•      
    Volume 03 || Issue 10|| Version I || October 2014
    Paper Id :: 38060
    Paper Title :: Model based Spatial for Monitoring Surveillance of Fisheries to Ward Illegal Fishing in Waters of Eastern Indonesian
    Author Name :: Nurul Rosana|| Viv Djanat Prasita || Robert Tambun
    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/031010107
    This study was presented as an initial step (pilot project) in monitoring the availability of the model based spatial for surveillance of fisheries to deter illegal fishing in the termination of the operation and inspection of fishing ship in waters of eastern Indonesia. The purpose of the study was the establishment of the monitoring model based spatial surveillance of fisheries to deter illegal fishing operations in waters of eastern Indonesia. The method in the study were (1) descriptive analysis, associated with collecting and summarizing the data, and presenting the results of summarization, so as to know the character of a data set, and make the data more informative. (2) analysis of databases with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) using ArcView 3.3 software. In principle the processing of data with geographic information systems (GIS) are data entry, data analysis and data display. The result of this study is the model based spatial for surveillance of fisheries waters of eastern Indonesia.
    Keywords:GIS, surveillance, model based spatial, the termination of the operation and inspection.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nurul Rosana, Viv Djanat Prasita,Robert Tambun},
    title = {Model based Spatial for Monitoring Surveillance of Fisheries to Ward Illegal Fishing in Waters of Eastern Indonesian},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {01-07},
    month = {October}
    }
    Paper Id :: 39025
    Paper Title :: Poverty Implications on Natural Disasters Occurrence in Nigeria
    Author Name :: Sanmi Adeoti ||Akintunde T. B
    Page Number :: 08-14
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0310108014

    Poverty in all ramifications is more than lack of income and decent standard of living as it equally borders on other aspect of deprivations, particularly in the area of lack of access to essential services that promote healthy environment. This actually contributes more to man assault on physical environment which has strong relationship with natural disaster. Available data revealed that the world has witnessed an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disasters in the last two decades particularly in developing countries. This has manifested by way of destroying crops and livestock, reducing incomes and consumption, and forcing households to liquidate assets. Against this background, this paper aims to answer if natural disasters occurring across the country over the years for which there are records actually affected poverty. The result of findings revealed that natural disasters reduce human development and increase poverty in term of human and materials loss. A proactive natural disaster preventive management measures are finally recommended as lasting solution to the occurrence of disasters in Nigeria to ameliorate poverty

    Key words: Deprivation, Development, Disaster, Environment and Poverty.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sanmi Adeoti , Akintunde T. B },
    title = {Poverty Implications on Natural Disasters Occurrence in Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {08-14},
    month = {October}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39068
    Paper Title :: Differential Evolution Algorithm for Optimal Power Flow and Economic Load Dispatch with Valve Point Effects
    Author Name :: Ngo Cao Cuong
    Page Number :: 15-25
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03101015025

    In this paper, we present a Differential Evolution (DE) method and apply it to two problems of optimal power flow (OPF) and the economic load dispatch (ELD) with Valve-Point effects in Power Systems. In the first case, the standard IEEE 30-bus network is tested and its solution is compared to the ones solved by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) methods. For the second one, the NPSO is tested on 13-unit, 40-unit system and validated by comparing results with classical evolutionary programming (CEP), improved fast evolutionary programming (IFEP), improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) and efficient particle swarm optimization (EPSO) methods. The numerical results are illustrated in many Figures and Tables. It has shown that the proposed method is better than the others in terms of total fuel costs, total loss and computational times.

    KEYWORDS : Index Terms-Differential Evolution, Optimal Power Flow, Economic Load Dispatch.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ngo Cao Cuong},
    title = {Differential Evolution Algorithm for Optimal Power Flow and Economic Load Dispatch with Valve Point Effects)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {15-25},
    month = {October}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39028
    Paper Title :: Multidimensional Analysis Of The External Environment In The Strategic Networking Process Among Service SMEs In A Lagging Economic Context
    Author Name :: Bojan Morić Milovanović|| JonatanJelen||Mihaela Mikić
    Page Number :: 26-35
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03101026035

    Analogous to market micro structures the purpose of 'strategic networks' is to leverage specialization, and their objective is to efficiently allocate transformational resources, and optimize support through information. Unlike the merely opportunistic market interdependencies, however, strategic networks are additionally defined by intentional long-term relationships between firms and other types of participant in the environment through co-opetition and collaboration. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of such strategic networking (SN) on firm performance of Croatian service SMEs, one of a dozen small 'balkanized', still-transitioning economies resulting of an intense social, political, and economic Central and Eastern European transformation and reconfiguration, particularly pronounced over the span of the last three decades. Financial and non-financial indicators were used in order to more precisely clarify the multidimensional aspect of the SN-performance relationship. The external environment was assessed in terms of turbulence, hostility and dynamism; furthermore its effect as a moderator was tested. The results yield some significantly new elements necessary for understanding the role of SN for the performance of service SMEs in a developing country.

    KEYWORDS :strategic networking, business performance, external environment, service sector, SMEs, Croatia

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Multidimensional Analysis Of The External Environment In The Strategic Networking Process Among Service SMEs In A Lagging Economic Context},
    title = {Static Analysis of Centrifugal Blower Using Composite Material},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {26-35},
    month = {October}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39065
    Paper Title :: An Efficient Queuing Model for Resource Sharing in Cloud Computing
    Author Name :: Bashir Yusuf Bichi || Tuncay Ercan
    Page Number :: 36-43
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03101036043

    As cloud computing is gaining more recognition as a public utility which gives the client room to focus on his work without focusing on installation and maintenance of other important devices, as they are installed and maintained by the cloud service providers. Cloud computing is meant to be scalable, and enhance the quality of service (QoS), cost effective and also simplified user interface so that the customer can appreciate the idea behind cloud computing. In dealing with resource allocation, the client's request has to be execute through various stages, in case there are queue of requests waiting to be served in each stage. Therefore, queuing methods are required to solve this kind of situation. In this paper, we focused on mathematical formulation using queuing system technique to show how throughput and time delay of a system may varies between a single server system and a multiple server system in a cloud-computing environment.

    KEYWORDS : Queuing model, cloud computing, resource sharing, throughput, delay, utilization rate

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Bashir Yusuf Bichi, Tuncay Ercan},
    title = {An Efficient Queuing Model for Resource Sharing in Cloud Computing},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = 36-43},
    month = {October}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 39079
    Paper Title :: Behavior pattern crosscheck in the revival of cultural environment identity (Case study of Tonekabon Cultural Center)
    Author Name :: Maryam Shahpari || Morteza Seddigh
    Page Number :: 44-52
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03101044052

    Flours from five (5) organic sweet potato and cowpea varieties were analyzed for their proximate composition and functional properties at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria with the purpose of utilizing them for preparation of complementary food. Sweet potato tubers NG/SP/034 (yellow-flesh), NG/SP/083 (white-flesh), NG/SP/109 (yellow-flesh), NG/SP/277 (yellow-flesh), slipot 3 (orange flesh) and cowpea varieties Black- eye, Hundea, Kpotowai, Ellane and batami processed into flour were obtained from the organic skill demonstration farm at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria and Njala Agricultural Research Centre, Njala, Sierra Leone in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Results showed proximate composition and functional properties of legume varieties Black eye beans, and batami met the average values and can be used to formulate composite flour for complementary food. Organic sweet potato cultivars (SLIPOT / 003, NGB/SP/083 also falls within average protein content with suitable functional properties thus have the potential to ensure nutrient security if composited to formulate a complementary diet.

    KEYWORDS :organic sweet potato, cowpea, proximate composition, functional properties

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Maryam Shahpari , Morteza Seddigh},
    title = {Behavior pattern crosscheck in the revival of cultural environment identity (Case study of Tonekabon Cultural Center)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {44-52},
    month = {October}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 310015
    Paper Title :: Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear Axle Housing by using Finite Elements Analysis
    Author Name :: Khairul Akmal Shamsuddin||Mohd Syamil Tajuddin||Megat Mohd Amzari Megat Mohd Aris ||Mohd Nurhidayat Zahelem
    Page Number :: 53-61
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03101053061

    A premature failure that occurred due to the higher loading capacity of the heavy vehicle is studied. To determine the reason of the failure, a CAD model of the housing was developed. The mechanical properties of the housing material were determined from the manufacturer manual. By using the given data, stress distribution analysis performed by using finite element software and fatigue life are predicted. Design enhancement solutions were proposed to increase the fatigue life of the housing.

    KEYWORDS :Rear axle housing, Stress Distribution, Finite Element Analysis and Fatigue

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Khairul Akmal Shamsuddin, Mohd Syamil Tajuddin,Megat Mohd Amzari Megat Mohd Aris,Mohd Nurhidayat Zahelem},
    title = {Stress Distribution Analysis of Rear Axle Housing by using Finite Elements Analysis},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {53-61},
    month = {October}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 310004
    Paper Title :: Developing Accident Avoidance Program for Occupational Safety and Health
    Author Name :: Khairul Akmal Shamsuddin||Mohd Norzaimi Che Ani ||Mohd Hairizal Osman
    Page Number :: 62-68
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03101062068

    An occupational health and safety programs are effective must demonstrate effective management leadership, worker participation, continual improvement, evaluation, integration, management review in the workplace. Companies with good results in the box has leadership will not allow substandard result. Although cooperation and consensus is important in gaining employee buy - in to the program, ultimately it is the leadership and commitment from management that drives the process. The audit will assess the level of leadership and commitment to health and safety within the organization to evaluate the program. Despite the value to employers and workers in terms of injuries prevented and cost saved, many factories have not yet adopted injury and illness prevention programs that workers safety. Based on the positive experience of employers with existing programs, it believe that injury and illness prevention programs provide the foundation for breakthrough changes in the way employers identify and control hazards, leading to significantly improved overall workplace health and safety environments. Adoption of injury and illness prevention program will result in both improved workers safety and workers suffering fewer injuries, illnesses and fatalities.

    KEYWORDS :Occupational Health and Safety, Injuries and Illness, Workers safety and Hazards.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Khairul Akmal Shamsuddin, Mohd Norzaimi Che Ani, Mohd Hairizal Osman},
    title = {Developing Accident Avoidance Program for Occupational Safety and Health},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {62-68},
    month = {October}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3190
    Paper Title :: Design Construction, Simulation and Testing of A 300W Wind-Powered Battery Charger
    Author Name :: J. Mamman || G. Y. Pam || E. J. Bala
    Page Number :: 69-76
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03101069076

    This paper reports the design construction, simulation and testing of a 300W wind battery charger. The design was carried out based on long term available wind data for Jos at 10m height. The average wind speed for Jos is 5.24m/s and rated turbine wind speed is 6.29m/s. The designed components of the system were carefully constructed in a well-equipped workshop. The system was coupled and installed at a height of about 22m. The system was test run and the results recorded for a period of time on two consecutive days. A second degree polynomial was used to model the system power output between cut in and rated wind speeds. The calculated outputs were compared with the actual outputs and a root mean square error of 8.98% was found, showing that the closeness of fit of the calculated outputs to the actual characteristics of the wind-powered turbines is satisfactory. The average system efficiency between cut-in and rated wind speeds was determined to be 38.16%.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {J. Mamman, G. Y. Pam, E. J. Bala},
    title = {Design Construction, Simulation and Testing of A 300W Wind-Powered Battery Charger},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {69-76},
    month = {October}
    }
    Volume 03 || Issue 10|| Version II || October 2014
    Paper Id :: 37041
    Paper Title :: Implementing a Robust Network-Based Intrusion Detection System
    Author Name :: Ogheneovo, E. E. ||Japheth, B. R.
    Page Number :: 01-09
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/031020109

    Information security is of great concern these days due to the activities of hackers and malicious users on the Internet. Securing information has become a critical issue and is of growing concern as computer systems worldwide become increasingly vulnerable to the rapid increase in the volume of information being transmitted across networks and over the Internet. In this paper, we proposed a technique that provides a robust intrusion detection system against attackers. It puts scalability and appropriate security in mind. The framework is made up of a Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) for detection of traffic to and from a given network or sub network, a Host based Intrusion Detection System (HIDS) and a line for possible Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS). The technique is implemented by modeling network using OPNET, a network simulation software; since a real life implementation is very costly. Our result shows that the technique provides an intrusion detection system that can be used to monitor user's activities on the Internet and other networks with relatively minimal false alarms.

    KEYWORDS: Intrusion Detection Systems, intrusion detection, HIDS, NIDS, network, hackers.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ogheneovo, E. E. ,Japheth, B. R.},
    title = {Implementing a Robust Network-Based Intrusion Detection System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {01-09},
    month = {October}
    }
    Paper Id :: 310024
    Paper Title :: Using the Physicochemical Properties and the Thermo-oxidation Degradation Products of ZDDP to Justify its Functions as an Additive of Choice for Automotive Crankcase Oil Formulation
    Author Name :: Anietie E. Ekot|| Goodwill C. Ofunne|| Clement E. Bassey
    Page Number :: 10-13
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0310201013

    Additives are used as lubricant fortifiers against thermal and thermooxidative degradation under tribological conditions. However some additives can decompose at very high engine temperature regimes into products that may pose serious threats to the environment, if unchecked. For instance ZDDP in spite of its tribological importance as a powerful antioxidant and anti wear additive in automotive crankcase oils, has been suspected as a precursor of environmental hazards due to its perceived tendency to cause electrolytic corrosion and poisoning of the catalysts in the exhaust gas converter. It is against this backdrop that the automobile manufacturers have called for a change from ZDDP to some other antiwear additive or at least reduce its concentration from the present 0.08 to 0.05%. This review is therefore aimed at allaying the fears of exhaust catalyst poisoning which could result in emission of toxic exhaust fumes into the environment. The mechanism of thermooxidative degradation showing the expected products has been proposed to address this apprehension. The study also collaborates the views of the lube oil producers that 0.08% of ZDDP in lube oils is ideal for optimum performance of the automotive crankcase engines and that this concentration has no adverse environmental implications to warrant a call for reduction or an outright ban.

    KEYWORDS: Antiwear Additive, ZDDP, Degradation Products, Environmental Concern

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anietie E. Ekot, Goodwill C. Ofunne, Clement E. Bassey},
    title = {Using the Physicochemical Properties and the Thermo-oxidation Degradation Products of ZDDP to Justify its Functions as an Additive of Choice for Automotive Crankcase Oil Formulation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {10-13},
    month = {October}
    }
    Paper Id :: 310032
    Paper Title :: Determination of the Cost of Production from the Raw Dung to the Final Output of Biogas.
    Author Name :: Taiwo O. OMOSEBI || F.I ALUKO.
    Page Number :: 14-20
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03102014020

    This research work is on the determination of the cost of production from the raw dung to the final output of biogas. The main objective of this work is to obtain the amount that will be spent for the production of the biogas. The materials used include the following: digester tank, raw cow dung, outlet valve, inlet valve, pressure gauge, thermometer, bolts and nuts, burner, hose and water. The procedure exploited in the production of biogas cow dung is through anaerobic digestion. The result obtained showed that about thirty thousand Naira was spent to produce one hundred and fifty (150) litres of biogas. In order words, a litre costs six Naira. In conclusion, private sectors should embrace the production of biogas from cow dung as an alternative energy for domestic cooking because it is cheaper than any other energy usually used for cooking and doing some other things. Also, the raw material that is cow dung is readily available in some places.

    KEY WORDS: Biogas, cow dung, anaerobic digestion, Alternative energy, and Biomass

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Taiwo O. OMOSEBI , F.I ALUKO.},
    title = {Determination of the Cost of Production from the Raw Dung to the Final Output of Biogas.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {14-20},
    month = {October}
    }
    Paper Id :: 34098
    Paper Title :: Producing Bi- Layer Sportswear Using Bamboo And Polypropylene Knitted Fabric
    Author Name :: Dr. U.Ratna|| A.Gowthami, Msc
    Page Number :: 21-25
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03102021025

    This paper reports the design construction, simulation and testing of a 300W wind battery charger. The design was carried out based on long term available wind data for Jos at 10m height. The average wind speed for Jos is 5.24m/s and rated turbine wind speed is 6.29m/s. The designed components of the system were carefully constructed in a well-equipped workshop. The system was coupled and installed at a height of about 22m. The system was test run and the results recorded for a period of time on two consecutive days. A second degree polynomial was used to model the system power output between cut in and rated wind speeds. The calculated outputs were compared with the actual outputs and a root mean square error of 8.98% was found, showing that the closeness of fit of the calculated outputs to the actual characteristics of the wind-powered turbines is satisfactory. The average system efficiency between cut-in and rated wind speeds was determined to be 38.16%.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. U.Ratna, A.Gowthami, Msc},
    title = {Producing Bi- Layer Sportswear Using Bamboo And Polypropylene Knitted Fabric},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {21-25},
    month = {October}
    }
    Paper Id :: 37005
    Paper Title :: Performance Evaluation of Domestic Refrigerator Using Hc-12a Refrigerant as an Alternative Refrigerant to R12 And R134a
    Author Name :: Rajanikant Y. Mahajan || Sanjaykumar A. Borikar
    Page Number :: 26-37
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03102026037

    This paper presents a study of different environment friendly refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) and negligible global warming potential (GWP), to replace R134a in domestic refrigerator. This work consists of using a hydrocarbon gas mixture which does not deplete ozone layer, is eco friendly, and can be used in the commonly used refrigerators without any significant change in the system. A refrigerator designed and developed to work with R134a was tested, and its performance using HC-12a was evaluated and compared with its performance when R134a was used. The condenser temperature and evaporator temperature, COP, refrigerating effect, condenser duty, work of compression and heat rejection of water were investigated. The energy consumption of the refrigerator during experiment with hydrocarbons and R-134a was measured. The results obtained showed that the alternative refrigerant investigated in experimental performance HC-12a have higher coefficient of performance and less energy consumption. The design temperature and pull-down time set by International Standard Organization (ISO) for small refrigerator were achieved earlier using refrigerant HC-12a than using R-134a. Due to a higher value of latent heat of HCs, the amount of refrigerant charge was also reduced as compared with HFC-134a. The COP and other result obtain in this experiment shows a positive indication of using mixed refrigerant as refrigerants in household refrigerator. The performance of HC-12a in the domestic refrigerator was constantly better than those of R134a throughout all the operating conditions, which shows that HC-12a can be used as replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerator. Refrigerant physical and chemical properties of different refrigerants are included in this paper. This paper also discuses on the C.O.P (coefficient of performance) and RE (Refrigeration Effect).

    KEY WORDS: Experimental Domestic refrigerator, Hydrocarbon refrigerant, R134a, COP, Refrigerating effect, Energy consumption;

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rajanikant Y. Mahajan , Sanjaykumar A. Borikar },
    title = {Performance Evaluation of Domestic Refrigerator Using Hc-12a Refrigerant as an Alternative Refrigerant to R12 And R134a},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {26-37},
    month = {October}
    }
    Paper Id :: 38072
    Paper Title :: Correlation between Soil Properties and External Corrosion Growth rate of Carbon Steel
    Author Name :: Anyanwu Samuel Ikechukwu||Nwosu Harold Ugochukwu|| Reginald A. Ejimofor||Eseonu Obioma
    Page Number :: 38-47
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03102038047

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the correlation of soil properties towards metal loss of API 5L X42 carbon steel coupons, with emphasis on soil pH and resistivity. A total of four pieces of X42 coupons were placed in four different soil samples gotten from four different states within the Niger Delta region for 2352 hours, to study the influence of soil properties towards metal loss via weight loss method. The soil coupons were buried in the soil samples placed in a plastic container, allowed to corrode naturally and then retrieved every 168 hours. The influence of soil pH value and resistivity were evaluated using the weight loss method to evaluate the corrosion rate on coupons in the different soil samples. Results showed that that both parameters had an influence on buried steel but soil resistivity had a dominating influence compared to soil pH.

    KEYWORDS: Underground Corrosion, Soil, carbon Steel, pH, mils per year (MPY)

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anyanwu Samuel Ikechukwu, Nwosu Harold Ugochukwu, Reginald A. Ejimofor, Eseonu Obioma},
    title = {Correlation between Soil Properties and External Corrosion Growth rate of Carbon Steel.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {38-47},
    month = {October}
    }
    Paper Id :: 36161
    Paper Title :: Studies on Corrosion Characteristics of Carbon Steel Exposed to Na2CO3, Na2SO4 and Nacl Solutions of Different Concentrations
    Author Name :: Anyanwu Samuel Ikechukwu||Eseonu Obioma||Nwosu Harold Ugochukwu
    Page Number :: 48-60
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03102048060

    This work specifically investigated the corrosion rates of API 5L X42 steel in NaCl, Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 environments maintained at different concentrations with a view to determining the most aggressive environment that should be avoided or deserved highly protected pipeline. Weight loss technique was used in which sample coupons with known weight were totally immersed in a non flowing media of NaCl, Na2SO4 , Na2CO3 for a total exposure time of 1008 hours. The experimental results showed that the corrosiveness of carbon steel in 1.0M of Na2CO3 was highest which was mainly a function of its higher concentration based on the fact that no film was formed on the coupon, followed by 0.5M solution of NaCl while the least was recorded in 1.0M solution of Na2SO4. Conclusively it was proven that the lower the concentration in media capable of forming oxide film round the coupon like in NaCl, and Na2SO4 media, the higher the corrosion rate. While for environments which do not aid in film formation such as Na2CO3, the higher the concentration, the higher the corrosion rate. As such carbon steels would fail fastest in an environment where the concentration of Na2CO3 solution is high.

    KEYWORDS – API 5L X42 carbon steel, corrosion, coupon, environment, immersion.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anyanwu Samuel Ikechukwu, Eseonu Obioma, Nwosu Harold Ugochukwu},
    title = {Studies on Corrosion Characteristics of Carbon Steel Exposed to Na2CO3, Na2SO4 and Nacl Solutions of Different Concentrations.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {48-60},
    month = {October}
    }
    Paper Id :: 310023
    Paper Title :: Development of a power factor model for power sysytem loads
    Author Name :: Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko|| Anthony A. Olaomi
    Page Number :: 61-66
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03102061066

    Power factor is a measure of how efficiently, electrical power is consumed. This paper presents the development of a power factor model for power system loads to establish the effect of power factor correction (PFC) on the electrical distribution network of Lever Brothers Nigeria PLC. Measured data were taken on the distribution network before and after the installation of the PFC capacitors. The data which includes power factors, active power, reactive power, apparent power and current were used as input parameters for the development of a polynomial PF model of order 3.The result of the model reveals a power factor improvement from 0.5671 to 0.9693 after the installation of the PFC capacitors. Analysis of the model can be used to reduce the cost of electric power production and increases the capacity and efficiency of the electrical power systems.

    Keywords: Power factor, Power factor correction, Active power, Apparent power, Reactive power, Polynomial, Inductive load, Capacitive load,

    @article{key:article,
    author = Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko, Anthony A. Olaomi},
    title = {Development of a power factor model for power sysytem loads},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {61-66},
    month = {October}
    }
    Paper Id :: 310022
    Paper Title :: A model for power losses reduction in low voltage distribution network of residential sectors.
    Author Name :: Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko, Anthony A. Olaomi
    Page Number :: 67-74
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03102067074

    This paper develops a mathematical model to assess the power factor in the households and investigates its impacts on the power losses in the low voltage distribution networks. Analysis of the power consumptions, the reactive power and the power factor of some household equipment were carried out using programmable computer aided measuring equipment. The result of the research paper showed that improvement of power factor in the households significantly contributed in decreasing the power losses in the low voltage distribution networks.

    KEYWORDS: Power losses, Low voltage, Distribution network, Active power, Reactive power, Power factor, Voltage Drop, House holds

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko, Anthony A. Olaomi},
    title = {A model for power losses reduction in low voltage distribution network of residential sectors.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {10},
    pages = {67-74},
    month = {October}
    }