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    Volume 4 || Issue 4|| Version I ||April 2015
    Paper Id ::
    43019
    Paper Title :: Thermo luminescence Dating of Quartz Sediments Extracted from the Terraces of Thoubal River at Leirongthel, Manipur, India
    Author Name :: S. Bidyaswor Singh || L. Raghumani Singh ||
    S. Nabadwip Singh || A. Nabachandra Singh
    Page Number :: 01-05
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/04410105

    The annual dose level determination of an area is one of the most important parameters in calculating the geological and archaeological age of the sample using luminescence techniques. The luminescence properties of quartz extracted from the sediment deposits and landforms allow us to measure depositional ages for late Quaternary sediments. The present work reports the determination of age of quartz extracted from the terrace of Thoubal River, (one of the important rivers in Manipur), by additive dose method. The age of the quartz samples at a depth of 6 feet from the uppermost layer of the river is found to be (37,400±850) years. This terrace dating should contribute significantly to the study of land forms, climatic change and reconstruction of environmental change of Thoubal Valley of Manipur.

    KEY WORDS: Thermo luminescence, Quaternary, Fluvial, dose, sediments.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. Bidyaswor Singh, L. Raghumani Singh, *S. Nabadwip Singh,
    A. Nabachandra Singh},
    title = {Thermo luminescence Dating of Quartz Sediments Extracted from the Terraces of Thoubal River at Leirongthel, Manipur, India},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {01-05},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id :: 42022
    Paper Title :: Mechanical behavior and statistical study of aluminum wires belonging to low voltage underground electrical cable
    Author Name :: H.Ouaomar || N.Mouhib || M.Lahlou || M. El Ghorba
    Page Number :: 06-10
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/044106010

    Increasing demands of quality expressed by customers require short delay to recharge in the case of incidents on low voltage power grids.
    Therefore, having a reliable power grid precisely underground power cables and optimizing the mechanical safety of its various elements has become extremely important.
    Failures of underground cables involve all components particularly the wires, because of their functionality to transmit electric current which causes damage that influence in their turn the reliability and maintenance of underground cables.
    The aim of this paper is to have a general idea about the mechanical behavior of aluminum wires of underground cables LV H1XDVAS. For this, a tensile test on aluminum wires is executed, and then a statistical study on the different test specimens is established to determine the reliability of experimental results and set the appropriate confidence interval. Finally, a statistical Weibull method is applied in order to define the reliability and damage of electrical aluminum wires.

    KEYWORDS : aluminum wires, damage, mechanical behavior, reliability, Underground power cable.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {H.Ouaomar, N.Mouhib1, M.Lahlou, M. El Ghorba },
    title = {Mechanical behavior and statistical study of aluminum wires belonging to low voltage underground electrical cable},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {06-10},
    month = {April}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 42023
    Paper Title :: Tensile test of a strand with 2 broken wires artificially damaged and life prediction
    Author Name :: N.Mouhib || H.Ouaomar || M.Lahlou || A.Ennaji || M. El Ghorba
    Page Number :: 11-16
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0441011016

    Steel wire ropes are elements of an essential structure which are subjected in their utilization at variety of mechanical stresses. They necessitate regular, periodic and delicate monitoring and maintenance. Indeed, a slightest failures result in substantial discomfort economically and socially. Thus, the necessity to ensure and guarantee the reliability of a complex structure such as cables; is an issue which is extremely important. Failures of steel wire ropes are associated with various degradations that particularly affect the wires and the strands, resulting in a significant reduction in cables resistance over time, which leading to a brutal break. The aim of this study is to predict the damage of a strand constituting a steel wire rope, based upon an experimental tensile test of a strand artificially damaged. Thereafter and with the establishment of the relation Damage-Reliability, the critical life fraction βc is determined that predicts the moment of critical damage and thus to intervene in time for a predictive maintenance of the system.

    Keywords - Damage, Predictive maintenance, Reliability, Steel wire rope, strand, Tensile test.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {N.Mouhib, H.Ouaomar, M.Lahlou, A.Ennaji, M. El Ghorba },
    title = {Tensile test of a strand with 2 broken wires artificially damaged and life prediction},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {11-16},
    month = {April}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43077
    Paper Title :: Impact of Ethoxysulfuron on Lemna gibba L. and Recovery from Damage after Prolonged Exposure under Rice Cropping Conditions
    Author Name :: Rathinasamy RajaRajeswari || Atmakuru Ramesh
    Page Number :: 17-22
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0441017022

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the herbicide, ethoxysulfuron on the growth of Lemna gibba under rice field cropping conditions. During the course of the study, Lemna frond number was decreased from day 0 (1820 μg/L ethoxysulfuron) to day 30 (10 μg/L) resulting in 100% inhibition of growth. The decline in growth continued till day 50, at below the detectable level of residues, symptoms (chlorosis) of ethoxysulfuron toxicity were confirmed by pigment content analysis and toxicity index values. A significant decrease in the pigment content was observed between day 0 and day 50. From day 70, there was a consequent growth recovery and complete recovery on day 180. Our findings indicated that ethoxysulfuron and its metabolites retaining the sulfonylurea group was highly toxic to L. gibba, however, the effects are reversible after prolonged exposure due to the degradation of the metabolites.

    Keywords -ethoxysulfuron, Lemna gibba, toxicity index value, pigment content.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rathinasamy RajaRajeswari, Atmakuru Ramesh},
    title = {Impact of Ethoxysulfuron on Lemna gibba L. and Recovery from Damage after Prolonged Exposure under Rice Cropping Conditions},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {17-22},
    month = {April}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43081
    Paper Title :: Estimation of 3d Visualization for Medical Machinary Images
    Author Name :: S. Akila || N.Geetha
    Page Number :: 23-27
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0441023027

    Measurements with X-ray, CT are subject to a variety of imperfections or image artifacts including: quantum noise, X-ray scattering by the patient, beam hardening and nonlinear partial volume effects. Image processing with Adobe Photoshop, ImageJ, Corel PHOTO-PAINT and Origin software has been used in order to achieve good quality images for quantitative analysis. Image enhancement technique allows the increasing of the signal-to-noise ratio. It also includes linear and nonlinear filtering, deblurring and automatic contrast enhancement. Statistical functions enable to analyze the general characteristics of a neuro image by displaying the image histogram. Data analysis of CT images can help distinguish between a neurological disease, a common disorder like Major Depression (MD) or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and a normal brain.

    Keywords -colour information, medical images, reconstruction, volume rendering, 3D view.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. Akila, N.Geetha},
    title = {Estimation of 3d Visualization for Medical Machinary Images},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {23-27},
    month = {April}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43093
    Paper Title :: Cost Optimization of Elevated Circular Water Storage Tank
    Author Name :: Snehal Wankhede || Prof. P. J. Salunke || Prof. N. G. Gore
    Page Number :: 28-31
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0441028031

    A computer approach to the optimal design of elevated circular water tank is presented. The resulting optimum design problems are constrained non-linear programming problems and have been solved by SUMT. Parametric study with respect to different type of capacity of tank and grade of concrete have been carried out. The result of optimum design for elevated circular water storage tank have been compared and conclusions drawn. For the minimum capacity and cost design of the elevated circular water storage tank the following design variables are chosen as Thickness of the wall.(X1),Depth of the floor slab (X2)and Depth of the floor beam (X3). constraints for the optimization are considered according to Standard Specifications .The optimization problem is characterized by having a combination of continuous, discrete and integer sets of design variables. The computer program is written in MATLAB.

    Keywords -Optimization, Water tanks, Minimum total cost, Tank capacity.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Snehal Wankhede, Prof. P. J. Salunke, Prof. N. G. Gore},
    title = {Cost Optimization of Elevated Circular Water Storage Tank},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {28-31},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43065
    Paper Title :: Measures for Improving Undergraduate Engineering Education: An Emperical Study in the state of Karnataka
    Author Name :: Suresh D. Mane || S.P. Dodamani
    Page Number :: 32-38
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0441032038

    Engineering education in India has grown in leaps and bounds in the recent past but this growth has not resulted in improved employability of engineers passing out. In this context study was undertaken in seven engineering colleges of Visvesvaraya Technological University in Belagavi region of Karnataka to find out the measures for improving undergraduate engineering education and to prioritise these measures. Two major groups of respondent's viz. the engineering teachers and the final year engineering students of engineering stream were interviewed by the authors to solicit their views to improve employability of engineering graduates. Based on these interviews and discussions the various suggestions given by the respondents were narrowed down to nine important suggestions with wider acceptibility. Subsequently a structured questionnaire was prepared and the respondents were requested to rank these nine measuress from their view point based on their experience and value judgement. The study covers responses from sixty engineering faculty from seven of engineering colleges in Belagavi region. These responses were compiled using tally marks and analysed using weighted average method. The faculty responded that the student engagement in learning process by various means viz. seminars, assignments, mini projects for every subject throughout the four years should be the first priority. This was followed by the need for teachers to be proactive learners with annual training and their involvement in publishing journal papers

    Keywords -Engineering Colleges, Engineering Graduates, Engineering Studies, Employability, Belagavi

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Suresh D. Mane, S.P. Dodamani},
    title = {Measures for Improving Undergraduate Engineering Education: An Emperical Study in the state of Karnataka},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {32-38},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43067
    Paper Title :: Analyzing of an ECG Signal Mathematically By Generating Synthetic-ECG
    Author Name :: Mr.G.Aswan Kumar || Sahit.Vegi
    Page Number :: 39-44
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0441039044

    ECG is a non-invasive technique is used as a primary diagnostic tool for cardiovascular disease. The proposed method will help to acquire an ECG signal by generating a synthetic ECG from a patient and to analyze and detect the anomalies which are also called as abnormalities. Abstract Data obtained from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals provides invaluable tools for diagnosing cardiac disorders. However, ECG signals recorded from electrocardiograph are usually corrupted by noise attributed to several factors.Finite Impulse Response Filtering Techniques will eliminate noise in the signal to some extent,but te resultant output signal has a noise component. To help solve these problems, we simulated a simple but inexpensive and easy-to-implement MATLAB model that generates ECG signals and gives us mathematical control over the ECG signal. Our model fuses Mathematical functions in MATLAB with physiological data.

    Keywords -ECG, Fourier Transform ,QRS, SynECG

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mr.G.Aswan Kumar, Sahit.Vegi},
    title = {Analyzing of an ECG Signal Mathematically By Generating Synthetic-ECG},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {39-44},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 4204
    Paper Title :: An Efficient Elliptic Curve Cryptography Arithmetic Using Nikhilam Multiplication
    Author Name :: Prokash Barman || Banani Saha
    Page Number :: 45-50
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0441045050

    Multiplication is one of the most important operation in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) arithmetic. For point addition and point doubling in ECC scalar (integer) multiplication is required. In higher order classical (standard) multiplication many intermediate operations are required. Reduced operation in multiplication will increase the functional speed of ECC arithmetic. These goals can be achieved using ancient multiplication algorithm namely Nikhilam Sutra. Nikhilam Sutra is one of the Sutra (algorithm) within 16 Vedic mathematics Sutras (algorithms). Nikhilam Sutra is efficient for multiplying two large decimal numbers. The Sutra reduces multiplication of two large numbers into two smaller numbers multiplication. The functional speed of Elliptic Curve Cryptography can be increased using Nikhilam method for scalar multiplication.

    Keywords -Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Nikhilam Sutra, Vedic Mathematics, Karatsuba algorithm, scalar multiplication, Vedic mathematics, ECC arithmetic.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prokash Barman, Banani Saha},
    title = {An Efficient Elliptic Curve Cryptography Arithmetic Using Nikhilam Multiplication},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {45-50},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 4406
    Paper Title :: Explaining Customer Satisfaction with Experience, Customer Trust and Commitment in Syariah Banks Kendari City
    Author Name :: Rahmat Madjid
    Page Number :: 51-59
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0441051059

    The paper aims to empirically investigate the relationship between experience, customer trust and commitment towards customer satisfaction in syariah banks Kendari city. A survey method approach was used in this study. A questionnaire is designed to focus on issues related to efforts made to investigate causes of service failure and to develop strategies that meet customer expectations of how their syariah banks service should handle such problems. The data were obtained by distributing questionnaire for 97 respondents. Data collected have been analyzed by using statistical techniques such as confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regressions. Results show those customer experiences that have the more significant positive influence on customer satisfaction. Customer trust and commitment has a significant positive impact on customer satisfaction. However, the simultaneous c experience, customer trust and commitment have significant effects on customer loyalty in syariah banks service. For a more holistic investigation approach of customer satisfaction, a future study could examine other antecedents such as experience, customer trust and commitment of alternatives. Moreover, the investigation of the mediation role of customer trust and commitment on the link between experience and customer satisfaction could enhance the research model. The major contribution of this study is that it is the first attempt to investigate the impact of experience, customer trust and commitment on customer satisfaction in syariah banks service.

    Keywords -Experience, Customer Trust, Commitment, Customer Satisfaction, Syariah Banks

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rahmat Madjid},
    title = {Explaining Customer Satisfaction with Experience, Customer Trust and Commitment in Syariah Banks Kendari City},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {51-59},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43064
    Paper Title :: Study, testing & analysis of composit material based on munja fibre
    Author Name :: Mohd. Ruman Shamim || Prabhat Kumar Sinha || Earnest Vinay Prakesh
    Page Number :: 60-65
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0441060065

    The use of natural fibers as reinforcement in polymeric composites for technical applications has been a research subject of scientists during the last decade. There is a great interest in the application of munja fiber as substitutes for glass fibers, motivated by potential advantages of weight saving, lower raw material price, and ecological advantages of using green resources which are renewable and biodegradable. There was an improvement in the tensile strength of the treated fiber composites. Recently the interest in composite materials reinforced with natural fibers has considerably increased due to the new environmental legislation as well as consumer pressure that forced manufacturing industries to search substitutes for the conventional materials, e.g. glass fibers. This way, the objective of paper was evaluate the mechanical properties of munja fibre composites. These fibers were mixed with the Epoxy and Hardener compositions with 5 to 25 wt% of fibers were obtained. The mechanical properties were evaluated by means of tensile tests. In addition, fracture analysis via SEM (secondary electrons mode) was performed. Results showed improve the tensile properties.

    Keywords -Munja fibers; Composites; Fatigue; Interfacial bonding, tensile strength, Mechanical properties.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mohd. Ruman Shamim, Prabhat Kumar Sinha, Earnest Vinay Prakesh},
    title = {Study, testing & analysis of composit material based on munja fibre},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {60-65},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43086
    Paper Title :: Robotic assistance for the visually impaired and elderly people
    Author Name :: L.Tamizhazhagan || T.Ramya
    Page Number :: 66-71
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0441066071

    This paper presents a smart multipurpose human assistance robot that guides the visually impaired and elderly people to some predefined destination, avoiding obstacles and traffic. The robot can recognize the words spoken by the user command them or take an action according to user command. Voice commands given through an android Smartphone are transferred to the main MCU of the robot using a Bluetooth serial port that runs Bluetooth SPP protocol stack. Touch sensitive skin fitted to the robot senses human finger touch and helps answering requests such as time, date and weather conditions such as light and temperature. The same can be done using voice also. During the day time it can charge itself by moving around within a given region in order to find the maximum sun light thereby freeing the user completely from maintenance issues such as battery charging. Unlike the other guidance systems, the user need not carry this in hand. The robot can also detect the distance between the user and itself and move accordingly offering an efficient human assistance.

    Keywords -Ultrasonic sensors, MEMS compass, Android application, Bluetooth serial port

    @article{key:article,
    author = {L.Tamizhazhagan, T.Ramya},
    title = {Robotic assistance for the visually impaired and elderly people},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {66-71},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43087
    Paper Title :: Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphone
    Author Name :: S.Poornalakshmi || V.K.Daliya
    Page Number :: 72-75
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0441072075

    This paper proposes the design of a simple driverless car controlled by a Smartphone. The system takes control of the car and drives itself to a nearby parking space automatically and retrieves itself out of the parking space. When the auto park feature is started, the system searches for the empty parking lot with the help of ultrasonic sensors and parks the car once it finds the space. In retrieve mode the car drives itself out of the parking space to a fixed place where the user would normally be available or to the place where the user got out of it before the auto park process started. The user can start the car and control the movement of the car with the help of Smartphone to make it come to his present location irrespective of where he/she is available. Remote alert feature is automatically activated when the car is parked and detects any attempt to move the car till the retrieve feature is started with command from the user.

    Keywords -Auto-park, Auto-retrieve, ultrasonic sensors, android application, MEMS compass, GSM

    @article{key:article,
    author = {S.Poornalakshmi, V.K.Daliya},
    title = {Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphone},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {72-75},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43089
    Paper Title :: Study Analysis & Application of Bio-Composite Smart Material
    Author Name :: Shailesh Kumar singh || Prabhat Kumar Sinha || Earnest Vinay Prakash
    Page Number :: 76-82
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0441076082

    Natural fibres have been used to reinforce materials for over 3000 years. More currently they have been employed in combination with plastics. Many types of natural fibres have been investigated for use in plastics including sunnhemp, jute, sisal, munj and banana. The main objective of this experimental study is to fabricate the sunnhemp fibers reinforced hybrid composites and to evaluate the mechanical properties such as flexural strength, tensile strength and impact strength. There are three different types hybrid laminates are fabricated by hand lay-up method by using sunnhemp fibers as reinforcing material with epoxy resin. Application of composite materials to structures has presented the need for the engineering analysis the present work focuses on the fabrication of polymer matrix composites by using natural fibres like sunnhemp, coir, banana, and sisal which are abundant nature in desired shape by the help of various structures of paterns and calculating its material characteristics (Flexural strength ,tensile test, hardness number,% gain of water) by conducting tests like flexural test, hardness test, water absorption test, impact test, density test, and their results are measured on sections of the material and make use of the natural fibre reinforced polymer composite material for automotive seat shell manufacturing. Sunnhemp fibres, available as fibre bundles, are commonly used as fibre reinforcement in composite materials as a substitute for glass fibres.

    Keywords -Flexural test, wettability .Mechanical properties, Sunnhemp fibre composites. Fabrication of Bio-Composite, unidirectional reinforcement.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Shailesh Kumar singh, Prabhat Kumar Sinha, Earnest Vinay Prakash},
    title = {Study Analysis & Application of Bio-Composite Smart Material},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {76-82},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43090
    Paper Title :: Control of aircraft from the base station using eog siganl transmission
    Author Name :: L.Tamizhanban || E.Sivakumar
    Page Number :: 83-87
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0441083087

    This paper proposes a system that can prevent the airplane from hijack just by sensing the IR signal from the pilot eye. The remote station which monitors the airplane will take the necessary steps like operating the flight. The EOG and IR sensor is connected to the pilot. Under normal condition the pilot can control the robot (Flight). Incase of a hijack the pilot sends the signal through the EOG and IR sensors.The microcontroller detects the input from the person using IR sensor. The microcontroller sends a digital signal which is encoded and is transmitted through a Zig-bee transmitter to the remote control station. The remote station receives the message through a Zig-bee receiver, the encoded signal is decoded and view and control through PC. Then the remote station takes the control of the airplane and lands it safely to the nearest airport.

    Keywords -EOG sensor, Zig-bee, IR sensor, VB application

    @article{key:article,
    author = {L.Tamizhanban, E.Sivakumar},
    title = {Control of aircraft from the base station using eog siganl transmission},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {83-87},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 430112
    Paper Title :: Constraints on labour productivity-a case study
    Author Name :: Linjesh Sebastian || Prof. V Srinivasa Raghavan
    Page Number :: 88-97
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0441088097

    Productivity always acts as a main factor influencing timely completion of the project and cost control in all construction projects. Proper evaluation of labour productivity and corrective measures taken to achieve the required level of productivity will always help to keep the project in track. In this research, observations were conducted in a construction site in Kerala by adopting work sampling technique which revealed that workers are engaged in unproductive activities during 30%-40% of the normal working time. The main factors which are negatively affecting productivity were observed and their frequencies were also noted. Normality tests were conducted to analyse the data. Baseline productivity measurement and variation coefficient indicates that there is a good variation in daily productivity and so productivity can be improved by controlling these costraints on labour productivity. It was observed that activities like being simply idle, unnecessary roaming, talking, waiting for materials and tools are the main reasons for unproductiveness. Lack of proper managerial efficiency is the basic reason for all these issues.

    Keywords -labour productivity, work sampling, coefficient of variation

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Linjesh Sebastian, Prof. V Srinivasa Raghavan},
    title = {Constraints on labour productivity-a case study},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {88-97},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Volume 4 || Issue 4|| Version II ||April 2015
    Paper Id :: 430106
    Paper Title :: Behavioral Malware Detection in Dtn Using Intrusion Detection System
    Author Name :: R.Sankari Devi || R.Dinesh Kumar
    Page Number :: 01-04
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/04420104

    The delay-tolerant-network (DTN) model is becoming a viable communication to communicate with short-range technologies such as Bluetooth, NFC and Wi-Fi Direct. Proximity malware is a malicious program that spreads critically. Behavioral characterization of malware is an effective alternative to pattern matching in detecting malware, especially when dealing with polymorphic or obfuscated malware. In this paper we first propose a frequency based method to detect the malware in delay tolerant network. We identify the challenges in frequency based model such as frequency coexistence, non location aware and hidden duplicate source. We propose effective technique such as location based model, intrusion detection system and random routing procedure to address the challenges.

    Keywords frequency coexistence ,hidden duplicate source ,nonlocation aware ,pattern matching

    @article{key:article,
    author = {R.Sankari Devi, R.Dinesh Kumar},
    title = {Behavioral Malware Detection in Dtn Using Intrusion Detection System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {01-04},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 44021
    Paper Title :: Alternative Contractual Models of Dredging Projects to Avoid Disputes (A Case Study of the Special Port in Kotabaru)
    Author Name :: Candra Yuliana || Japril ||Iphan F. Radam
    Page Number :: 05-10
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/044205010

    There had been four dredging projects done at the Special Port of PT. Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa Tbk. in Kotabaru, two of which ended in disputes. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the causative factors for disputes and selection of the best contractual model for dredging projects to avoid disputes. The method employed was the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The analysis results in the most significant criteria to avoid disputes in dredging projects, which are technical and quality aspects (43%) and the most significant sub-criteria, which are the factors of fixed designs as well as complete and accurate drawings (75%). The alternative contractual model chosen is the Lump Sum Fixed Price contract (53%), where the importance value given by experts reaches 49%. In so doing, in order that dredging projects do not end in disputes, the best contractual model is the Lump Sum Fixed Price..

    Keywords -Analytic Hierarchy Process, Contract, Disputes, Dredging

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Candra Yuliana, Japril, Iphan F. Radam},
    title = {Alternative Contractual Models of Dredging Projects to Avoid Disputes (A Case Study of the Special Port in Kotabaru)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {05-10},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43048
    Paper Title :: Discovery of Perched Aquifer When Assessing Aquifer Potential along the floodplain of the Upper Benue River, NE Nigeria
    Author Name :: B.A. Ankidawa
    Page Number :: 11-22
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0442011022

    Groundwater is an important resource for irrigation water and its use for irrigation depends on environmental factors affecting long-term sustainability. The stratigraphy and groundwater distribution of the unconfined alluvial aquifer of the Upper Benue River, northeast Nigeria, were assessed using boreholes exposures and geo-electric resistivity. The aim was to assess the area's groundwater potential and to contribute to improved management of the water resources for irrigation activities in the context of aridification of the Sahel and of the existence of an upstream dam in a neighbouring country. The research provides an update of the groundwater data bank of the area. Twenty four vertical electrical soundings, using the Schlumberger electrode array, were conducted with maximum current electrode spacing of 100 m. Twelve boreholes were drilled in order to comparethe geoelectrical soundings with subsurface stratigraphy. The data obtained were interpreted using the partial curve matching technique and software for resistivity data interpretation. The depth and resistivity of the subsurface layers were determined. The possible perched aquifer formations were observed in three differentlocations, which reflect a low-permeability stratigraphic unit such as lens of clayey silt within alluvial sands. These small aquifers may mislead farmers as to the productivity of their wells.

    Keywords -Vertical electrical sounding, Upper Benue River, Alluvial floodplain, possible perched aquifer, Yola region.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {B.A. Ankidawa},
    title = {Discovery of Perched Aquifer When Assessing Aquifer Potential along the floodplain of the Upper Benue River, NE Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {11-22},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43040
    Paper Title :: Models for predicting body dimensions needed for furniture design of junior secondary school one to two students
    Author Name :: OladapoS.O || AkanbiO.G
    Page Number :: 23-36
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0442023036

    Purpose – The purpose of this study was to develop some models that will make use of easy-to-measure students' body dimensions to predict difficult, time-consuming and energy-sharping anthropometric dimensions needed for ergonomic school furniture design for J.S.S.1-J.S.S.2 students. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 463 students aged 11 to 12 years were randomly selected from eight public secondary schools in Ogbomoso, South West Nigeria. All the dimensions were analyzed using Microsoft excel sheet 2010 and Design Expert version 6.0.8.The models with no/non-significant lack of fit and highest coefficient of determinations were selected as the best models for the required predictions. Findings – The study led to the development of 12 models that utilyzed easy-to-measure dimensions for estimating necessary anthropometric dimensions for the design of school furniture. The results of the study revealed that two-third of the anthropometric dimensions exhibited non-linear models.Originality/value – The furniture industry would find in these models economical, adequate and effective prediction tools.

    Keywords -anthropometric dimensions, models, furniture industry.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {OladapoS.O,AkanbiO.G},
    title = {Models for predicting body dimensions needed for furniture design of junior secondary school one to two students.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {23-36},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 44015
    Paper Title :: Design and Implementation of monitoring LAN user wirelessly by Android mobile based on client/server mode
    Author Name :: Prof. Rathod R. B.|| Priyanka R. Shinde||Bharati M. Shinde||
    Rashmi R. Bhole
    Page Number :: 37-40
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0442037040

    Now days various applications uses the Android phones. We can use android phone for monitor the network. .We can control very easily network when it is present inside the office and it is very difficult to control when present outside the office. Admin can r monitor his WLAN network through his android phone with GUI from remote location, it is an alternative solution for monitor network. The main aim of this android application is to provide all the essential information of the wireless network to the admin on their android phone with the help of Wi-Fi. We are using data connectivity or Wi-Fi to connect the mobile phone to WLAN server. And we can also use password encryption for authentication in phone.

    Keywords- Android, Control WLAN, GPRS, WLAN Monitoring, Server, Wi-Fi.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prof. Rathod R. B. , Priyanka R. Shinde ,Bharati M. Shinde,
    Rashmi R. Bhole},
    title = {Design and Implementation of monitoring LAN user wirelessly by Android mobile based on client/server mode},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {37-40},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 44032
    Paper Title :: First mitotic division: criterion for selection of potential IVF embryo – A Systematic Literature Review
    Author Name :: Shubhangi Kakade || Amit Kamat || Savita Datar
    Page Number :: 41-48
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0442041048

    In-Vitro-Fertilization (IVF) is a technique in which an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body i. e. in vitro ("in glass"). It is a procedure designed to enhance likelihood of conception in couples for whom other fertility therapies have been unsuccessful or are not possible. Importance of various stages of IVF embryos for successful IVF treatment has been reported. However, there are studies which assume that embryo that shows first mitotic division within 27 hr post insemination (Early Cleavage –EC) has higher potential to get implanted than embryo that cleaves later. Objective: To correlate all the available literature on studies related to selection of EC embryos for IVF treatment and the subsequent outcome of the procedure. Inference: Present study advocates selection of EC embryo as a dependable criterion for IVF success.

    Keywords-Embryo potential, Embryo quality, First mitotic division, Invitro fertilization, Pregnancy

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Shubhangi Kakade, Amit Kamat, Savita Datar},
    title = {First mitotic division: criterion for selection of potential IVF embryo – A Systematic Literature Review},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {41-48},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 44014
    Paper Title :: On the Construction of Cantor like Sets
    Author Name :: Dr. S. M. Padhye || Satish B. Khobragade
    Page Number :: 49-54
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0442049054

    In this paper we construct a Cantor like set S from any sequence { } with 0< <1 with the help of sequence { } of subsets of [0,1] such that ,m( ) = and S = ∩ with m(S) = .Further Σ = ∞ if and only if m(S) = 0. Cantor ternary set comes out to be a particular case of construction of Cantor like sets by choosing = for all n. Similarly we can construct Cantor - set by choosing = for all n. In the construction of Cantor - set the length of remaining closed intervals at each stage are equal to , k = 1,2,3,…………… Also we can construct Cantor - set by choosing = for all n. Here in the construction of Cantor - set the length of remaining closed intervals at each stage are equal to , k = 1,2,3,……………

    Keywords- Cantor set, Cantor like sets.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. S. M. Padhye , Satish B. Khobragade},
    title = {On the Construction of Cantor like Sets},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {49-54},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43029
    Paper Title :: Comparative study of the mechanical behavior of polymer materials: between ABS and PVC
    Author Name :: G.Arid || I.Makadir || A. Naji|| M.Chergui|| M.Elghorba
    Page Number :: 55-60
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0442055060

    Plastic materials play a large part in our daily lives because of their ease of installation and production costs relatively low. Thus The accelerated technological development that we live brings more and more mechanical engineers to face the problems damage of materials. However, these problems are even more serious than fatigue cracking often leads to a sudden break often cause accidents. This unfortunately happens all too frequently, due to insufficient knowledge either room service conditions or even damage parameters. This work presents new developments in the field of fracture mechanics and the objective is the evaluation of defects and thus a better estimate of the reliability of the polymeric material structures by comparing two plastics (ABS and PVC).

    Keywords- Tension, polymer , damage, PVC, ABS

    @article{key:article,
    author = {G.Arid, I.Makadir , A. Naji, M.Chergui, M.Elghorba},
    title = {Comparative study of the mechanical behavior of polymer materials: between ABS and PVC},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {55-60},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 43073
    Paper Title :: Zigbee based weather monitoring system
    Author Name :: Nisha Gahlot || Varsha Gundkal || Sonali Kothimbire|| Archana Thite
    Page Number :: 61-66
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0442061066

    To develop Sensor Networking and Weather Station Monitoring System without human intervention using Wireless ZigBee Technology. The project is mainly targeted towards the reliability of the Pollution Monitoring system. A WMS keeps track of temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall amount etc. The system displays these readings in real time on a display. It also keeps track of historical information on an hourly and daily basis. This data can be display on LCD. Various techniques are used to monitor the weather like satellites, radars, microcontrollers and many other simple instruments. Weather can also be monitored by using remote wireless sensors. Zigbee is the latest wireless weather monitoring technique. The existing monitoring systems of Weather Monitoring System are manual. We need human support for so. There are limitations for human to know about exceeding hazardous parameters of Environment. There are chances of human errors. Like human calculations may not be precise sometimes. Or human may not cover larger area. We need some smart system which will automatically measures the parameters. In this application, Wireless sensor network can solve the problem, where parameters calculations and controlling will be precise even over the larger area.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nisha Gahlot, Varsha Gundkal, Sonali Kothimbire, Archana Thite},
    title = {Zigbee based weather monitoring system},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {61-66},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 44011
    Paper Title :: Natural Image Based Visual Secret Sharing Scheme
    Author Name :: Vijina Varghese
    Page Number :: 67-72
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0442067072

    Information security becomes more and more important while the internet communication grows up. Visual secret sharing (VSS) schemes hide secret images in shares that are either printed on transparencies or are encoded and stored in a digital form. Conventional visual secret sharing schemes suffers from a management problem, so that dealers cannot identify each share visually The approaches involving the EVCS for GAS suffers from a pixel expansion problem and also needs a sophisticated various encryption schemes. This paper presents natural image based visual secret sharing scheme that shares secret images via various carrier media to protect the secret and the participants during the transmission phase. The proposed (n, n) - NVSS scheme can share one digital secret image over n -1 arbitrary selected natural images (called natural shares) and one noise-like share . The natural shares can be photos or hand-painted pictures in digital form or in printed form. The noise-like share is generated based on these natural shares and the secret image

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Vijina Varghese},
    title = {Natural Image Based Visual Secret Sharing Scheme},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {67-72},
    month = {April}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 44012
    Paper Title :: A Model for Assessment of Power System Outages on Nigerian
    Transmission Network
    Author Name :: Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko|| Ogunmakinde. Jimoh Ogunwuyi
    Page Number :: 73-80
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0442073080

    A power outage is a short or long-term loss of the electric power to an area such as faults at power stations, damage to electric transmission lines, substation or other parts of the power system.The Nigerian national grid is characterized by frequent outages due to aging of equipment/ lines leading to frequent conductor jumper cuts, frequent earth faults resulting from reduction in overhead clearance and refuse burning and circuit breaker problems. This paper develops a polynomial model for the assessment of power system outages on the Nigerian transmission network using curve fitting tools analysis. Data from the transmission network of the national grid were collected and used as input parameters for the computation of the statistical parameters to develop the power system outage model for the network. The results of the work showed that the statistical mean and median of the total outages were 73.11and 203.50 respectively even though February was the modal month with an outage of 373 due to frequent interruptions experienced by customers during this month. Forced outages on the transmission network recorded the highest value of 44.8% while 32.5% were due to urgent outages and 22.7%
    were due to planned outages suggesting that the resistance of the network is very low resulting in very low efficiency and disruption in the lives of the citizenry. The result of the work also showed that the polynomial model developed for the assessment of the power system outages is of order 5 whose order increases as more outages are recorded on the transmission network. Ageing of equipment, lightning, vandalization and poor maintenance culture have been identified as some of the causes of power outages on the transmission network. The analysis of the paper can be used to emphasize that in order to ensure safety and security of the transmission network, there is the need for a proper protection of the transmission lines system.

    Keywords- Power outages, Transmission lines, Planned outages, Forced outages, Urgent outages, Ageing of equipment, Vandalization, Interruptions.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko, Ogunmakinde. Jimoh Ogunwuyi},
    title = {A Model for Assessment of Power System Outages on Nigerian
    Transmission Network},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {4},
    pages = {73-80},
    month = {April}

    }