•               
    Volume 03 || Issue 05|| Version I ||May 2014
    Paper Id :: 34102
    Paper Title :: Background Subraction in a Video System Using Morphology Technique
    Author Name :: C.Venkata Subba Reddy|| A.Karunakar
    Page Number :: 01-06
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03501001006
    The capability of extracting moving objects from a video sequence captured using a static camera is a typical first step in visual surveillance. The idea of background subtraction is to subtract or difference the current image from a reference background model. This paper proposes a new method to detect moving object based on background subtraction. First of all, we establish a reliable background updating model based on statistical and use a dynamic optimization threshold method to obtain a more complete moving object. Here we have written the core processor Microblaze is designed in VHDL (VHSIC hardware description language), implemented using XILINX ISE 8.1 Design suite the algorithm is written in system C Language and tested in SPARTAN-3 FPGA kit by interfacing a test circuit with the PC using the RS232 cable. The test results are seen to be satisfactory. The area taken and the speed of the algorithm are also evaluated.
    Keywords: UART; VHDL; Softcore; Microblaze; Morphological Image Filtering, Segmentation
    @article{key:article,
    author = {C.Venkata Subba Reddy, A.Karunakar},
    title = {Background Subraction in a Video System Using Morphology Technique},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {01-06},
    month = {May}
    }
    Paper Id :: 34103
    Paper Title :: Energy and Exergy Analysis of I.C. Engines
    Author Name :: A.Vamshikrishna Reddy||T.Sharath kumar||D.K.Tharun kumar||B.Dinesh||Y.V.S. Sai santosh
    Page Number :: 07-26
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03501007026
    With non-renewable fossil fuel reserves being depleted and in the recent times, there are issues related to their GHG emissions such as, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO), it has become necessity to look forward the use of renewable or inexhaustible fuels to trim down the burden on our non-renewable fuels and for resolving the problem of emissions. Biomass, as a renewable energy source, can either be used directly or converted into other energy products such as biogas. Biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide with traces of carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphite, nascent nitrogen and oxygen, is produced from organic wastes in biogas plants under anaerobic conditions is used for power generation. For power generation we need engines. Engines may be of diesel and petrol.Diesel engines contribute an important part of the world's transportation and industrial infrastructure, especially in heavy-duty equipment such as trucks, buses, construction and farm equipments, locomotives, ships etc. However, Biogas does not undergo combustion in compression ignition (CI) engine when used alone due to their low cetane numbers and high auto-ignition temperatures. Hence, the CI engine of the 'dual fuel' approach plays a significant role in the efficient utilization of a wide range of gaseous fuels. During a dual fuel operation, a carbureted air-gas mixture is sucked and compressed like in a conventional diesel engine. The compressed air-gas mixture is fired by a small liquid fuel injection, pilot, which ignites spontaneously at the end of compression process. A diesel engine can be converted easily to a dual function engine with minimum modification with biogas as main fuel and diesel used as pilot fuel contributing 10-20% of total fuel consumption. The main idea of this work is to carry out energy and exergy analysis of the biogas run dual fuelled diesel engine. The study of this analysis is done by coupling 1st law and 2nd law of thermodynamics. This gives a clear picture on fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency and different availabilities with the varying load and compared to the corresponding diesel values.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {A.Vamshikrishna Reddy, T.Sharath kumar, D.K.Tharun kumar, B.Dinesh, Y.V.S. Sai santosh},
    title = {Energy and Exergy Analysis of I.C. Engines},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {07 - 26},
    month = {May}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25089
    Paper Title :: Autocorrelation effects of seemingly unrelated regression (sur) model on some estimators
    Author Name :: Olanrewaju S.O||Ipinyomi R.A
    Page Number :: 27-40
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03501027040
    The seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) proposed by Zellner consists of L regression equations each of which satisfies the assumptions of the standard regression model. These assumptions are not always satisfied mostly in Economics, Social Sciences and Agricultural Economics which may lead to adverse consequences on the estimator parameters properties. Literature has revealed that multicollinearity often affects the efficiency of SUR estimators and the efficiency in the SUR formulation increases, the more the correlations between error vector differ from zero and the closer the explanatory variables for each response being uncorrelated. This study therefore examined the effect of correlation between the error terms and autocorrelation on seven methods of parameter estimation in SUR model using Monte Carlo approach. A two equation model was considered in which the first equation has the presence of autocorrelation and correlation between the error terms exists between the two equations. The levels of correlation between the error terms were specified as CR = -0.99, -0.9, -0.8, -0.6, -0.4, -0.2, 0, +0.2, +0.4, +0.6, +0.8, +0.9 and +0.99 and autocorrelation levels RE= -0.99, -0.9, -0.8, -0.6, -0.4, -0.2, 0, +0.2, +0.4, +0.6, +0.8, +0.9 and +0.99 A Monte Carlo experiment of 1000 trials was carried out at five sample sizes 20, 30, 50, 100 and 250. The seven estimation methods; Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Cochran – Orcut (GLS2), Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), Multivariate Regression, Full Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML), Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) Model and Three Stage Least Squares (3SLS) were used and their performances were critically examined. Finite properties of estimators' criteria such as bias, absolute bias, variance and mean squared error were used for methods comparison. The results show that the performances of the estimators cannot be solely determined by the evaluation given by bias criterion because it always behaves differently from other criteria. For the eight different cases considered in this study, it was observed that when the sample size is small (i.e 20 or 30) there is high variability among the estimators but as the sample size increases the variance of the estimator decreases and the performances of the estimators become asymptotically the same. In the presence of correlation between the error terms and autocorrelation, the estimator of MLE is preferred to estimate all the parameters of the model at all the level of sample sizes.
    KEYWORDS: SUR, Autocorrelation, Error terms, mean square error, Bias, Absolute Bias, Variance.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Olanrewaju S.O ,Ipinyomi R.A},
    title = {Autocorrelation effects of seemingly unrelated regression (sur) model on some estimators},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {27-40},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34081
    Paper Title :: Use Of Efficient And Affordable Technologies In Checkmating The Existence Of Hazardous Waste In Ilorin, Nigeria
    Author Name :: S.A.ADEBARA||M.A. ANIFOWOSE||M.O. ALAO
    Page Number :: 41-45
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03501041045
    To enhance the development of clean and good health environment, this research deals with the use of efficient and affordable technologies in checkmating the existence of hazardous waste. Human activities, such as production and processing lead to the production of wastes (solid, liquid or gas), which must be minimized because of their harmful effect on human life and destruction caused on the environment. Six hundred (600) copies of questionnaires were distributed with Two hundred (200) copies each to the Three (3) Local Government Areas in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Various effects of hazardous wastes on human health and the environment were identified to promote state of health of the people and the environment and proper enlighten placed on the menace of hazardous waste. The role of the agencies responsible for the controlling and monitoring of hazardous waste were examined, which shows more laxity on the part of municipal authority in discharging its responsibilities. This then call for awaken on these bodies in discharging their responsibilities and adequate funding from the government. Also a separate disposal site such as landfill and incinerator should be constructed for hazardous wastes and programmes on reuse and recycling of recoverable materials be encouraged
    Keywords:hazardous waste, efficient, affordable, municipal, landfill, incinerator, recycling.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S.A.ADEBARA, M.A. ANIFOWOSE, M.O. ALAO},
    title = {Use Of Efficient And Affordable Technologies In Checkmating The Existence Of Hazardous Waste In Ilorin, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {41-45},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34114
    Paper Title :: Quality and Utilization of Timber Species for Building Construction in Minna, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Adebara S. A|| Hassan Haruna || Shittu M.B || Anifowose M.A
    Page Number :: 46-50
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03501046050
    objectives were to identify the timber species utilized in Minna; to determine the most quality timber species used in Minna metropolis and factors that influence the choice of a particular quality timber species. Information was obtained through interviewing of traders and observing timber yards and construction sites. Quality control measures in place were also investigated and ranking wise method was used to obtain the nineteen (19) most quality timber species utilized in Minna metropolis.
    It was observed that there are over 18 timber species on market without quality control measures; where timber grading methods in Minna are mainly subjective with visual grading technique as the predominant method of assessing timber quality. Timber intended for purpose should be based on subjective prescriptive approaches. It was concluded that, the absent of quality timber standards has impended efficient utilization of timber and has affected the market value and building construction industry. This is due to the poverty and rapid population growth resulting to indecent cutting of trees in use for firewood and other domestic purposes, deforestation, over cultivation, poor irrigation practices, resulting to the loss of biological and economic productivity of the land.
    Keywords: Timber, Construction, Standard, Species, Deforestation, Irrigation.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adebara S. A , Hassan Haruna , Shittu M.B , Anifowose M.A },
    title = {Quality and Utilization of Timber Species for Building Construction in Minna, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {46-50},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34116
    Paper Title :: Copepods from few freshwater bodies of periurban areas of South Chennai
    Author Name :: Ramanibai Ravichandran|| Gomathi Jeyam .M
    Page Number :: 51-53
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03501051053
    We proposed to study the occurrence of copepods on par with our regular field survey. Few freshwater bodies have been identified as the source of collection initiated from December 2013 onwards. Overall 12 copepods were isolated and identified upto species level. The calanoids and cyclopoids were contributed 4 and 8 species each. The calanoid Diaptomus sicilis was first time reported from Madipakkam lake, dominated over other copepods of the lake. Our results revealed that the copepod occurrence, particularly calanoids were very much related to the size of the water body depending on pH and DO concentrations prevail in the aquatic medium.
    Keywords: Copepods, Fresh water bodies
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ramanibai Ravichandran, Gomathi Jeyam .M},
    title = {Copepods from few freshwater bodies of periurban areas of South Chennai},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {51-53},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 05|| Version II ||May 2014
    Paper Id :: 32076
    Paper Title :: Modelling and Simulation of High Step up DC to AC Converter for Microsource Application
    Author Name :: R.Sowmya|| S.Rama Reddy
    Page Number :: 01-05
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03502001005
    This paper deals with modelling and simulation of high step up DC – AC converter with micro source at the input. The 15V DC is stepped up to 230V DC using high step up DC-DC Converter. This DC is converted into AC using a single phase inverter. The DC-AC converter system is modeled and simulated using the blocks of simulink and the results are presented in this paper.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {R.Sowmya, S.Rama Reddy},
    title = {Modelling and Simulation of High Step up DC to AC Converter for Microsource Application},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {01-05},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34084
    Paper Title :: A Comparative Study ON Friction Stir Welding Ofdis-SIMILAR METALS By Using Lathe Machine
    Author Name :: K.Sainath|| Mohd salahuddin|| Mohd Riyaz uddin|| Mohamad ayazoddin||Mohd Aamer Khan
    Page Number :: 06-13
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03502006013
    Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process. Investigation of mechanical and metallurgical properties of friction stir welded on dis –similar metals. Analysis of tool pin profile on mechanical properties of Aluminum and Aluminum alloy. Heat treatment improves tensile strength, ductility, hardness and microstructure. Circular tool pin profile gives fine grain structure than taper tool pin profile. Circular tool pin profile shows fine grains at weld centre.Taper tool pin profile shows higher hardness compared to circular tool pin profile.Characterization techniques were studied by using Rockwell hardness.(the metal is not melted) that uses a third body tool to join two facing surfaces. Heat is generated between the tool and material which leads to a very soft region near the FSW tool

    @article{key:article,
    author = {K.Sainath, Mohd salahuddin, Mohd Riyaz uddin, Mohamad ayazoddin , Mohd Aamer Khan },
    title = {A Comparative Study ON Friction Stir Welding Ofdis-SIMILAR METALS By Using Lathe Machine},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {06-13},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35001
    Paper Title :: System for Vehicle safety and Traffic Co-ordination
    Author Name :: Prashant Gade|| Inali Wahane
    Page Number :: 14-17
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03502014017
    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver's attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication, we present a new system for vehicle and traffic co-ordination that identifies a problem driver/vehicle to take action against them on violation of speed limit, along with traffic management
    Keywords:Automatic Braking, Accident control system, High speed driving, Rule violation, Data analysis
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prashant Gade,, Inali Wahane},
    title = {System for Vehicle safety and Traffic Co-ordination},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {14-17},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35010
    Paper Title :: Process Automation of Human Emotion Detection
    Author Name :: Namrata Mahajan|| Harshad Mahajan
    Page Number :: 18-22
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03502018022
    Human can see emotion as associated with mood, temperament, personality and disposition. To detect emotions is easy for humans but it's quite difficult for computer as world is three dimensional but Computer has only two dimensions. Computer seeks to emulate the human emotions by digital image analysis. Humans can use vision to identify objects quickly and accurately. Human can detect emotion using voice based on different parameters like tone, pitch, pace and volume; but in case of digital images detecting emotion just by analysing images is a novel way. This algorithm has two major parts. First, Template database generation and another is emotion detection. In this, we first extracts face from an image using some basic image processing operations and color models in it. Here we define thresholds to separate our region of interest. Then we perform lip detection on cropped face and this extracted lips are stored in our database with emotion name in database generation phase while in emotion detection phase this extracted lips are compared with series of stored template in database and on the basis of best correlated template emotion is recognized. This method of detecting emotions is simple and fast as compared to previous methods i.e. using brain activity or by speech. Size of database will affect the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
    Keywords:Emotion Detection, Skin based Segmentation, Automation and Lip Segmentation
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Namrata Mahajan, Harshad Mahajan},
    title = {Process Automation of Human Emotion Detection},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {18-22},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34105
    Paper Title :: Efficient p2p Video Sharing Scheme in Online Social Network
    Author Name :: Abinaya.R ||Ramachandran.G
    Page Number :: 23-27
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03502023027
    Nowadays network group, Peer-To-Peer (P2P) network is exploring as a good candidate for resource sharing over the Internet. Compared with traditional file sharing workloads, continuous streaming of multimedia content provokes a significant amount of today's internet traffic. Streaming media has various real-time constraints such as insufficient memory, high bandwidth utilization for large-scale media objects and lack of cooperation between proxies and their clients. Therefore, Sharing of large multimedia objects between similar interests has become predominantly important for on demand video streaming applications. Existing P2P assisted sharing scheme clusters the peers based on similar interest and locality to improve the streaming performance under limited storage constraints. Under these circumstances, it is a challenging task to achieve efficient content delivery under the increased availability of continuous-media streaming.
    Keywords: Distinguish hash table (DHT), Online social network (OSN), peer to peer, Video on Demand (VoD).
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Abinaya.R, Ramachandran.G },
    title = {Efficient p2p Video Sharing Scheme in Online Social Network},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {23-27},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35024
    Paper Title :: Biodegradability of Diesel Using Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate
    Author Name :: Chindo Nwankwo|| Rose E. Ikyereve|| Abubakar Mohammed|| Odunayo S. Falade||Kabir Salisu
    Page Number :: 28-32
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03502028032
    Pollution of the soil with petroleum products is a global challenge and this study measures the effect of surfactant addition on compost sample spiked with diesel oil to understand the degradability of diesel. The relationship between oxygen uptake and microbial activity on the biodegradation of diesel were studied. The compost was spiked with diesel oil at different concentrations of 0.05, 1.0 and 2.0g oil /8g of compost based on Nigerian intervention value of 5000mg oil/kg soil. Surfactant was added at a fixed volume of 0.2ml to the spiked compost samples. A respirometric technique known as specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) was employed to measure the changing oxygen concentration on aqueous suspension of spiked compost sample by the use of dissolved oxygen probes. The SOUR test showed that the increase in dissolved oxygen concentration reduced the oxygen consumption due to the presence of diesel. The amount of oxygen consumed during microbial activities was computed and the rate of dissolved oxygen concentration was highest (12.5mg O2/l) in 2g oil and lowest (8.06mg O2/l) in 0.05g oil.
    Keywords: Biodegradation, diesel, surfactant, SOUR, dissolved oxygen, compost.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Chindo Nwankwo, Rose E. Ikyereve, Abubakar Mohammed, Odunayo S. Falade, Kabir Salisu},
    title = {Biodegradability of Diesel Using Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {28-32},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35015
    Paper Title :: Analysis and Development of Traffic Stream Parameters of Heterogeneous Traffic at Signalized Intersection
    Author Name :: R.S. Dhapudkar
    Page Number :: 33-39
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03502033039
    The rapid increase in the volume of traffic in most of the countries containing the heterogeneous traffic demands a more efficient and intelligent system to be dealt with. A heterogeneous traffic stream consists of vehicles that have different speeds, sizes, operating characteristics, and vehicle spacing. The Indian traffic is heterogeneous traffic. Homogeneous design methods do not fit the heterogeneous situation, especially in non-lane-based roadways that populate the developing world. This paper reviews the status of heterogeneous mixes worldwide, and what factors need to be considered in such mixes. This paper presents a macroscopic stochastic model of traffic movements at signalized intersection. To study macroscopic traffic parameters (flow, speed and density) and to establish new models for the Indian highway. A heterogeneous traffic stream consists of vehicles that have different speeds, sizes, operating characteristics, and vehicle spacing. It reviews the status of heterogeneous mixes world traffic, and which factors need to be considered in such traffic. The Indian roads are constructed on European equation of homogeneous traffic and different LOS, which are not applicable to heterogeneous traffic of India. So, there is a need to model the new equation for Indian highways. In these traffic parameters were identified by using the video recording technique at just after the signalized intersection. And found out the relation between macroscopic parameters of traffic and compared with the fundamental diagrams. SPSS software is used to define the relationship between the traffic parameters.
    Keywords:Signalized intersection, Flow, density, speed, heterogeneous traffic, traffic flow etc...
    @article{key:article,
    author = {R.S. Dhapudkar},
    title = {Analysis and Development of Traffic Stream Parameters of Heterogeneous Traffic at Signalized Intersection},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {33-39},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35035
    Paper Title :: A study on buying behavioral pattern of Women drivers regarding B segment cars in Bangalore
    Author Name :: Prof. Elizabeth Chacko || Ms. Punnya Selvaraj
    Page Number :: 40-43
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03502040043
    In this era of modernisation, four wheelers are nowadays a necessity rather than symbol of status for every individual. Automobile Industry witnessed the boom in recent years. The present study focuses on various factors influencing buying behaviour of consumer while purchasing car. This paper has made a exploratory approach to identify the key factors that influence the women consumers (a) while selecting the appropriate four wheelers especially in B segment cars by considering the parameters such as mileage, maintenance cost, comfort and brand which are ambiguous and imprecise in nature. With regards to the selection of four wheelers like cars, the women consumers are in dilemma to identify and select an appropriate model. Earlier the four wheelers were designed only for male fraternity. The survey has been conducted in analyzing the customer's preferences in buying a car by data collected through questionnaire from 50 consumers in Bangalore. Consumer behaviour study is based on consumer buying behaviour, with the consumer playing the three distinct roles of users, payer and buyer. Consumer behaviour is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy products. It blends elements from psychology, sociology and economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups. The main objective of the research is to identify the preferences of women while purchasing a four wheeler. The survey will be helpful for the automobile industry and others who would like to study the buying behaviour of the women drivers
    Keywords: behaviour pattern, consumer, consumer preferences, marketing mix, buying preferences.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prof. Elizabeth Chacko, Ms. Punnya Selvaraj },
    title = {A study on buying behavioral pattern of Women drivers regarding B segment cars in Bangalore},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {40-43},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34155
    Paper Title :: Replicate and Bundle (RnB)
    Author Name :: Kalyani Khandezod|| Nitin Raut|| Abdulla Shaik
    Page Number :: 44-49
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03502044049
    This work addresses the measurability and potency of RAM-based storage systems whereby multiple objects should be retrieved per user request. Here, a lot of the central processing unit work is per server dealing, not per requested item. Adding servers and spreading the information across them additionally spreads any given set of requested things across additional servers, thereby increasing the full variety of server transactions per user request. The ensuing poor measurability, dubbed the Multi-get Hole, has been reported in net a pair of.0 systems mistreatment memcached – a well-liked memory-based key-value storage system. We tend to gift Replicate and Bundle (RnB), a somewhat unintuitive approach: instead of add CPUs, we tend to add memory. Object replicas area unit mapped "randomly" to servers, and requested objects area unit bundled, choosing replicas therefore on minimize the quantity of servers accessed per user request and therefore the full central processing unit work per request. We tend to studied RnB via simulation within the context of DRAM-based storage, utilizing small benchmarks and enforced RnB modules for standardization. Our results show that RnB considerably reduces the quantity of transactions per request, creating operation additional economical. Also, in contrast to most alternatives, RnB permits versatile growth and comparatively straightforward readying. Finally, in systems whereby knowledge is replicated for different reasons, RnB is sort of free.
    Keywords:Click through data, concept, location search, ontology
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kalyani Khandezod, Nitin Raut, Abdulla Shaik},
    title = {Replicate and Bundle (RnB)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {44-49},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34132
    Paper Title :: Design and Implementation of ADPCM Based Audio Compression Using Verilog
    Author Name :: Hemanthkumar M P|| Swetha H N
    Page Number :: 50-55
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03502050055
    Internet-based voice transmission, digital telephony, intercoms, telephone answering machines, and mass storage, we need to compress audio signals. ADPCM is one of the techniques to reduce the bandwidth in voice communication. More frequently, the smaller file sizes of compressed but lossy formats are used to store and transfer audio. Their small file sizes allow faster Internet transmission, as well as lower consumption of space on memory media. However, lossy formats trade off smaller file size against loss of audio quality, as all such compression algorithms compromise available signal detail. This paper discusses the implementation of ADPCM algorithm for audio compression of .wav file. It yields a compressed file ¼ of the size of the original file. The sound quality of the audio file is maintained reasonably after compression.
    Keywords: ADPCM, audio compression
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Hemanthkumar M P, Swetha H N},
    title = {Design and Implementation of ADPCM Based Audio Compression Using Verilog},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {50-55},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35054
    Paper Title :: New Steganographic Technique That Can Reliably Detect Modifications in Digital Images Based on JPEG Compatibility
    Author Name :: Asst.Prof. Dipayan Kumar Ghosh || Namita Ghosh
    Page Number :: 56-61
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03502056061
    In this paper, we introduce a new forensic tool that can reliably detect modifications in digital images, such as distortion due to steganography and watermarking, in images that were originally stored in the JPEG format. The JPEG compression leaves unique fingerprints and serves as a "fragile watermark" enabling us to detect changes as small as modifying the LSB of one randomly chosen pixel. The detection of changes is based on investigating the compatibility of 88 blocks of pixels with JPEG compression with a given quantization matrix. The proposed steganalytic method is applicable to virtually all steganographic and watermarking algorithms with the exception of those that embed message bits into the quantized JPEG DCT coefficients. The method can also be used to estimate the size of the secret message and identify the pixels that carry message bits. As a consequence of our steganalysis, we strongly recommend avoiding using images that have been originally stored in the JPEG format as cover-images for spatial-domain steganography.
    Keywords:Steganography, steganalysis, JPEG
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Asst.Prof. Dipayan Kumar Ghosh, Namita Ghosh},
    title = {New Steganographic Technique That Can Reliably Detect Modifications in Digital Images Based on JPEG Compatibility},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {56-61},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35016
    Paper Title :: Weldability Of Thermo-Mechanically Rolled Steels Used In Oil And Gas Offshore Structures
    Author Name :: Joshua Omajene || Jukka Martikainen || Paul Kah
    Page Number :: 62-69
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03502062069
    A major consideration in the construction of offshore structures is the ability to produce sound weld. The harsh conditions of offshore environments impose additional demands on the weldability and weld quality. This paper proposes possible solutions to achieve high quality welds that are almost or totally free from weld defects. The objective of the study is to determine how to control the alloying element content of structural steels within lower and upper limits to ensure the desired hardenability of the steel. The use of a cooling rate suitable for production of the desired hardenability is fundamental to favorable outcomes. The study analyses the effect of chemical composition and cooling time of the welded structure on weld quality and susceptibility to cracking. Such knowledge will enable control of the alloying elements and the cooling rate such that a weld heat affected zone (HAZ) with a suitable microstructure and minimal or no weld defects can be obtained, ensuring a high quality weld for steels with high strength and toughness. A carefully controlled alloying element can enable the use of welding process with high heat input, which can result in increased productivity
    Keywords: Alloying elements, Cooling rate, Heat input, Weldability, Weld defects
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Joshua Omajene,, Jukka Martikainen, Paul Kah },
    title = {Weldability Of Thermo-Mechanically Rolled Steels Used In Oil And Gas Offshore Structures},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {62-67},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 05|| Version III ||May 2014
    Paper Id :: 35037
    Paper Title :: Heat Transfer on Unsteady MHD Oscillatory Visco-elastic flow through a Porous medium in a Rotating parallel plate channel
    Author Name :: G.Hari Priya|| R. Bhuvana Vijaya|| R.Siva Prasad
    Page Number :: 01-08
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0350300108

    optically thin visco-elastic fluid through a rotating parallel channel filled with saturated porous medium and non-uniform walls temperature has been discussed. It is assumed that the fluid has small electrical conductivity and the electromagnetic force produced is very small. The analytical solutions are obtained for the problem making use of perturbation technique. The effects of the radiation and the magnetic field parameters on velocity profile and shear stress for different values of the visco-elastic parameter with the combination of the other flow parameters are illustrated graphically, and physical aspects of the problem are discussed

    Keywords: Radiation, heat transfer, visco-elastic fluid, Magnetic field, porous medium, rotating parallel plate channel.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {G.Hari Priya, R. Bhuvana Vijaya, R.Siva Prasad},
    title = {Heat Transfer on Unsteady MHD Oscillatory Visco-elastic flow through a Porous medium in a Rotating parallel plate channel},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {01-08},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35018
    Paper Title :: Study of Strength Property of Concrete Using Waste Plastics and Steel Fiber
    Author Name :: Khilesh sarwe
    Page Number :: 09-11
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0350309011

    The rapid Urbanization and Industrialization all over the world has resulted in large deposition of Plastic waste. This waste can be utilized under proper condition as content in Concrete. In this paper we study to the compressive strength of concrete using waste plastics and also add steel fiber with waste plastics. M-20 grade of concrete having mix proportion 1:1.66:3.33 with water cement ratio 0 .50 to study the compressive strength of concrete using waste plastics and waste plasti c + steel fiber. Concrete cubes of size 150mm x150mm x 150mm are prepared and tested for compressive strength after 7 and 28 days. A result data obtained has been analyzed and compared with a control specimen. A relationship between compressive strength vs. days represented graphically. Result data clearly shows percentage decrease in 7 and 28 days compressive strength.

    KEYWORDS –M-20 grade concrete, waste plastics, cubes, compressive strength test.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Khilesh sarwe },
    title = {Study of Strength Property of Concrete Using Waste Plastics and Steel Fiber},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {06-13},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35029
    Paper Title :: A Review Article on Uses, Effects & Implications of Fly Ash Due To Its particle Size & Unburned Carbon
    Author Name :: Birendra Singh Rajwar, Prof. (Dr.) Inder Kumar Pandey
    Page Number :: 12-18
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0350312018
    Fly ash is a particulate matter ranging in size from 0.01 to 100 μm released into the flue stream during combustion of coal in power generating stations. The mineralogical, physical and chemical properties of fly ash depend on the type of coal, combustion conditions, emission control devices and handling methods. Chemically it is a mixture of oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, silicates and sulphates of calcium, iron, aluminum and other metals in trace amount. It is grey to black in color, abrasive, alkaline and refractory in nature. Fly ash is regarded as a pollutant due to its negative impact on the ecosystem, although it has alternate, safe and viable utilities [1].Unburned carbon particles can be assumed to possess a work function equal to that of graphite (4.0 eV) and ash a work function equal to that of silica or alumina (SiO2: 5eV; Al2O3: 4.7 eV) respectively [2, 2A].The fly ash carbons occur in the residual coal ash as a result of the incomplete combustion process. Due to the increasing applications of activated carbons, this study has been focused on the preparation of cost-effective adsorbents as a substitute for activated carbon materials. The main objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using fly ash of different particle size in presence of unburned carbon as an adsorbent.
    Keywords:Unburned Carbon, Fly Ash, Adsorbent, Particle Size.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {PBirendra Singh Rajwar, Prof. (Dr.) Inder Kumar Pandey},
    title = {A Review Article on Uses, Effects & Implications of Fly Ash Due To Its particle Size & Unburned Carbon},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {14-17},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 210018
    Paper Title :: Embedded energy of on farm losses and energy analysis for maize production in Nigeria
    Author Name :: Lawal, A. I.|| Akinoso, R.,|| Olubiyi, M.R.||Olatoye, K.K.
    Page Number :: 19-24
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03503019024
    Food losses and wastages occur at different points in the food supply chains such as farm, processing, storage, transportation, food services and household. On farm losses are associated with the losses of embedded energy. Thus, embedded energy of on farm maize losses and general energy flow pattern was investigated. Primary and secondary data were used. Primary data was collected through multistage stratified random sampling of 40 maize growers while secondary data was obtained from yearly in-situ collection of agricultural data by agricultural agency in Nigeria. Therefore the analyzed and discussed input energy- output energy values were averages of data collected over the years. Total energy input and output were respectively quantified as 9502.17 and 33510.58 MJha-1. The input energy estimated was classified as industrial energy (84.38%), biological energy (15.62%), direct energy (31.14%) and indirect energy (68.86%). Energy efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, net energy and agrochemical energy ratio were 3.53, 0.19 kgMJ-1, 5.28 MJkg-1, 24008.41MJha-1 and 60.1% respectively. The total embedded energy in the lost maize for the period of study was 6816.13MJ. The high loss of maize on Nigeria farm was an indicator for increased in embedded energy lost from 214.03-1995.53MJ. Year 2012 had the highest share of embedded energy loss (29.28%) followed by year 2011(28.46%), while lowest share of (3.14%) was estimated for the year 2000.
    Keywords:Embedded energy, input-output energy, farm losses, maize production
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Lawal, A. I.|| Akinoso, R.,|| Olubiyi, M.R.||Olatoye, K.K.},
    title = {Embedded energy of on farm losses and energy analysis for maize production in Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {19-24},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35014
    Paper Title :: Numerical Analysis of Wave Function controlled by (1+1)-Dimensions External Trapping Potentials in BEC Experiments
    Author Name :: Noori H.N. Al-Hashimi|| Waleed H Abid|| Khalid M. Jiad
    Page Number :: 25-29
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03503025029
    This paper will focus on numerical analysis and the behavior of wave function in Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) controlled by (1+1) external trapping potentials which are usually used in experiments that lead to produced BEC in ultra cold gases. Two mixed types of trapping potentials are used in this analysis. The first one is a harmonic oscillator potential (HOP) assume to be applied parrale to the propagation axis, and the second is optical lattice potential OLP assume to be applied normal to the propagation axis. The cases of slowly and rapidly varying in anisotropy term for HOP are considered. Although these numerical analyses give us the overall view of the region of confinement that the external trapping potentials have employed but also shows that the anisotropy term in the mathematical formula of HOP play a major part in term of values and shape of the wave function of condensation in a confinement region. The nonlinearity term in this analysis is kept constant, while the time interval is of order of 0.0002, with space step is of order of 0.0025. Both the accuracy and the stability of this solution are remarkable.
    Keywords: Laser cooled atom, BEC atom, Trapping, Atom laser, Quantum Oscillator
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Noori H.N. Al-Hashimi|| Waleed H Abid|| Khalid M. Jiad },
    title = {Numerical Analysis of Wave Function controlled by (1+1)-Dimensions External Trapping Potentials in BEC Experiments},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {25-29},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34118
    Paper Title :: Neural Network Approach for Stock Forecasting
    Author Name :: Prof. Sandeep Pimpalgaonkar||Prof. R. K. Pohane || Prof. S. V. kale
    Page Number :: 30-35
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03503030035
    Data mining techniques is use for prediction of stock price which is the most important issue in finance across the globe. Data Mining, also popularly known as Knowledge Discovery in Databases, refers to the nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data in databases. While data mining and knowledge discovery in databases are frequently treated as synonyms, data mining is actually part of the knowledge discovery process. An artificial neural network (ANN) is a system that is based on operations of biological neural networks, and hence can be defined as an emulation of biological neural systems ANN's are at the forefront of computational systems designed to produce, or at least mimic, intelligent behavior. Unlike classical Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems that are designed to directly emulate rational, logical reasoning, neural networks aim at reproducing the underlying processing mechanisms that give rise to intelligence as an emergent property of complex, adaptive systems. Neural network systems have been developed for fields such as pattern recognition, capacity planning, business intelligence, robotics, or even for some form of intuitive problem solving. In computer science, neural networks gained a lot of steam over the last few years in areas such forecasting, data analytics, as well as data mining.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prof. Sandeep Pimpalgaonkar , Prof. R. K. Pohane , Prof. S. V. kale },
    title = {Neural Network Approach for Stock Forecasting},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {30-35},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 32121
    Paper Title :: Design and Implementation of Data Integrity System Using MD5 Cryptographic Hash Function for Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
    Author Name :: Esiefarienrhe Michael Bukohwo || Fa'iz Ibrahim Jibia
    Page Number :: 36-44
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03503036044
    This paper seeks to present a data integrity checking system designed based on MD5 algorithm to ensure the integrity of files sent and received via transmission lines between departments and the Exams and record unit of the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. The data for the system were collected using observation, interviews and review of existing documentation. The Structured Systems Analysis and Design (SSADM) and Knowledge Engineering Methodologies were used in the problem analysis and design of the system. The program for the system was written using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 as part of Microsoft Studio. The system implementation shows that documents management greatly improved as document within the units were all encrypted making it impossible for falsification, results manipulations, theft and misuse.
    Keywords: Md5, Cryptography, Hash Function, Data Integrity, Collision, Algorithm, Digital Signature
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Esiefarienrhe Michael Bukohwo,Fa'iz Ibrahim Jibia },
    title = {Design and Implementation of Data Integrity System Using MD5 Cryptographic Hash Function for Federal Polytechnic Bauchi},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {36-44},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 33105
    Paper Title :: Geophysical and Hydrochemical Evaluation of Springwater Potential and Quality within the Basement Complex Of Southwestern Nigeria
    Author Name :: Ogundana, A.K|| aladejana, J.A.
    Page Number :: 45-55
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03503045055
    fractured rocks. Consequent upon this, groundwater availability becomes a challenge in any geological environment with low rock fracture and shallow overburden thickness. High history of borehole failure in this area necessitates search for alternative sources of water to complement the water demand. Geophysical and hydrochemical evaluation of spring water located on a basement complex was conducted to investigate its potential and quality for possible development.Combination of vertical electrical sounding and profiling methods were employed using Schlumberger and dipole dipole configurations respectively. Seven points were sounded along two traverses and two profiles were occupied around the main spring. Four (4) water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical parameters. Flow rate was measured using flow-meter at six (6) different times from which the average was determined.Four different subsurface lithologic units were established namely; lateritic clay topsoil, clayey-sand, weathered basement and, fresh basement. The curve types range between simple H and HA. The topsoil thickness is relatively thin along these traverses. The average resistivity and thickness values for the topsoil are 181Ωm and 2.0m respectively, which is predominantly lateritic clay. Clayey-sand was encountered at shallow depths of 2.0meters on the average in all locations and the average resistivity and thickness values for the Clayey-sand are, 24Ωm and 9.0m respectively. The overburden is assumed to include all materials above the presumably fresh basement. The depth to the bedrock varies from 7.0 to 19.0m and the average depth to the bedrock is 13.0m. The Clayey-sand with an average thickness of 9.0m is the aquifer which responsible for the accumulation of the water with the lateritic clay top soil of 2.0m on an average acts as a protective layer. Shallow overburden thickness (1.0m) which intercept with the surface is responsible for the spring water at this spot. The impermeable crystalline basement rock underline the area prevents further percolation of the water. Hence, the accumulation and flow as spring becomes necessary. Hydrochemical analysis of water samples from the spring and other points at the downstream revealed that the spring water fall well within the acceptable limit of both World Health Organisation (WHO) and Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). This result also revealed higher value of Mn and Fe as the water flows away from the spring spot indication an anthropogenic influence. The flow rate estimated at 0.16L/Sec which is equivalent to 14,400L/day is significant if sustained throughout the year. So far, hydrochemical results suggest the fresh spring water is of good quality; however, there is need for the bacteriological analysis to be carried out to eliminate any doubt of probable bacteriological contamination.
    Keywords: Spring Water, Evaluation, Quality, Potential and Development.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ogundana, A.K,2aladejana, J.A. },
    title = {Geophysical and Hydrochemical Evaluation of Springwater Potential and Quality within the Basement Complex Of Southwestern Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {45-55},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 05|| Version IV ||May 2014
    Paper Id :: 35086
    Paper Title :: Problems Faced By Women Entrepreneurs in Salem District
    Author Name :: Dr. M.N. Periasamy|| K. Tamilselvi
    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0350400107

    Women constitute around half of the total world population. In India also they are regarded as the better half of the society. In traditional societies they were confined to the four walls of house performing house hold activities. In modem societies they have come out of the four walls to participate in all sorts of activities. The global evidences batters the women have been performing exceedingly well in different sphere of activity like academics politics, administration, social work and so on Now, they have started plunging into industry also and running their enterprise successfully

    Keywords: Problems of Women Entrepreneur, Percentage of Analysis, Finance

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. M.N. Periasamy, K. Tamilselvi},
    title = {Problems Faced By Women Entrepreneurs in Salem District},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {01-07},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34154
    Paper Title :: Wi-Fi Based Notification System
    Author Name :: Prof. V.P.Patil|| Onkar Hajare||Shekhar Palkhe||Burhanuddin Rangwala
    Page Number :: 08-12
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03504008012

    Does the idea of using Wi-Fi as a data transmission appeal to u? Then this paper will surely grab your attention. Technology is making many things easier; I can say that our concept is standing example for that. So far we have seen LAN MAN, INTERNET & many more here is concept of " WI-FI BASED NOTIFICATION SYSTEM " which makes Wi-Fi as a communication network by name WAN. In today's world of connectedness, people are becoming accustomed to easy access to information. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a project to develop wireless notice board that displays messages sent from the user. Wired network connection such as Ethernet has many limitations depending on the need and type of connection. So to overcome from it we use a wireless protocol 802.11b (Wi-Fi) for communication. This paper deals about an advanced hi-tech wireless notice board.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prof. V.P.Patil, Onkar Hajare,Shekhar Palkhe,Burhanuddin Rangwala},
    title = {Wi-Fi Based Notification System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {08-12},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35109
    Paper Title :: An Advanced Optimistic Approach for String Transformation
    Author Name :: Amith Kumar V Pujari || Prof. H R Shashidhar
    Page Number :: 13-16
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03504013016
    String transformation can be formalized as the part of coding bio-informatics, information retrieval, and in data mining. However, in part of our paper we focus generating the k most likely output strings corresponding to the input string. This concept proposes a novel and probabilistic approach to string transformation, which is both accurate and efficient. The approach mainly focuses on three methods dynamic programming, modeling and pruning. In the dynamic programming we use the concept of the edit distance which is dynamic programming tool that estimates the score to each transformation so that the probability in the linear model can be estimated well. In the linear model, a modeling method for training the model, and an algorithm for generating the top k candidates, whether there is or is not a predefined dictionary. The linear model is defined as a conditional probability distribution of an output string and a rule set for the transformation conditioned on an input string. The learning method employs maximum likelihood estimation for parameter estimation. The string generation algorithm based on pruning is guaranteed to generate the optimal top k candidates. The proposed method is applied to correction of spelling errors in queries as well as reformulation of queries on dataset. Experimental results on large scale data show that the proposed approach is good and efficient improving upon existing methods in terms of accuracy and efficiency in different settings
    Keywords:String Transformation, Edit distance algorithm , Linear Model, Aho-Corasick trees, Spelling Error Correction, Query Reformulation
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Amith Kumar V Pujari, Prof. H R Shashidhar},
    title = {An Advanced Optimistic Approach for String Transformation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {13-16},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35123
    Paper Title :: Mechanical and Damping Properties of Rubber Reinforced With Natural Fibre
    Author Name :: Sonu Eldo
    Page Number :: 27-24
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03504017024
    The natural fibre reinforced dampers were developed using natural rubber, sisal, and banana fibre composites on account of their low cost, low density, high specific strength and modulus, no health risk, easy availability in some countries and renewability. Rubber products generally undergo dynamic stressing during service which is very much beneficial for dynamic load application. This paper deals with the design, analysis, and manufacturing of three natural fibre reinforced damper i.e., natural rubber composite with banana fibre, natural rubber composite with sisal, and composites of banana fibre and sisal with natural rubber. A series of performance tests were conducted on the specimens created. Through the performance tests, it was confirmed that the developed dampers had better damping characteristics, high tensile strength, high strength to weight ratio, and recyclability.
    Keywords: natural fibre reinforced damper, sisal and banana fibre, composite
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sonu Eldo },
    title = {Mechanical and Damping Properties of Rubber Reinforced With Natural Fibre},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {17-24},
    month = {May}
    }
     
     
    Paper Id :: 34021
    Paper Title :: Some Moonshine connections between Fischer-Griess Monster
    group () and Number theory
    Author Name :: Amina Muhammad Lawan
    Page Number :: 25-36
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03504025036

    This paper investigates moonshine connections between the McKay –Thompson series of some conjugacy classes for the monster group and number theory. We explore certain natural consequences of the Mckay- Thompson series of class 1A, 2A and 3A for the monster group in Ramanujan-type Pi formulas. Numerical results show that, the quadratic prime-generating polynomials are connected to integer values of exactly 43 Mc Kay- Thompson series of the conjugacy classes for the monster group. Furthermore, the transcendental number pi is approximated from monster group.

    Keywords: Fischer-Griess monster group, Monstrous moonshine, Mc Kay- Thompson series, prime-generating polynomial, Fundamental discriminant, Ramanujan-type pi formulas.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Amina Muhammad Lawan },
    title = {Some Moonshine connections between Fischer-Griess Monster
    group () and Number theory},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {25-36},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35019
    Paper Title :: Homotopy Analysis Method for One-dimensional Heat Conduction in A Bar with Temperature-dependent Thermal Conductivity
    Author Name :: Falana, A. ||Eigbedion, E.E.
    Page Number :: 37-46
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03504037046

    The Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) is employed in the analysis of non-linear one-dimensional heat conduction problem with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity. The temperature distribution is obtained in terms of the scale space variable x and as a function of B which is a parameter in the heat conduction equation. It is observed that the parameter B has a strong influence over the rate of heat conduction in the bar. By choosing the convergence parameter, h, in a suitable way, we obtained solutions for the temperature distribution for various values of B. From this temperature distribution other heat transfer quantities can be obtained. It is observed that for some values of B the temperature distribution in the bar is an increasing function of B while for other values of B it a decreasing function. The results are displayed in figures.

    Keywords: Homotopy Analysis Method, Temperature-dependent Thermal Conductivity, Heat Conduction.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {1Falana, A. , Eigbedion, E.E. },
    title = {Homotopy Analysis Method for One-dimensional Heat Conduction in A Bar with Temperature-dependent Thermal Conductivity},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {37-46},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211084
    Paper Title :: Solid State Characterization of Cu-Zno Nanocomposite Synthesised Via Micro-Wave Irradiation
    Author Name :: Hauwa Sidi Aliyu || Abdul Halim Abdullah ||Zulkifly Abbas
    Page Number :: 47-53
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03504047053

    The preparation of Cu-ZnO nanocomposite with average crystallite size less than 70nm was carried out successfully using commercial microwave oven operated at a low temperature and pressure (900C and 240W) respectively; zinc acetate dehydrate and copper (II) nitrate were used as precursors and ethylenediamine tetracetic acid as complexing agent. Variations of experimental conditions in the microwave such as total period of exposure and irradiation power were found to affect the nanostructures formation. Energy band gap of Cu-ZnO was estimated using absorption data obtained from UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The prepared Cu-ZnO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Spectra from XRD of Cu-ZnO nanocomposite revealed a hexagonal zincite phase structure and the average crystallites sizes were found to be within the range of TEM result. The XRF analysis revealed the actual elemental composition in the prepared sample. The microwave oven irradiation technique was found to be an effective synthetic method for the preparation of Cu-ZnO nanocomposites and the Cu metal was found to be suitable for coupling with ZnO semiconductor nanoparticle photocatalysis.

    Keywords: AOPs, Cu-ZnO, Microwave, Nanocomposite, Photocatalysis

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Hauwa Sidi Aliyu , Abdul Halim Abdullah ,Zulkifly Abbas },
    title = {Solid State Characterization of Cu-Zno Nanocomposite Synthesised Via Micro-Wave Irradiation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {47-53},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35084
    Paper Title :: Soil Suitability Evaluation for Rice and Sugarcane in Lowland Soils of Anegbette, Edo State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Isitekhale, H.H.E||Aboh, S.I||Ekhomen, F.E
    Page Number :: 54-62
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03504054062

    Soil suitability evaluation for rice and sugarcane in lowland soils of Anegbette, Edo State was investigated. Soil samples from ten different land uses were collected at a depth of 0 – 15 cm. Soil samples were analysed for their physic-chemical properties and evaluated for rice and sugarcane based on rating factor of FAO (1976) and FAO (1983) respectively. Results of the evaluation showed that 10%, 30% and 60% of the soils were highly, moderately and marginally suitable for sugarcane production. The soils mainly used for rice production was rated unsuitable for rice. Soil properties limiting the suitability of the soils for sugarcane production includes available P, exchangeable K and total N. Suitability for rice was limited by Al saturation, exchangeable K, Ca and Mg. For rice and sugarcane cultivation in the lowland soils of Anegbette, organic manure and fertilizer should be applied in addition to liming to reduce Al concentrations

    Keywords: Evaluation, land use, rice, sugarcane, suitability

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Isitekhale, H.H.E; Aboh, S.I ,Ekhomen, F.E },
    title = {Soil Suitability Evaluation for Rice and Sugarcane in Lowland Soils of Anegbette, Edo State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {54-62},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35122
    Paper Title :: Cooling Load Estimation and Air Conditioning Unit Selection for Hibir Boat
    Author Name :: Yonas Mitiku Degu
    Page Number :: 63-72
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03504063072

    The variables affecting cooling load calculations are numerous, often difficult to define precisely, and always intricately interrelated. Many cooling load components vary in magnitude over a wide range during a twenty four hour period. Since these cyclic changes in load components are often not in phase with each other, each must be analyzed to establish the resultant maximum cooling load for a building or zone. Not only does this over sizing impact the heating and cooling equipment costs, but duct sizes and numbers of runs must also be increased to account for the significantly increased system airflow. In this cooling load estimation it is undertaken different variables to propose optimum air conditioning system needed to deliver conditioned air to the rooms to meet the occupant's comfort expectations at the indoor conditions. For the larger room a total capacity of 172140 BTU/hour should be provided to meet the requirement. In addition 100253 BTU/h is also required for the two passenger rooms. Due to the limitation of space for the duct system it is proposed that split type air conditioning is proposed because there is no sufficient space to pass the duct through the roof or through the wall.

    Keywords: Hibir Boat, Cooling Load Estimation, Internal Cooling Load, External Cooling Load

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Yonas Mitiku Degu },
    title = {Cooling Load Estimation and Air Conditioning Unit Selection for Hibir Boat},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {63-72},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 35133
    Paper Title :: Improvement in Face Hallucination using cuckoo algorithm
    Author Name :: Jaskiran Kaur|| Asst. Prof. Manish Mahajan
    Page Number :: 73-76
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03504073076

    To Study about the Face Hallucination technique and to create high-resolution face images. After that Apply Artificial intelligence based cuckoo search technique to get high hallucination parameters. Cuckoo work on the colored image and performing face hallucination. PSNR, EPI, MOS, Correlation, MSE and SSIM parameters are used finally. In this paper Artificial intelligence based cuckoo search technique is used to get high hallucination parameters. Cuckoo based algorithm is one of the recent optimization algorithms, in the league of nature based algorithm. This technique is represent as a local linear filtering worked by incorporating four constraint functions at patch level. The first two constraints check if the training images are similar to the face image. And the final step defined in the HR face image. The proposal of applying the cuckoo algorithm for optimization in the process of face recognition is presented in this paper.

    Keywords:Face hallucination, local linear filtering, super resolution, Peak signal noise ratio (PSNR), Echo Planar Imaging (EPI), Mean Opinion Score (MOS), Correlation, Mean Square Error (MSE) and Structural Similarity (SSIM)

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Hauwa Sidi Aliyu , Abdul Halim Abdullah ,Zulkifly Abbas },
    title = {Solid State Characterization of Cu-Zno Nanocomposite Synthesised Via Micro-Wave Irradiation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {47-53},
    month = {May}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 34140
    Paper Title :: Heat Mass Transfer Flow past an Infinite Vertical Plate with Variable Thermal Conductivity, Heat Source and Chemical Reaction
    Author Name :: I. J. Uwanta|| Murtala Sani
    Page Number :: 77-89
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/03504077089

    This paper investigates the flow and heat mass transfer past an infinite vertical plate with variable thermal conductivity, heat source and chemical reaction. The non-linear, coupled partial differential equations together with the boundary conditions are reduced to dimensionless form. The resulting equations are discritized using implicit finite difference scheme of Crank-Nicolson type and solved numerically. The velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented graphically with tabular presentations of the Skin friction, rate of heat and mass transfer which are all computed and discussed for different values of parameters of the problem.

    Keywords: Heat Transfer, Mass Transfer, Variable Thermal Conductivity, Heat Source, Vertical Plate

    @article{key:article,
    author = {I. J. Uwanta, Murtala Sani},
    title = {Heat Mass Transfer Flow past an Infinite Vertical Plate with Variable Thermal Conductivity, Heat Source and Chemical Reaction},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {5},
    pages = {77-89},
    month = {May}
    }