud computing is ubiquitous and promise a cost-effective realization of the utility computing principle, allowing users and providers easy access to resources in a self-service, pay-as-you-go fashion, thus decreasing cost for system administration and improving resource utilization and accounting. Hence there is no need for getting license for individual products .The dominance of this technology is variety of users can be simultaneously access the variety of cloud services, so it is necessary to provide the sufficient resources to the user in a well organized manner. However one of the major perils in cloud is related to optimizing the resource being allocated and other challenge of resource allocation are meeting customer demands and application requirements. Here in this paper, a survey is meted out on the realm of resource management strategies; this would be beneficial for both cloud users and researchers.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing, Resource Allocation, Load balancing
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Akilandeshwari.K},
    title = {Succinct Observation on Resource Management In Cloud Environment},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {07-13},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211097
    Paper Title :: The Restricted Earth Fault Relay Operation: Impact of Current Transformer Knee Point Voltages
    Author Name :: Udoh, Benjamin E.
    Page Number :: 14-18
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0212014018
    In this paper, the characteristic of current transformer (CT) magnetization curves are used to determine the performance of restricted earth fault (REF) relays. This study was carried out at the150MVA 330/132/33kV Gombe transmission substation. This is based on the field data obtained for the neutral current transformers (NCTs) servicing the 150 MVA 330/132/33kV and 15MVA 132/33kV power transformers at the substation. From the study, the knee-point voltages from the CT magnetization curves justify the voltage settings of the restricted earth fault relays.
    Keywords: Magnetization curve, Neutral current transformer, Restricted earth fault
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Udoh, Benjamin E.},
    title = {Effect of Grinding Temperature during Cylindrical Grinding On Surface Finish of Al/Sic Metal Matrix Composites},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {14-18},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212047
    Paper Title :: Hidden Markov model for tracking MANET based on structure free approach
    Author Name :: P.Jaya Prakash|| B.Venkateswarlu|| S.Abdul Jeelan
    Page Number :: 19-25
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021203019025
    Mobile Adhoc Network does not require fixed infrastructure support for tracking to reach a Target node. We need to accomplish a goal is to improve the effectiveness of structure –free tracking..we already recognizes a problem of tracking of a mobile target node in a mobile adhoc network(set-up).we includes a generic tracking framework for a online tracking applications .we proposes a online statistically estimated hybrid estimated markov model of an gradient based protocols of the target's likely direction. A PMBT is a probabilistic online tracking algorithm that computes information utilities at each step,and then chooses the next step toward the target based on the maximum expected utility. We provides a light weight implementation of the state of nodes in each cell and a polite gossip mechanism for forwarding the tracking messages .we consider a benchmark approach to solve a tracking problem in MANET,A PMBT algorithm significantly outperforms both gradient-based and markov model with the help of polite gossip mechanism.
    Keywords: MANET, PMBT, Gradient Model, HMM, target, tracking
    @article{key:article,
    author = {P.Jaya Prakash, B.Venkateswarlu, S.Abdul Jeelan},
    title = {Hidden Markov model for tracking MANET based on structure free approach},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {19-25},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212041
    Paper Title :: Power Electronic Converters for Enhancement of Power Quality in Distribution Level Using Renewable Energy Sources
    Author Name :: Munichandra.P|| K.Visweswara.
    Page Number :: 26-35
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021203026035
    Renewable energy resources (RES) are being increasingly connected in distribution systems utilizing power electronic converters. This paper presents a novel control strategy for achieving maximum benefits from these grid-interfacing inverters when installed in 3-phase 4-wire distribution systems. The inverter is controlled to perform as a multi-function device by incorporating active power filter functionality. The inverter can thus be utilized as: 1) power converter to inject power generated from RES to the grid, and 2) shunt APF to compensate current unbalance, load current harmonics, load reactive power demand and load neutral current. All of these functions may be accomplished either individually or simultaneously. With such a control, the combination of grid interfacing inverter and the 3-phase 4-wire linear/non-linear unbalanced load at point of common coupling appears as balanced linear load to the grid. This new control concept is demonstrated with extensive MATLAB/Simulink simulation studies and validated through digital signal processor-based laboratory experimental results
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Munichandra.P, K.Visweswara. },
    title = {Power Electronic Converters for Enhancement of Power Quality in Distribution Level Using Renewable Energy Sources},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {26-35},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 29003
    Paper Title :: Application Of Electrical Resistivity Method In Delineating Geological Boundary In Kakara Village, Kano State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Ibrahim Abubakar || Aliyu N.S ||Ahmed A.L. ||Chimeke Collins
    Page Number :: 36-39
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021203036039
    A geophysical study was carried out using Electrical resistivity method to delineated the boundary between basement complex and sedimentary rocks in kakara village, kano state. This area marks a contact zone between basement complex of northern Nigeria and sedimentary rock of chad basin formation. Twenty four Vertical Electric Soundings (VES) ware carried out within the study area using Geopulse tarameter SAS 300 and a two profiles were created with twelve VES point at each profile. Maximum current electrode separation (AB) of 200m that is (AB/2)=100m,using normal schlumberger electrode configuration. The data obtain from the field was processed using computer software IX1D. The interpreted result was used to produce geologic sections. The result reveal sedimentary rock laying uncomformity on the basement rock with thickness range from 0 to 5m.The result shows considerable agreement with the lithilogical section revealed and borehole data from the near area.
    Keywords: Vertical electrical sounding, Kakara Village, Geologic section, Resistivity.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ibrahim Abubakar , Aliyu N.S , Ahmed A.L. , Chimeke Collins.},
    title = {Application Of Electrical Resistivity Method In Delineating Geological Boundary In Kakara Village, Kano State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {36-39},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211072
    Paper Title :: Integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into Classroom in Tertiary Institutions: Implications and Statues
    Author Name :: Mustapha Kassim|| Ayokunle Betty.T || Salihu Shakirat.A.
    Page Number :: 40-47
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021203040047
    This paper presents the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in a classroom in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria and gives an insight into how quality teaching/learning and classrooms has been enhanced through the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The paper further reveals that the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) facilities in the Nigerian Tertiary Institutions has brought about fundamental changes in the content and quality of education in the country. This analysis and clarification of how Nigerian Tertiary Institutions have used integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into classroom to reengineer their delivery is detailed through research and observation. Three categories of variables that relate to the use and of integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) devices were considered in this paper. These include the nature and degree of adoption of Information and Communication Technologies innovative; degree of utilization of the identified technologies; and the impact and implication of integration of Information and Communication Technology devices in the classrooms in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions.
    Keywords: Integration, Nigeria and Information and Communication Technology.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mustapha Kassim, Ayokunle Betty.T, Salihu Shakirat.A},
    title = {Integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into Classroom in Tertiary Institutions: Implications and Statues},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {40-47},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212089
    Paper Title :: Using MLP neural networks for predicting global solar radiation
    Author Name :: Hicham El Badaoui|| Abdelaziz Abdallaoui|| Samira Chabaa
    Page Number :: 48-56
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021203048056
    The artificial neural networks have attracted the attention in many researchers in the field of renewable energy, especially for the prediction of meteorological data such as solar irradiation. For this reason, we developed a model based on the multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks to predict the evolution of solar radiation on a daily scale in the region of Sebt El Guerdane - (Agadir, Morocco). In this study, we used a large database on the meteorological data of 1642 days, collected between 2008 and 2012. This database consists of a number of meteorological parameters such as humidity (Minimal, average and maximum), air temperature (Minimal, average and maximum), precipitation, potential evapotranspiration of reference and wind speed. The test results of the developed model based on the multilayer perceptrons are compared to those obtained with the developed model based on the multiple linear regression method as a classic statistical. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the MLP neural network than the classical statistical method to predict purpose with a high accuracy
    Keywords: Solar Radiation, Modeling, predicting, ANN, MLP, MLR
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Hicham El Badaoui, Abdelaziz Abdallaoui, Samira Chabaa},
    title = {Using MLP neural networks for predicting global solar radiation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {48-56},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212084
    Paper Title :: Corrosion in High Pressure CO2- Equipment for Water Solubility Measurements
    Author Name :: Reza Cheraghi Kootiani||Ariffin Bin Samsuri|| Hasan Cheraghi Kootiani
    Page Number :: 57-60
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021203057060
    It is a high priority issue in political, scientific, and industrial circles as "how to limit or decrease emissions of carbon dioxide due to its role in global atmospheric greenhouse warming. In this paper, equipment for measurements of water solubility in CO2 fluids have been set up and successfully tested with liquid CO2 at 25 °C and 36 °C. The results have shown that it is difficult to obtain equilibrium between a water phase and gaseous CO2 at low temperature. The problems can probably be solved by equilibrating for longer time and by applying more vigorous shaking during the experiments.
    Keywords: Carbon dioxide, water solubility, water solubility
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Reza Cheraghi Kootiani, Ariffin Bin Samsuri, Hasan Cheraghi Kootiani},
    title = {Corrosion in High Pressure CO2- Equipment for Water Solubility Measurements},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {57-60},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212087
    Paper Title :: Experimental Investigation on Concrete by Partially Replacement of Ware Aggregate with Junk Rubber
    Author Name :: B.Damodhara Reddy || S.Aruna Jyothy || P.Ramesh Babu
    Page Number :: 61-65
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021203061065
    This experimental study is conducted to analyze the behaviour and failure characteristics of rubberized concrete where tyre rubber is partially replaced with coarse aggregate. It is estimated that more than 270 million scrap-tyres are arising each year. In India the disposal of waste tyre in landfills is a major issue handled by local municipalities and government sectors. This waste being non-biodegradable posses severe fire, environmental and health risks.Aside from tyre derived fuel,the most promising use of tyres in engineering applications as artificial reefs, erosion control and aggregates for asphalt and concrete.The use of recycled tyre rubber as partial aggregate in concrete has great potential to positively effect the properties of concrete in a wide spectrum. Concrete is one of the most popular construction materials.Due to this fact,the construction industry is always trying to increase its uses and applications and improving its properties ,while reducing cost.The objective of this experimental study is to test the properties of concerete when recycled rubber from automotive tyres is used as a partial aggregate.Test should be taken to concrete specimens contains 10%,15% substitution of junk tyre rubber as a natural aggregate.The replacement of coarse aggregate by junk rubber in concrete has resulted in reduced compressive strengths and densities.The reductions in compressive strength and density depended on the amount of rubber added.
    Keywords: CS: compressive strength STS: split tensile strength, JRPPC: junk rubber, portland pozzolana cement.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {B.Damodhara Reddy, S.Aruna Jyothy, P.Ramesh Babu},
    title = {Experimental Investigation on Concrete by Partially Replacement of Ware Aggregate with Junk Rubber},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {61-65},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212035
    Paper Title :: The Optical and Microphysical Properties of water Soluble Aerosols
    Author Name :: D.O. Akpootu, M. J. Abdul salami
    Page Number :: 66-79
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021203066079
    This paper describes the hygroscopicity properties of water soluble aerosols component based on optical and microphysical properties of urban aerosols using data extracted from Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) incorporated with FORTRAN program were modeled to determine the density mix ratio due to hygroscopic growth factor and bulk hygroscopicity at spectral range of 0.25-1.00 m for eight relative humidities (RHs) (0, 50, 70, 80, 90, 95, 98 and 99%). The extracted optical properties are scattering and absorption coefficients while the microphysical properties are volume mix ratio and mass mix ratio as a function of RH which was used to determine the density mix ratio. The scattering and absorption coefficients along with their respective hygroscopicity reflect cooling effect indicating a more scattering aerosol. The density mix ratio indicates that there is a steady increase in aerosol hygroscopic growth factor with RHs and decrease in the magnitude of bulk hygroscopicity, B of the atmospheric water soluble aerosols as we moved from the first model to the fifth model. Using SPSS 16.0 software for the regression analysis of both scattering and absorption coefficients for the Ångström exponent, and curvature, shows that the data excellently fits in terms of their coefficient of determination.
    Keywords: Density mix ratio, hygroscopic growth factor, bulk hygroscopicity, aerosols, water soluble, scattering coefficient, and absorption coefficient.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D.O. Akpootu, M. J. Abdul salami},
    title = {The Optical and Microphysical Properties of water Soluble Aerosols},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {66-79},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212034
    Paper Title :: Diurnal and Seasonal Variations of Global Solar Radiation in Akure, Ondo State, South Western Nigeria
    Author Name :: D. O. Akpootu, S. Aruna
    Page Number :: 80-89
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021203080089
    In this paper, the diurnal and seasonal variations of Global Solar Radiation have been studied by analyzing one year data from January 2011 to December 2011 at an interval of five minutes on the 15th and 30th days of each month except for February. Data were measured at the ground surface in a tropical station of Akure (7.150N, 5.120E), Ondo State, Nigeria. Diurnal variations of solar radiation for typical months of dry and rainy seasons were studied by considering the variation of the global solar radiation as a function of time for each month, we observed that the analysis for the diurnal variations showed that the solar radiation values rose steadily from dawn and attained their peaks between 12:00 hLT and 14:00 hLT after which the values fall to a minimum in the late afternoon and evening periods at about 18:30 hLT. For the seasonal variation, we consider the global solar radiation at 12:00 hLT, 15:00 hLT and 18:00 hLT, the peaks were observed around February, March and April at 12:00 hLT and 15:00 hLT while the minimum was recorded around June and October at 18:00 hLT, this explains maximum incident solar radiation during the day and little or no incident solar radiation at night.
    Keywords: Diurnal variation, Seasonal variation, global solar radiation, dry months, wet months, Akure.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D. O. Akpootu, S. Aruna},
    title = {Diurnal and Seasonal Variations of Global Solar Radiation in Akure, Ondo State, South Western Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {80-89},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 210081
    Paper Title :: Studies on the Repellent Activities of Four Common Asteraceae in Nigeria against Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum
    Author Name :: Onunkun, O.
    Page Number :: 90-93
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021203090093
    It is a high priority issue in political, scientific, and industrial circles as "how to limit or decrease emissions of carbon dioxide due to its role in global atmospheric greenhouse warming. In this paper, equipment for measurements of water solubility in CO2 fluids have been set up and successfully tested with liquid CO2 at 25 °C and 36 °C. The results have shown that it is difficult to obtain equilibrium between a water phase and gaseous CO2 at low temperature. The problems can probably be solved by equilibrating for longer time and by applying more vigorous shaking during the experiments.
    Keywords: Tribolium castaneum, Chromolaena odorata, Ageratum conyzoides, Tridax procumbens Vernonia amygdalina.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Onunkun, O.},
    title = {Studies on the Repellent Activities of Four Common Asteraceae in Nigeria against Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {90-93},
    month = {December}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212040
    Paper Title :: Well Correlation and Petrophysical Analysis, a Case Study of "Rickie" Field Onshore Niger Delta
    Author Name :: Abraham-Adejumo M. Richardson
    Page Number :: 94-99
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021203090093
    A suite of geophysical wire-line logs from an oil field inNiger delta have been examined and analyzed. The logs include gamma ray(used for the identification of lithology), resistivity/conductivity(used for the delineation hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs) and neutron and formation density) tools (used to map out gas bearing zones). Lithostratigraphic correlation sections of four wells (R1, R2, R3 and R4) depict that the subsurface stratigraphy is that of sand – shale interbedding. Three prominenthydrocarbon bearing reservoirs (L,P andS), located at depths of 9,650ft (2,943m), 10,650ft (3,248m) and 12298ft (3935m)were identified and mapped. Petrophysical parameters of the reservoirs which included porosity, hydrocarbon saturation, volume of shale, formation resistivityand formation factor were computed. The reservoirs have averaged porosity of 30.2%, water saturation 19.7% and hydrocarbon saturation of 80.3%.These research findings will contribute immensely in oil field development programmes.
    Keywords: ...............
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Abraham-Adejumo M. Richardson},
    title = {Well Correlation and Petrophysical Analysis, a Case Study of "Rickie" Field Onshore Niger Delta},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {12},
    pages = {94-99},
    month = {December}

    }