•    
    Volume 03 || Issue 07|| Version I ||July 2014
    Paper Id :: 33124
    Paper Title :: Wireless Two-way Restaurant Ordering System via Touch Screen
    Author Name :: B.Vinodhini|| K.Abinaya|| R.Roja|| M.Rajeshwari
    Page Number :: 01-05
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03710105
    This project presents a restaurant management in efficient way, and to reduce manpower. The whole ordering via touch screen. Furthermore, a push button on the cook room for giving acknowledgment to the customer table for indicating that the order is placed. We design and accomplish a new embedded handheld wireless two-way restaurant ordering system based on ARM cortex-M3.
    Keywords: Restaurant management; ARM cortex-M3; Push button; Touch screen
    @article{key:article,
    author = {B.Vinodhini, K.Abinaya, R.Roja, M.Rajeshwari},
    title = {Wireless Two-way Restaurant Ordering System via Touch Screen},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {01-05},
    month = {July}
    }
    Paper Id :: 36151
    Paper Title :: Microcontroller Based Automated Irrigation System
    Author Name :: Shiraz Pasha B.R.|| Dr. B Yogesha
    Page Number :: 06-09
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03710609

    Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Irrigation system uses valves to turn irrigation ON and OFF. These valves may be easily automated by using controllers and solenoids. In this project an attempt has been made to automate farm or nursery irrigation that allows farmers to apply the right amount of water at the right time, regardless of the availability of labor to turn valves on and off. In addition, farmers using automation equipment are able to reduce runoff from over watering saturated soils, avoid irrigating at the wrong time of day, which will improve crop performance by ensuring adequate water and nutrients when needed. The Microcontroller based automated irrigation system consists of moisture sensors, analog to digital converter, microcontroller, relay driver, solenoid valve, solar panel and a battery. This system can be used in the areas where electrical power is difficult to obtain. This system is eco friendly and it uses a renewable source of energy.

    Keywords : Irrigation, Microcontroller, Soil moisture sensor, Solenoid valve, Renewable energy.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Shiraz Pasha B.R., Dr. B Yogesha},
    title = {Microcontroller Based Automated Irrigation System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {06-09},
    month = {July}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36166
    Paper Title :: An Analysis of Children's Poems in Environment and Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: A Participatory Approach, Catching Them Young.
    Author Name :: Peter Makwanya ||Mathias Dick
    Page Number :: 10-15
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0371010015

    Children are very important stakeholders in the environmental discourse of climate change mitigation and adaptation for today and future developments. They need to participate in communicating their initiatives and raise awareness of climate change adaptation through available participatory initiatives and networks; thereby improving their own local conditions. The study employed predominantly qualitatively research methodology based on interpretive philosophy. This is informed by the theory of eco-criticism which argues that children's literature promotes environmental consciousness, appreciation, knowledge and stewardship within children (Glotfelty and Fromm, 1996). Participatory methods formed the bedrock of this research as children were asked to participate in child friendly adaptation programmes, and then wrote poems on environmental conservation and climate change adaptation and mitigation. Documentary analysis through the approach of critical discourse analysis (cda) and eco-criticism were employed to unmask the hidden aspects of environmental conservation and climate change adaptation and mitigation. A total of 12 poems were analysed, and the themes were environmental management, trees, waste management, the sun, flowers, water and air. Children were discovered to be at the heart of activities, recognizing that they are effective communicators of risk and drivers of change in their communities. Children were also trained in participatory poetry and documentation of climate change risks through poetry writing skills. It has been concluded that, children's literature promotes environmental consciousness, appreciation, knowledge and stewardship within the children. In addition, in order to inculcate long lasting impression on environmental stewardship, it has been concluded that catching them young is the best method. Children should be put at the heart of activities, recognizing that they are effective communicators of risk and drivers of change in their communities.

    KEYWORDS : Adaptation, Mitigation, Participatory, ethnography, stewardship

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Peter Makwanya, Mathias Dick},
    title = {An Analysis of Children's Poems in Environment and Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: A Participatory Approach, Catching Them Young},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {10-15},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36149
    Paper Title :: Smart Class Using Li-Fi Technology
    Author Name :: Kirti Tanwar||Stuti Gupta
    Page Number :: 16-18
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0371016018
    In modern era Smart classes is a new technology movement that is fast becoming an imperative for every progressive schools and colleges in world .It, is an in-the-classroom technology solution that has transformed teaching and learning, reaching out to millions of schools and colleges. Using Smart class teachers show the class a 2D/3D animation on a large screen. They can explain the fine points of the topic, zoom in to show the relevant visuals, freeze and annotate when and where they needs to emphasise along with engaging animations, colours, and sounds The teachers gain complete attention and interest of every child in the class. Every child gets a visual input on what, where, when and how anything happens and the concepts are well understood and internalised. In this technology all the network computers are connected to the server using the wired LAN technology. The physical transmission medium for a wired LAN involves cables, mainly twisted pair or fiber optics. But there are many disadvantages of using LANs like it is wired and therefore more difficult to setup drilling holes in wall, running cables in lofts etc, fitting sockets and redecorating hence the cost of installing the equipment is greater, more time consuming to set up, not as flexible, can only use where there is a socket, and need to be maintained by skilled technicians, and even a virus can spread more easily. So, to avoid all these disadvantages a Modern Technology can be used named Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) technology. Li-Fi can be thought of as a light-based Wi-Fi. That is, it uses light instead of radio waves to transmit information means replace the light by the energy efficient LED lightening which could enhance the capability and functionality by providing light in high speed data communication using Li-Fi modem. Li-Fi changes the intensity of the light in a certain way that a human eye can't recognise it, but the detector at the other end of the link would convert this change in bit stream.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kirti Tanwar,Stuti Gupta},
    title = {Smart Class Using Li-Fi Technology},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {16-18},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36139
    Paper Title :: Acceptance of Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) in Architectural Firms in Nigeria
    Author Name ::

    Dr. Oladipo Ayodeji Dare-Abel|| Prof. Charles Korede Ayo||
    Dr. Nicholas Ikhu Omoregbe

    Page Number :: 19-24
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0371019024
    Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) is a platform for the optimization of Building Information Modelling (BIM) software among architects and construction industry professionals. It is a product of cloud computing technology which enables these professionals to collaborate on projects online at real-time. This study is aimed at testing an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) on the adoption of CSCW in architectural firms in Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research approach in conjunction with qualitative research. Data from 118 Architectural firms drawn from six cities in the country were analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis and content analysis. The study concludes 37.3% of architectural firms in Nigeria have adopted the technology. Perceived ease-of-use, security and quality of installed systems emerged as predictors of acceptance while perceived usefulness was not a predictor. A graphical extended TAM model was developed from the results. Architectural firms will accept CSCW if they consider it easy to use, secure and appropriate quality of systems are available.
    Keywords:Acceptance, Adoption, Architectural Firms, BIM, Collaboration
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Oladipo Ayodeji Dare-Abel, Prof. Charles Korede Ayo, Dr. Nicholas Ikhu Omoregbe },
    title = {Acceptance of Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) in Architectural Firms in Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {19-24},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36023
    Paper Title :: Trace Elements Distribution in Soil Columns as affected by Cassava Effluents Application
    Author Name :: Babajide, N. A||Aremu, D. O||Akinyele, O. A.||Oladimeji, S. T.|| Ogunlade, C. A
    Page Number :: 25-33
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0371025033

    Cassava effluent in form of wastewater obtained during the processing of "garri", is indiscriminately released into the environment, the effect of which is not fully known on soils and groundwater. This study investigated the distribution of two trace elements (Cu and Mn) found in the effluent through soil columns. The experiment was conducted using three different soil types namely; Iwo, Apomu and Egbeda and four varying proportions of cassava effluent (0ml – Control, 6ml, 12ml and 18ml). The four varying proportions of the effluents translates to 2.74, 5.48, 8.22, 10.96 mg/l of Cu and 1.83, 3.66, 5.49, 7.32 mg/l of Mn. The soil samples were compacted to soil bulk density of 1.50g/cm3 inside 50 cm long and 15cm diameter columns. The leachates were collected every 24 hours after the start of the experiment and analyzed for Cu and Mn using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The result shows that the total leachate concentration (in mg/l) of Cu in 7days varied from 5.54 to 10.11 for Iwo, 5.13 to 14.81 for Apomu and 9.2 to 15.31 for Egbeda as cassava effluent volume increased from 0ml to 18ml; for Mn, it varies from 0.81 to 27.93, 1.7 to 34.26 and 12.03 to 36.19 for Iwo, Apomu and Egbeda respectively. The effect of increasing cassava effluent volume on leachate concentration for both Cu and Mn was in the order: Apomu > Egbeda > Iwo. The difference in total volume (in ml) leached after 40 minutes of simulated rainfall for 0ml and 12ml effluent additions were 13.3, 10.3 and 2.2 for Iwo, Apomu and Egbeda respectively

    KEYWORDS: Soil type (Iwo, Apomu, Egbeda), Cassava Effluents, Trace Elements (Copper, Manganese) and Leachate.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Babajide, N. A.; Aremu, D. O.; Akinyele, O. A.,Oladimeji, S. T. ;Ogunlade, C. A},
    title = {Trace Elements Distribution in Soil Columns as affected by Cassava Effluents Application},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {25-33},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34027
    Paper Title :: Beyond the horizon
    Author Name :: Kailash Nath Harbola
    Page Number :: 34-40
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0371034040

    The ultimate aim of my research is to find the actual process of evolving matter in 'DARK VACUUM' from 'NOTHING' (having no space as well) to construct and design this 'Wonderful Universe'. The research is divided in two articles; 'Beyond the Horizon' and 'The Ultimate Truth'. In the article 'Beyond the Horizon', I tried to draw attention of the renowned physicists and astronomers towards the consensus made by them (completely ignoring the facts and realities without understanding the real features of the three discovered huge objects white dwarf, neutron star and black hole and without knowing the actual process of their formations) that white dwarves, neutron stars and black holes are formed due to the gravitational collapse of the remnant cores of the dead stars after 'Supernovae' at the red giant stage according to the basic size of the stars; which mislead them and rest of the world also in solving the 'GREATEST MYSTERY' of the universe that how it evolved extremely slowly through its elementary stage from 'NOTHING' even having no space as well. White dwarf, neutron star and black hole are the key objects of our universe which are able to solve and have solved the 'Greatest Mystery' of evolution of the universe by knowing the actual process of their formation and the real role played by them. Infect the actual process of forming these objects is the process of evolving matter in the 'DARK VACUUM' from 'NOTHING'. Knowing the actual process of their formations the most expected and most desired 'Standard Model' would itself be established which would able to explain the cause of each and every event occurring in the universe without introducing quite imaginary physical quantities like dark matter and dark energy; and without introducing quite unnecessary theories to explain, anyhow, the cause of the events (like distortion of light and accelerated expansion of the galaxies) LOOKING MYSTERIOUS. The article 'Beyond the Horizon' is the way to step in the complementary article, 'The Ultimate Truth', which describes the actual process of forming black holes, neutron stars and white dwarves in the 'DARK VACUUM' which is the actual process of evolving matter, the life, in the dark vacuum from 'NOTHING', (having even no empty space); and therefore the process of forming the 'GALAXIES', and so the 'UNIVERSE'.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kailash Nath Harbola},
    title = {Beyond the horizon},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {34-40},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36145
    Paper Title :: A Chemical Prediction of Groundwater Quality In parts of Owerri Imo state in South Eastern Nigeria
    Author Name :: Ekeleme, Anthony Chibuzo*, Ibearugbulem,Ogedi Hippolitus Ugwuegbulam Jude Chima
    Page Number :: 41-47
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0371041047

    The Chemical prediction of groundwater quality were carried out in Owerri west metropolist. A chemical parameters of groundwater samples from Nekede, Ihiagwa, Eziobodo, Obinze and Avu were subjected to chemical analysis using standard laboratory techniques . In the study, an equation was formulated that will predict the chemical concentrations of contaminants of the groundwater aquifer at any given distance in Owerri-west in Imo State. A total of three replicates of fifteen different borehole water samples were collected based on distances from closest potential sources of contamination. All parameters were detected up to 60m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. The results for concentration of Mn, Zn, Mg, and Hardness decreased as distance increases while further increase in distance may decrease or increase the values of Cu. Results also showed that most of the boreholes were polluted and not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting of wells from septic tanks, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended

    KEYWORDS: Groundwater, Owerri west, distance, Chemical. Parameter, Concentration.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ekeleme, Anthony Chibuzo*, Ibearugbulem, Ogedi Hippolitus Ugwuegbulam Jude Chima},
    title = {A Chemical Prediction of Groundwater Quality In parts of Owerri Imo state in South Eastern Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {41-47},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36148
    Paper Title :: Theory and Simulation of EPR Orthorhombic Jahn-Teller Spectra of Cu2+ in Cd2 (NH4)2(SO4)3 Single Crystals at Different Temperatures
    Author Name :: J B Yerima|| A B Dikko|| D K De
    Page Number :: 48-54
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0371048054
    This paper presents the theory and simulation of the derivative line shape function of the EPR orthorhombic Jahn-Teller spectra of Cu2+ in Cd2(NH4)2(SO4)3 single crystals. Computer simulation of the Cu2+ EPR spectra using the spectrum fitting technique has been carried out in the temperature range of 15-180 K. The results show excellent fit between the simulated and observed spectra. The insufficient resolution of the spectra at 15 K is attributed to the coupling of copper isotopes and its orthorhombicity to phonon-induced reorientation rate or quantum tunnelling of Cu2+ ions among the three JT potential wells. The splitting processes in the 3d9 orbital states of Cu2+ has been explained and in conjunction with the demands of the criterion of pure static JT systems, the random strain splitting is found to be 0.0176 cm-1 and 0.0342 cm-1 at 15 K and 180 K respectively.
    Keywords:Simulation, EPR orthorhombic Jahn-Teller spectra, temperature
    @article{key:article,
    author = {J B Yerima, A B Dikko, D K De},
    title = {Theory and Simulation of EPR Orthorhombic Jahn-Teller Spectra of Cu2+ in Cd2 (NH4)2(SO4)3 Single Crystals at Different Temperatures},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {48-54},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36146
    Paper Title :: Productivity Evaluation and Improvement of an Essential Balm Manufacturing Plant Using a Time Study Approach
    Author Name :: O.A. Olalere||P.A. Adedeji||Adebimpe O.A.||B.Olayiwola
    Page Number :: 55-62
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0371055062
    improving the product quality. This necessitated a change in the method of production from manual operation (which involves the use of mainly the manual labourer) to a semi-automated operation. It is therefore imperative to quantitatively justify the use of a semi- automated machine over the manual method of production. This work therefore evaluated the semi-automated system and manual method using the time study approach which estimated the basic and standard time required for both methods. All the necessary cost inputs such as the bill of materials, cost of power and other fixed cost such as depreciation were incorporated to obtain the overall multi-factor productivity of each methods of production. From the results obtained, the total standard time calculated from the semi-automated production system provided a sharp reduction by 39hours 24minutes in the use of machine operation, given us a percentage difference of 62.7% with the cost of production reduced by 30.20%. The productivity index when the machine was used for production was 0.003 as compared to 0.02 from manual method. Productivity of the machine operation is therefore greater by 33.3% as compared to that of manual operation. A critical assessment of the productivities in essential balm production, justified that using the automated machine is more productive in terms of ease, time, and economical point of view.
    Keywords:Essential Balm, Semi-automated, Time Study, Multi-factor Productivity.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {O.A. Olalere, P.A. Adedeji, Adebimpe O.A., B.Olayiwola},
    title = {Productivity Evaluation and Improvement of an Essential Balm Manufacturing Plant Using a Time Study Approach},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {6},
    pages = {55-62},
    month = {July} }
     
    Paper Id :: 37002
    Paper Title :: The effect of magnesium hydroxide/ zinc borate and magnesium hydroxide/ melamine flame retardant synergies on polypropylene
    Author Name ::

    Uzoma, P.C||Obidiegwu M.U||Ezeh V.O.||Akanbi M.N.||
    Onuoha, F.N.

    Page Number :: 63-68
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0371063068

    The effects of combination of two flame retardant systems on flammability properties of polypropylene were tested. The polypropylene samples (200g by weight) were prepared using 20% mixture of magnesium hydroxide/ zinc borate and magnesium hydroxide/ melamine flame retardant systems. The flammability properties were assessed as a function of ignition time (otherwise known as the glow time) and Flame Propagation Rate (FPR). The results obtained from the magnesium hydroxide/zinc borate systems showed a decrease in the flame propagation rate when compared with the polypropylene sample prepared using magnesium hydroxide as the only flame retardant system, although there is no significant change in the glow time. Magnesium hydroxide/melamine flame retardant synergy showed an appreciable increase in the glow time and also decreased the flame propagation rate of the polypropylene sample; it therefore gave a better flame retardant synergy than magnesium hydroxide/ zinc borate system.

    Key words: magnesium hydroxide, zinc borate, melamine, synergy, ignition time, flame propagation rate

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Uzoma, P.C||Obidiegwu M.U||Ezeh V.O.||Akanbi M.N.||
    Onuoha, F.N..},
    title = {The effect of magnesium hydroxide/ zinc borate and magnesium hydroxide/ melamine flame retardant synergies on polypropylene},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {63-68},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 07|| Version II ||July 2014
     
    Paper Id :: 35076
    Paper Title :: Àbèsàbèsì Language Documentation and Maintenance
    Author Name ::

    Taiwo Opeyemi Agoyi

    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03720107

    The need to develop theories and strategies of language maintenance arises from the knowledge of language endangerment. In many instances researchers on language documentation project have found themselves faced with the question of how to maintain threatened languages. This question holds no less true for Àbèsàbèsì (Akpes in the literature). This paper examines steps taken so far to maintain and revitalize the speech of Àbèsàbèsì a language (known as Akpes in the Literature with ethnographic identity ibe). Agoyi 2008 proposed the name Àbèsàbèsì, formed from the root morpheme Àbèsì 'we' because it is the only identity accepted by all the nine communities that speak variants of the language. Speakers of the language are currently aware of the endangered status of the language. One even decried the situation in which a family resident in one of the linguistic communities, who had spent their entire life living in the community, yet none of them from, ages 25 years and below could speak the local language. A Language Development group was initiated by me with some native speakers who felt concerned about the endangered nature of the language. The initial establishment of the language development group was seen by some as a waste of time. However with the draft of a proposed orthography and attempts to document and compile a dictionary and primers for the language, some of the elders are optimistic that the language may be saved from extinction. Gradually, the language maintenance mandate of the group is gaining momentum. This is a report of the work as far as it has progressed. The report is presented using the following outline.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Taiwo Opeyemi Agoyi},
    title = {Àbèsàbèsì Language Documentation and Maintenance},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {01-07},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36147
    Paper Title :: Impact Damage on Composite Structures – A Review
    Author Name ::

    N. Razali|| M.T.H. Sultan|| F. Mustapha||N. Yidris||M.R. Ishak

    Page Number :: 12-20
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/037208020

    This paper is a study of impact damage for composite material. The damage of composite structures caused by impact events is one of the most critical behaviours that inhibits more widespread application of composite material. It is important to study and understand the damage mechanism in order to produce effective designs for composite structures. The aerospace industry is one of the industries that uses composite material widely in its structures. The failure caused by impact damage will contribute to unexpected scenarios. This paper discusses damage in composite material, impact in composite material, classification of impact, impact response, high velocity impact, energy absorption and impact force of composites, and modes of failure

    Key words: magnesium hydroxide, zinc borate, melamine, synergy, ignition time, flame propagation rate

    @article{key:article,
    author = {N. Razali, M.T.H. Sultan1, F. Mustapha, N. Yidris, M.R. Ishak},
    title = {Impact Damage on Composite Structures – A Review},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {08-20},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212052
    Paper Title :: The Impact of Good Governance and Sustainable Development On Widows: The Case Of The Military Personnel Widows In Ondo State.
    Author Name ::

    Dr. Mrs Taiwo Opeyemi Agoyi

    Page Number :: 21-26
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0372021026

    The features of Armed Forces Remembrance Day since its inception are: Military parade; gun salute; wreath laying and hosting of military personnel as well as some widows of the fallen heroes. In 2012, the Governor of Ondo State, Dr. Olusegun Mimiko introduced a new package for the spouses of the fallen heroes resident in Ondo State. A soft loan of N50000:00K was given to each accredited military widow. In all, about 173 widows benefited. As many of the widows that were able to redeem the loan within a period of 12 months, had a repeat loan of N100000:00K in 2013. This study investigates the impact the soft loan had on the beneficiaries, the challenges the widows faced in managing the investment, the challenges legion executives faced as guarantors as well as inability of some of the widows to redeem the loan. Responses to the questionnaire show that the loan improved the widows' economy. It also assisted individuals to solve some financial problems. But some of the beneficiaries assumed the loan was just a share of the national cake, some encountered financial problems that forced them to close the businesses established. Considering the positive impact the loan had on the recipients, I suggest the programme should continues. The scheme should be extended to the widows that are yet to benefit; loan administrators should educate the public on the prospect and implications of not redeeming loans. Such education will prepare the applicant for the task ahead if granted loan. It will also assist the creditor on loan collection drive.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Mrs Taiwo Opeyemi Agoyi},
    title = {The Impact of Good Governance and Sustainable Development On Widows: The Case Of The Military Personnel Widows In Ondo State.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {21-26},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36159
    Paper Title :: State Feedback Approaches for Designing A Statcom Supplementary Controller for Oscillations Damping
    Author Name ::

    A.U. Lawan

    Page Number :: 27-37
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0372027037

    The authors present a state feedback control approach to the single infinite bus machine and multimachine systems all in-cooperating a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The proposed controllers' designs are based on a linear time invariant model of the plant and state feedback scheme. First, the linear mathematical model of STATCOM is derived. Then, using polynomial algorithm and pole placement algorithm, a state feedback control law is derived. The proposed control strategy is tested on two different case studies that is SMIB system and three area five machine system by digital computer simulations using matlab/simulink program for various types of loads and/or disturbances. Comparison of these results with those methods and without controller establishes the elegance of these control approaches.

    Key words: Damping controller, ITAE and Low frequency oscillations, STATCOM, and State feedback

    @article{key:article,
    author = {A.U. Lawan},
    title = {State Feedback Approaches for Designing A Statcom Supplementary Controller for Oscillations Damping},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {27-37},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36158
    Paper Title :: A comparative Study between Modelled and Received Mobile Phone Signal Strengths in terms of Power Loss and Statistical Analysis
    Author Name ::

    T. A Danladi A. U. Lawan || Salisu Umar

    Page Number :: 38-45
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03702038045

    This paper focuses on propagation study in indoor environment which is one of the most complicated propagation because of the effect of building structures and materials used in the construction and compares the real received signal strength/power and the theoretical modelled one all considering loses. An important requirement for mobile radio system is the provision of reliable services to the increasing number of users across outdoor to indoor interface. This research work studied, by way of extensive measurements. Five geographical locations at different distances in steps were used as case study within Kaduna metropolis in Nigeria namely: AnguwanKanawa, AnguwanMuazu, Hayen-Danmani, Mararaban Jos and Kabala. Signals radiated from four GSM (namely, MTN, Etisalat, Glo, starcomm and Airtel) and one CDMA (Stacom) which are international service providers were considered

    Key words: GSM, CDMA, modelled power, loss.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {T. A Danladi A. U. Lawan ,Salisu Umar},
    title = {The effect of magnesium hydroxide/ zinc borate and magnesium hydroxide/ melamine flame retardant synergies on polypropylene},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {38-45},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36157
    Paper Title :: Safety Assessments and Study of Radio Frequency Radiations and its Effects from Cellular Base Station
    Author Name ::

    Yahya H. A.||Danladi A. Tonga ||Nura Ahmed ||A. U. Lawan

    Page Number :: 46-53
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03702046053

    Presently Nigeria is experiencing a steady growth in the telecommunication industry, with about twenty one (21) mobile wireless telecommunication services providers, about fifteen thousand (15,000) Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) spreads across the country, and One Hundred and seventeen million lines actively connected, (Nigeria Communication Commission, June 2013). There is growing concern among Nigerians about the possible health hazard of electromagnetic radiation from the BTS and the mobile handsets. This study focuses on measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation (w/m2) radiated from Base Transceiver Stations (BTS). These measurements were carried out using handheld Spectrum Analyser. Maximum radiation values were measured from (BTS) of the selected sites in Kaduna and the results were compared with the standard provided by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, (ICNIRP, 1998) and a good agreement was obtained.

    Key words: Measurement,Electromagnetic Radiation, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Safety.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Yahya H. A.,Danladi A. Tonga ,Nura Ahmed ,A. U. Lawan},
    title = {Safety Assessments and Study of Radio Frequency Radiations and its Effects from Cellular Base Station},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {46-53},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 36152
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of the Thermooxidation Stabilities of Additive-free Automotive Crankcase Lube Oils
    Author Name ::

    Anietie E. Ekot||Goodwill C. Ofunne

    Page Number :: 54-60
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03702054060

    The incorporation of additives as fortifiers in lube oils is meant to enhance their performance characteristics during normal engine operations. In this study the thermooxidation stabilities of two commercially available grades of automotive crankcase oils namely, SAE-28W50 and SAE-10W40 and their mixed stock blend have been evaluated to determine their additive-free stability status, which can be used as baseline in crankcase lubricant formulation. The assay on the crankcase basestocks was carried out by simulating the high temperature conditions encountered in the spark ignition internal combustion engines under normal operation. To obtain the base oil samples the two commercial grades of the oils were stripped of their additive components using chromatographic columns stacked with Florisel (100-200) and Silica Gel (90-230) mesh arranged in alternate positions. The recovered basestocks were treated in a modified version of the Turbine Oil Oxidation Test (TOOT) apparatus developed in our laboratory. The tests were carried out by thermally oxidizing the base oils with a steady air flow rate of 1.0l/hr at a given test temperature for 2.5hrs. The temperature was raised by 400C after every 2.5hrs till a maximum temperature of 3800C was attained. A blend of of 1:1 mixture of the basestocks was also treated under same test conditions. The thermooxidation stabilities of the basestocks were evaluated based on standard parameters namely, the Total Acid Number (TAN) and the Total Oxidation Products (TOP,) Infrared spectroscopy was also used to evaluate the molecular changes in the degraded basestocks .The results showed that the synthetic basestock was thermooxidatively most unstable, followed closely by the mixed stock blend; while the mineral basestock was the least unstable at all temperatures ranging from 1000 up to 380OC.Thereforeon on quality consideration, it can be deduced that the knowledge of thermooxidation stability status of the basestocks can be used as a guide for formulating lubricants with high performance characteristics for the spark ignition internal combustion engines

    Key words: Crankcase basestocks, Thermooxidation, Stability status, Performance characteristics

    @article{key:article,
    author = {1Anietie E. Ekot., Goodwill C. Ofunne.},
    title = {Evaluation of the Thermooxidation Stabilities of Additive-free Automotive Crankcase Lube Oils},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {54-60},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34065
    Paper Title :: On Uniformly Continuous Uniformity On A Topological Space
    Author Name ::

    Dr. S.M.Padhye || Ku. S.B.Tadam

    Page Number :: 61-62
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03702061062

    Given a topological space (X,) we define uniformity on X such that (X, is uniformly continuous uniform space and it becomes the smallest uniformly continuous uniformity with respect to which set of continuous functions is larger than set of –continuous functions.

    Key words: Pseudo-metric space, Uniform space, Uniformly continuous function. Subject code classification in accordance with AMS procedures: 54E15.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. S.M.Padhye , Ku. S.B.Tadam},
    title = {On Uniformly Continuous Uniformity On A Topological Space},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {61-62},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 07|| Version III ||July 2014
    Paper Id :: 36017
    Paper Title :: Literature Survey in Natural Language Processing In the Sphere of Relation Extraction
    Author Name ::

    Dr. Y. V. Haribhakta ||Bhavika Chheda ||Nupur Agrawal ||Shrutika Girme

    Page Number :: 01-08
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03730108

    Today data is being produced at a phenomenal rate since our ability to store the data has been grown. Most of this available data is in unstructured form. Information extraction aims to extract structured information from the kinds of unstructured textual data and is considered as pre-processing step for relation extraction. Relation Extraction is a technique used for exploring the significant relations that would be useful for information retrieval, question answering and summarization. This paper discusses various methods for extracting different relations from the text and provides a consolidated literature survey giving complete idea about the most renowned methods of Information Extraction in Relation Extraction field. It tries to explain the methodology of the mostly used methods of Relation Extraction along with their pros and cons. It proves as a basic study for further exploration in the field of Relation Extraction.

    Key words: Data mining, Information extraction, Relation extraction.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Y. V. Haribhakta ,Bhavika Chheda , Nupur Agrawal ,Shrutika Girme},
    title = {Literature Survey in Natural Language Processing In the Sphere of Relation Extraction},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {01-08},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: A31111
    Paper Title :: Synthesis and Elastic Study in Cuo:La Nanofluid
    Author Name ::

    George Varughese||M Suma ||J. M Abraham ||A.S Kumar

    Page Number :: 46-53
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/037309012

    Copper Oxide is an extensively studied group II-VI semiconductor with optical properties that permits stable emission at room temperature having immense application in sensors, field emission and photonic devices. CuO:La nano materials with an average particle size of 27-33 nm are synthesized by the reaction of copper nitrate in ammonia solution under hydrothermal conditions. XRD, SEM and EDS characterize the samples. The percentage of doping material is confirmed from the EDS spectra. The average crystal size of the prepared CuO nanopowder is determined by XRD. The Ultrasonic velocity and Compressibility have been measured in the CuO:La nanofluid and found 50 A0

    Key words: A:Nanofluid B: Copper oxide C:Lanthanum D: Compressibility

    @article{key:article,
    author = {George Varughese,M Suma , J. M Abraham , A.S Kumar},
    title = {Synthesis and Elastic Study in Cuo:La Nanofluid},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {09-12},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37029
    Paper Title :: Implementation of GSM Remote Switching Using Locally Available Components in Nigeria
    Author Name ::

    Ohajianya, A. C., ||Abumere, O. E.,||Osarolube, E.,||Ihesineke, V. C

    Page Number :: 13-23
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0373013023

    In this research project, a GSM Remote Control System was implemented using locally available components in Nigeria. The system uses Mobile technology to control various units of the home, office or industrial appliances. The control component used in the circuit was the AT89S52 microcontroller, and its outputs were decoded by the CM8870 DTMF decoder. The microcontroller was programmed by simulation method using the 8052 simulator for windows. Printed circuit board (PCB) was developed out of a copper-clad board and used for the circuit. The system was tested after construction and its functionality was confirmed.

    Key words: appliances, dtmf decoder, gsm, microcontroller, mobile technology, remote control, pcb

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ohajianya, A. C., Abumere, O. E., ,Osarolube, E., Ihesineke, V. C.},
    title = {Implementation of GSM Remote Switching Using Locally Available Components in Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {13-23},
    month = {July}
    }
     
     
    Paper Id :: 36134
    Paper Title :: Intentional Knowledge Mining Using Association Mining Technique in XML Query Answering Scheme
    Author Name ::

    Ujwal Arjun Bodke ||Santosh Kumar

    Page Number :: 24-30
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0373024030

    Semistructured document's data retrieval has become a defacto standard for data storing, sharing and exchanging information over heterogeneous platforms. The XML content is growing speedily thus information withdral from semistructured documents has become very tedious task, companies or organizations need to make queries on XML databases frequently. As their XML data is huge, it is difficult task to mine intensional data from XML database. It is computationally costly to answer queries without any support. Thus in this paper we propose a technique known as Tree-based Association Rules (TARs) mined rules that extract required information on structure and content of XML file and the TARs are also stored in XML format provide a way to use intentional knowledge as a alternative of the original document during querying . This empower swift and precise respond for queries. We also built a framework to manifest the efficiency of the proposed system. The actual results are very constructive and query answering is expected to benificial in real time applications

    Key words: XML dataset, Query Answering,TARS, Data Mining.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ujwal Arjun Bodke , Santosh Kumar.},
    title = {Intentional Knowledge Mining Using Association Mining Technique in XML Query Answering Scheme},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {24-30},
    month = {July}
    }
    Paper Id :: 37015
    Paper Title :: k-Separable non-inclusion and m-Non-inclusion Techniques for r(r<_n)Enumerative arrangements
    Author Name ::

    C. MOORE||O.C OKOLI and M. LAISIN||W. Uwandu

    Page Number :: 31-39
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0373031039

    Let X = fxt : t = 1; 2; : : : ;Ng be a nite collection and let
    K = fxti : i = 1; 2; : : : ; kg and M = fxtj : j = 1; 2; : : : ;mg be sub-collections of
    X. Furthermore, we considered the problem of selecting r(r  n) elements from
    X with the k and m non-inclusion elements, such that the k non-inclusion
    elements are not always together in each selection. We constructed suitable
    mathematical formula in the combinatorial sense for enumerative purpose on
    certain kind of restriction called k-separable non-inclusion and m-non-inclusion on
    the sub-collections of elements of the set X = fxt : t = 1; 2; : : : ;Ng.

    Key words: r-permutations, r-combinations, k-inseparable non-inclusion and
    m-non-inclusion.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {C. MOORE,O.C OKOLI and M. LAISIN, W. Uwandu.},
    title = {k-Separable non-inclusion and m-Non-inclusion Techniques for r(r<_n)Enumerative arrangements},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {31-39},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37013
    Paper Title :: Standard Penetration Test in Engineering Geological Site Investigations – A Review
    Author Name ::

    Wazoh, H. N ||Mallo, S. J

    Page Number :: 40-48
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0373040048

    Prior to the construction of engineering structures, site investigation is required in order to determine the suitability of the site for the intended structure. The results of the investigation furnish information on the engineering properties of earth materials and groundwater conditions of the site.During the field exploration phase, in situ engineering field tests are carried out. These include standard penetration tests (SPT), vane shear tests (VST), cone penetration tests (CPT), flat plate dilatometer tests (DMT) and pressure meter tests (PMT). These tests give results that are used to characterize the strength and deformation properties of earth materials. The SPT as used in engineering geological site investigation is reviewed in this paper with emphasis on its significance in engineering geological site investigations. The equipment used is the cable percussion drilling rig and its accessories made up of split-spoon sampler, hammer, and drill rods. The SPT is performed by driving the split spoon sampler into the ground by a drop of hammer of mass 64 kg falling from a predetermined height. The hammer blow counts, disturbed and undisturbed soil samples collected during the test are processed and interpreted. The interpreted results are used to estimate the relative density, shear strength of soils and the bearing capacity. Based on these estimates, recommendations for foundation design and construction of civil engineering structures can be made.

    Key words: Site investigation, Standard Penetration Test, hammer, split spoon sampler

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Wazoh, H. N and Mallo, S. J},
    title = {Standard Penetration Test in Engineering Geological Site Investigations – A Review},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {40-48},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37036
    Paper Title :: Responsive Web Design inFluid Grid Concept Literature Survey
    Author Name ::

    Abdulrehman A. Mohamed || Dr. Cheruiyot W.K || Dr. Richard Rimiru || Collins Ondago

    Page Number :: 49-57
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0373049057
    Extending beyond the boundaries of science, art, and culture, Responsive Web Design (RWD) provides new paradigms and techniques to develop one single website which looks different for different screen sizes so that it is usable on every device. In this paper we survey some of the state-of-art technical aspects of Responsive Web Design. A number of other overviews on Responsive Web Design have been published. However, in this survey, an effort has been made to show the chronological growth in this field by presenting and in-depth survey of fluid grid concept.The review reveals a shift away from traditional web design towards Responsive Web Design and a need for an alternative enhanced approach to RWD in fluid grid implementation which has evolve to become an unavoidable good practice in web designing. After extensive exploration of the literature, we recommend an outcome of classification of three meaningful categories as; Frame-based Solution (FBS), Support-based Solution (SBS), and Algorithm-based Solutions (ABS) Approaches for Fluid Grid Concept implementation.

    Key words: Responsive Web Design (RWD), Fluid Grids, Frame-based Solution (FBS), Support-based Solution (SBS), and Algorithm-based Solution (ABS).

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Abdulrehman A. Mohamed and Dr. Cheruiyot W.K and Dr. Richard Rimiru and Collins Ondago},
    title = {Responsive Web Design inFluid Grid Concept Literature Survey},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {49-57},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37035
    Paper Title :: Surface Roughness Analysis And Compare Prediction And Experimental Value For Cylindrical Stainless Steel Pipe (Ss 316l) In CNC Lathe Turning Process Using ANN Method For Re-Optimization And Cutting Fluid
    Author Name ::

    1Rajendra Singh ||Rahul kr.Gupta ||Jitendra Kr. Tripathi

    Page Number :: 58-71
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0373058071

    Surface quality of the machined parts is one of the most important product quality indicators and most frequent customer requirements. Metal cutting processes are important due to increased consumer demands for quality metal cutting related products more precise tolerances and better product surface roughness that has driven the metal cutting industry to continuously improve quality control of metal cutting processes. The average surface roughness (Ra) represents a measure of the surface quality, and it is mostly influenced by the following cutting parameters: the cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. This paper presents optimum surface roughness by using CNC Lathe for 316L stainless steel pipe with Artificial Neural Networks Optimization (ANNO). The approach is based on Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA) Method and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The main objectives is to find the optimized parameters and the most dominant variables cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth and radial depth. The ANN model indicates that the feed rate is the most significant factor affecting surface roughness. The mathematical model developed by using multiple regression method shows the accuracy of surface roughness Prediction. The result from this research is useful to be implemented in both time-consuming and laborious works in industry to reduce time and cost in surface roughness prediction.

    Key words: 316L SS Pipe Specimen, CNC Lathe, Turning, surface roughness, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Re-Optimization.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rajendra Singh and Rahul kr.Gupta and Jitendra Kr. Tripathi},
    title = {Surface Roughness Analysis And Compare Prediction And Experimental Value For Cylindrical Stainless Steel Pipe (Ss 316l) In CNC Lathe Turning Process Using ANN Method For Re-Optimization And Cutting Fluid},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {58-71},
    month = {July}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 37024
    Paper Title :: Behaviour of Square footings on Prestressed Geosynthetic Reinforced Sand
    Author Name ::

    Dhatrak A. I ||Khan Farukh.A

    Page Number :: 72-83
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0373072083

    The technique of reinforcing the soil below shallow foundations with geosynthetic reinforcement is one of the fastest growing techniques in the field of geotechnical engineering. Therefore, laboratory physical model tests and numerical analyses were conducted to study the behaviour of prestressed geotextile-reinforced sand bed supporting a loaded square footing. In each case, reinforcement depth, prestressing force, prestress directions are varied of the geogrid for the purposes of knowing improvement in load bearing capacity of footing. The study revel that addition of prestress to the geotextile reinforcement results in significant improvement to the settlement and the load-bearing capacity of the foundation. For a surface footing, the load-carrying capacity at reinforcement depth B/4 gives maximum improvement in load bearing capacity and minimum settlement for biaxial prestressing force case (with prestress equal to 3% of the allowable tensile strength of the geotextile) is approximately double that of the geogrid reinforced sand without prestress.

    Key words: Model footing test, Prestress reinforced bed, Ultimate bearing capacity, Geotextile, Sand bed.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dhatrak A. I and Khan Farukh.A},
    title = {Behaviour of Square footings on Prestressed Geosynthetic Reinforced Sand},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {7},
    pages = {72-83},
    month = {July}
    }