• Volume 2 || Issue 3 || versions 1 || March 2013
    Paper Id :: 13019
    Paper Title :: A Comparison of Milling Cutting Path Strategies for Thin-Walled Aluminium Alloys Fabrication
    Author Name :: Khairul Akmal Shamsudin|| A. R. Ab-Kadir||Mohd Hairizal Osman
    Page Number :: 01-08
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0230108
    This project presents a comparison of milling cutting path strategies for thin-walled aluminum alloys fabrication. To search for more efficient cutting path strategies for thin-walled parts, an interactive process planning and analyzing method is introduced. Several rigid combinations of machining parameters are examined based on the evaluation of surface finish, thickness accuracy and machining time in the visual charts. In order to obtain the best cutting path strategy, MasterCam X MR2 software have been used to utilize the cutting path for machining thin-walled aluminum alloy parts into CNC end milling machine. The resulting of cutting path strategies is solved by experimental method. From the experiment, it was found that true spiral is the best machining strategy in term of thickness accuracy but lack of surface roughness when compared to other machining strategies. Not only the best surface roughness was observed for parallel spiral strategy but also the machining time was significantly better.
    Keywords: CNC milling machine, MasterCam, thin-walled aluminum alloy.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Khairul Akmal Shamsudin and A. R. Ab-Kadir and Mohd Hairizal Osman},
    title = {A Comparison of Milling Cutting Path Strategies for Thin-Walled Aluminium Alloys Fabrication},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {01-8},
    month = {March}
    }
    Paper Id :: 31130
    Paper Title :: Mhd Boundary Layer Flow Past A Stretching Plate With Heat Transfer
    Author Name :: Anuj Kumar Jhankal|| Manoj Kumar
    Page Number :: 09-13
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023009013
    This paper considers the problem of a laminar electrically conducting fluid as a boundary layer flow past a stretching plate and heat transfer. The nonlinear partial differential equations were transformed and the resulting ordinary differential equations were solved by using maple software. The effects of various parameters are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: MHD, boundary layer flow, heat transfer, stretching plate.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anuj Kumar Jhankal and Manoj Kumar},
    title = {Mhd Boundary Layer Flow Past A Stretching Plate With Heat Transfer},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {09-13},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31136
    Paper Title :: Optical Properties of Cdsxte1-X Nanocrystalline Thin Films
    Author Name :: R.Marymathelane ||Ritajohn ||K.R.Murali
    Page Number :: 14-18
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023014018
    CdSxTe1-x films were deposited on titanium and conducting glass substrates at different temperatures in the range of 30 to 90°Cusing Brush Plating technique. The as deposited films exhibited hexagonal structure irrespective of the composition. The FWHM maximum of the peaks were found to decrease with increase of duty cycle. Optical absorption studies were made on the films of different composition deposited at 80°C on conducting glass substrates. The band gap was found to vary from 1.44 eV to 2.41 eV as the percentage of CdTe decreased. EDAX measurements were made on the films of different composition heat treated at 550°C. The magnitude of the resistivity varies from 14.9 ohm cm to 10.4 ohm cm as the CdS concentration decreases from 1 to 0. The decrease in resistivity is due to decrease of tellurium vacancies or increase of depth of donor level associated with the tellurium vacancy, similar to the case of CdSTe films.
    Keywords: CdSTe,Thinfilms,XRD,EDAX.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {R.Marymathelane andRitajohn and K.R.Murali},
    title = {Optical Properties of Cdsxte1-X Nanocrystalline Thin Films},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {14-18},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31135
    Paper Title :: Women in Agriculture of Assam
    Author Name :: Makbul Hussain Khan
    Page Number :: 19-21
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023019021
    Women are almost help of the adult population. They constitute one-third of labour force but consume two-third of words. Working hours and yet earn only one tenth of the income and own only one percent of world properly (United Nations 1975). The prosperity and growth of a Nation depend on the Status and devt. Of its women as they not only constitute nearly half of its population but also influence growth of the remaining half of the population. The crucial role of women in agriculture, allied occupations and house hold activities have however been under estimated and undervalued in Assam.In Assam women play a significant and crucial role in agriculture devt. And allied fields including crop production livestock production, horticulture post harvesting operations agro/social forestry fishing Tea planting etc. The nature and extent of women’s involvement in agriculture vary greatly from regions to regions. Even in the region, their involvement varies widely among different ecological, sub-zones forming system caste, classes and socio-economic status of families etc. Although with same problems of women’s today they contribute a lot of the state’s economy like men. Women participation in agriculture is adversely affected by modern method of women and shrinking of their activities. Modernization of agriculture has provided women with better income earning opportunities in same areas, but as displaced them from their traditional roles in others.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Makbul Hussain Khan},
    title = {Women in Agriculture of Assam},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {19-21},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31129
    Paper Title :: A Study on SCRUM Agile Methodology And Its Knowledge Management Process
    Author Name :: E.Neelima||Naga Durga Saile.K
    Page Number :: 22-27
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023022027
    The traditional software development process involves the water fall model where the development cycle starts from requirement gathering to deployment, involving the customers in requirements gathering phase only. Where in the agile development of software projects involves the customer in each and every phase right from the requirements gathering till the deployment of the final product. This paper is a study about one of the Agile development practices that is followed in the latest years for the software development-SCRUM and its Knowledge Management Process.
    Keywords: Scrum, Agile, SDLC, Knowledge Management
    @article{key:article,
    author = {E.Neelima and Naga Durga Saile.K},
    title = {A Study on SCRUM Agile Methodology And Its Knowledge Management Process},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {22-27},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31112
    Paper Title :: Direct Integration and Work Principle as New Approach in Bending Analyses of Isotropic Rectangular Plates
    Author Name :: O. M.Ibearugbulem ||L. O.Ettu||J. C. Ezeh
    Page Number :: 28-36
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023028036
    Following the work of Timoshenko &Woinowsky–Krieger(1959) and subsequent researchers, the traditional approaches in analysis of isotropic rectangular plates has been to assume a differential continuous shape function and to employ strain energy and variational principles. Theseapproaches are grossly limited by the difficulty in assuming suitable shape functions, especially for young structural analysts. A new approach to bending analysis of rectangular plates is presented in this paper. Unlike the traditional approaches that first of all assume a shape function, the shape function in this new approach is obtained by direct integration of the governing differential equation for isotropic rectangular plates. This shape function is in the form of Taylor series in two dimensions.Also, rather than the strain energy and variational principles of the traditional approaches, the plate analysis in this new approach is by the simple principle of equilibrium of works performed by the action (load) and resistance (plate),through which equations for deflection and bending moments are obtained. The maximum deflection at the center of SSSS plateand the maximum bending moment in X-direction obtained by this new approach compare favourably with those fromTimoshenko &Woinowsky–Krieger(1959) for aspect ratios from 1.0 to 2.0 at 0.1 increments. It is therefore, recommended that this new approach could be more easily and better used for the analysis of isotropic rectangular plates.
    Keywords: Rectangular plate; Direct integration; Strain energy; Variational principles; Governing differential equation; Shape function; Equilibrium ofworks; Taylor series
    @article{key:article,
    author = {O. M.Ibearugbulem and L. O.Ettu and J. C. Ezeh},
    title = {Direct Integration and Work Principle as New Approach in Bending Analyses of Isotropic Rectangular Plates},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {28-36},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31045
    Paper Title :: Soil Moisture Based Irrigation Control System for Rice Cropping Using Wireless Sensor Network
    Author Name :: Obota M. E.||Inyama H. C
    Page Number :: 37-43
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023037043
    Recent advances in information and communication technology (ICT) and wireless sensor networks have made new trends to merge in irrigation practice. Irrigation practice has been considered to be one of the most water consumers in the world today. Proper management of water irrigation is more needed now for sustainable productivity and improvement of water use efficiency of rice crop. Studies show that the appropriate level of water contribute to the quality of rice grains and affects the incidence of pests and diseases, weed population and availability of nutrients in the soil hence the need for efficient and automated irrigation systems, which can irrigate plants to a desired level and supply those plants with just the amount of water required for normal uptake plant growth. The paper presents an automated irrigation system based on supervisory control and wireless communication. Monitoring and control of water level in the rice cropping irrigation which represents an important input on water conservation and improved efficiency in rice production is realised. The benefit of this design is extended to fertilizer and/ or chemical applications.
    Keywords: Irrigation, soil moisture, wireless sensor network, Control System Efficiency, Water.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Obota M. E. and Inyama H. C.},
    title = {Soil Moisture Based Irrigation Control System for Rice Cropping Using Wireless Sensor Network},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {37- 43},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13198
    Paper Title :: Transformation of Waste into Resource through Proper Dumping Site Selection: A Case Study in Kurigram Sadar Upazila
    Author Name :: Chowdhury Quamruzzaman ||A.K.M Fayazul Kabir || A.S.M. Woobaid Ullah
    Page Number :: 44-51
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023044051
    Kurigram Sadar Upazila is one of the under developing upaliza’s of Bangladesh which is occupied by 0.25 million people of an area of 265.75sq. Km.; the main occupation is farming where living about 40,000 farmers. This upazila produces about 1, 500000 Kg/month solid waste but still has not got any declared waste disposal site. This is creating major threat to the environment, high risk to human health, plants and animals. To get rid of it few soil samples of the studied area have been collected for geotechnical analysis to determine the best sites and out of eight sites four sites have been chosen for waste disposal. Mogalbachha has been preferred (out of eight sites) as a waste treatment site from all aspects. Considering the massive volume of the waste, type of waste, quantity, main occupation and degree of development of the area has been proposed that, this upazila is ideal for ‘Waste to Organic Fertilizer’ project. Still the agriculture sector is mainly chemical-based which degraded the natural resources, particularly soils, polluted surface and groundwater resources. Lately, organic-based agricultural production is a rapidly emerging technology, which has been applied allover the world and becomes profitable, popular and environmental friendly. In this research the best combination and procedure of organic waste has been proposed from all aspects. Applying this proposal government will be able to provide free of cost organic fertilizer to all the farmers of the upazila, don’t have to pay subsidy on fertilizer, creates some job opportunity and make profit about 3, 00, 00,000 taka yearly.
    Keyword: Assessment of Environmental Impact, Suitable Site Selection, Waste Management, Geotechnical Analysis.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Chowdhury Quamruzzaman and A.K.M Fayazul Kabir and A.S.M. Woobaid Ullah},
    title = {Transformation of Waste into Resource through Proper Dumping Site Selection: A Case Study in Kurigram Sadar Upazila},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {44-54},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23008
    Paper Title :: Problems Being Faced By Women Entrepreneurs in Rural Areas
    Author Name :: Anitha D.Pharm ||Dr. R.Sritharan
    Page Number :: 52-55
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023052055
    upply those plants with just the amount of water required for normal uptake plant growth. The paper presents an automated irrigation system based on supervisory control and wirelesWomen have been successful in breaking their confinement within the limits of their homes by entering into varied kinds of professionals and services women entrepreneurs have proved to be on par with their men counterparts in business acumen and are emerging as smart and dynamic entrepreneurs. Women owned businesses are highly increasing in the economies of almost all countries. The hidden entrepreneurial potentials of women have gradually been changing with the growing sensitivity to the role and economic status in the society. Skill, knowledge and adaptability in business are the main reasons for women to emerge into business ventures. „Women Entrepreneur‟ is a person who accepts challenging role to meet her personal needs and become economically independent. The state of Tamilnadu is the industrially developing area in which some of the entrepreneurs excel in small scale industry. Even though the government organizes women by various associations, they are not ready to undertake the business. As compared to men, women are less motivated to start business units due to some unwanted fear, lack of motivation and kind of activities. Thus, the study aims at undertaking the entrepreneurial development among women highlights their motivational forces and relationship between socio-economic background of women entrepreneurs, motivational factors and their existing entrepreneurial traits.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anitha D.Pharm and Dr. R.Sritharan},
    title = {Problems Being Faced By Women Entrepreneurs in Rural Areas},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {52-55},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23009
    Paper Title :: Implementation of Unrestricted Grammar in To the Recursively Enumerable Language Using Turing Machine
    Author Name :: Jainendra Singh || Dr. S.K. Saxena
    Page Number :: 56-59
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023056059
    This paper presents the implementation of the unrestricted grammar in to recursively enumerable language for JFLAP platform. Automata play a major role in compiler design and parsing. The class of formal languages that work for the most complex problems belongs to the set of Recursively Enumerable Language (REL).RELs are accepted by the type of automata as Turing Machine. Turing Machines are the most powerful computational machines and are the theoretical basis for modern computers. Turing Machine works for all classes of languages including regular language, CFL as well as Recursive Enumerable Languages. Unrestricted grammar are much more powerful than restricted forms like the regular and context free grammars. In facts, unrestricted grammars corresponds to the largest family of languages so we can hope to recognize by mechanical means; that is unrestricted grammars generates exactly the family of recursively enumerable languages. Turing Machine is used to implementation of unrestricted grammar & RELs for JFLAP platform. JFLAP is most successful and widely used tool for visualizing and simulating all types of automata.
    Keywords: Automata, Compiler, CFG, JFLAP, PDA, REL, Unrestricted Grammar
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jainendra Singh and Dr. S.K. Saxena},
    title = {Implementation of Unrestricted Grammar in To the Recursively Enumerable Language Using Turing Machine},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {56-59},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23013
    Paper Title :: Design and Analysis of a Multiplier Using an Efficient Carry Select Adder in 20nm Finfet Technology
    Author Name :: Merlin Jararth || S.Asha Latha ||T.Ravi|| E.Logashanmugam
    Page Number :: 60-68
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023060068
    A fast and energy-efficient multiplier is always needed in electronics industry especially digital signal processing, image processing and arithmetic units in microprocessor. Multipliers are such an important elements which contributes to the total power consumption of the system. Multipliers of various bit-widths are always required in VLSI from processors to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs).In this paper, design of two different array multipliers are presented, one by using Carry Select Adder using BEC logic for addition of partial product terms and another by introducing Carry Select Adder using D-latch logic in partial product lines. The multipliers described in this paper were all modelled using HSPICE for 4-bit data. The comparison is done on the basis of three performance parameters i.e.total Area, delay, Power consumption and power-delay product. To design an efficient integrated circuit considering f area, power and speed, has become a challenging task in modern VLSI design field.
    area efficient CSLA, low power, multiplier, Multiplexer and VLSI.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Merlin Jararth and S.Asha Latha and T.Ravi, and E.Logashanmugam},
    title = {Design and Analysis of a Multiplier Using an Efficient Carry Select Adder in 20nm Finfet Technology},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {60-68},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31001
    Paper Title :: Structural Design of Frozen Ground Works For Shaft Sinking By Practicing Artificial Ground Freezing (Agf) Method in Khalashpir Coal Field
    Author Name :: Atikul Haque Farazi ||Chowdhury Quamruzzaman
    Page Number :: 69-74
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023069074
    Khalashpir coal field, the 3rd largest coal field of Bangladesh where proved reserve of about 143 million tons and probable reserve of about 685 million tons is estimated, has been decided for underground mining and artificial ground freezing (AGF) technique has been proposed as shaft sinking method after feasibility study. This method has been used in mining industry over the past 125 years for support of shaft sinking, tunneling and foundation excavation. To run the process brine solution is chilled between -25oC and -35oC in large refrigerant plant. The brine is then circulated through freezing tubes in required pattern to remove hit from the ground and thus freeze the soil to achieve soil strength and decrease the mobility of liquid water. This process results in a frozen earth barrier which gives strength to loose soil and bars water from inrushing excavation work for sinking a shaft. In this paper structural design of frozen ground works has been proposed to achieve a vertical cylindrical ice-wall for shaft sinking in Khalashpir coal field.
    Keywords: shaft sinking, ice-wall, structural design, ice-wall thickness, freezing borehole.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Atikul Haque Farazi and Chowdhury Quamruzzaman},
    title = {Structural Design of Frozen Ground Works For Shaft Sinking By Practicing Artificial Ground Freezing (Agf) Method in Khalashpir Coal Field},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {69-74},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31138
    Paper Title :: Thermal Conversion of Biomass, Pyrolysis and Gasification: A Review
    Author Name :: Younes Chhiti||Mohammed Kemiha
    Page Number :: 75-85
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023075085
    Paper reviews the state of the art of thermochemical conversion of biomass. Thermochemical conversion technologies include combustion, gasification and pyrolysis. The dominant biomass conversion technology will be gasification, as the gases from biomass gasification are intermediates in the high-efficient power production or the synthesis from chemicals and fuels. In the use of gases from biomass gasification it is important to understand that depending on the gasification temperature a syngas (>1200°C) or a product gas (<1000°C) is generated, of which the latter can be converted into syngas by catalytic or thermal cracking. The Entrained flow gasification is the most suitable technology for high temperature gasification. The characteristics of the generic types of thermochemical conversion – gasification and pyrolysis - are described. The range of products derivable from each system are discussed and related to each technology.
    Keywords: Thermal conversion, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Biomass, Syngas.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Younes Chhiti andMohammed Kemiha},
    title = {Thermal Conversion of Biomass, Pyrolysis and Gasification: A Review},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {75-85},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31147
    Paper Title :: Review on Defluoridation Techniques of Water
    Author Name :: piddennavar Renuka ||krishnappa Pushpanjali
    Page Number :: 86-94
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023086094
    Fluoride is often described as a ‘double-edged sword’ as inadequate ingestion is associated with dental caries, where as excessive intake leads to dental, skeletal and soft tissue fluorosis- which has no cure. Considering the fact that fluorosis is an irreversible condition and has no cure, prevention is the only solution for this menace. Providing water, with optimal fluoride concentration is the only way by which the generation yet to be born can be totally protected against the disease. Defluoridation was the conventional and widely tested method for supplying safe water to the fluorosis affected communities. Various techniques and materials were tried throughout the world for defluoridation of water. Defluoridation techniques can be broadly classified in to four categories; Adsorption technique, Ion-exchange technique, Precipitation technique, and Other techniques, which include electro chemical defluoridation and Reverse Osmosis. This paper discusses various defluoridation techniques used across world and current status of defluoridation in India.
    Keywords: Defluoridation techniques, Defluoridation materials, Endemic fluorosis.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {piddennavar Renuka, and krishnappa Pushpanjali},
    title = {Review on Defluoridation Techniques of Water},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {86-94},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31152
    Paper Title :: Optimal Replica Placement in Graph Based Data Grids
    Author Name :: N. Devakirubai|| A. Kannammal
    Page Number :: 95-103
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0230950103
    The replica algorithms or strategies are dependent on architecture of the data grid. By considering different kinds of architecture in data grid systems, a true representation of a grid is a general graph. So we propose an algorithm for suitable placement of replicas on graph-based data grids. In this paper, we address three issues concerning data replica placement in graph-based data grids. The first issue is how to minimize the data access time. The second issue is how to ensure load balance among replica servers. The third issue is how to minimize the unnecessary replications. To solve these entire issues, we propose a new placement algorithm that finds the optimal locations for the replicas, which minimizes the data access time, ensure load balance of replica servers and determines the minimum number of replicas required.
    Keywords: Data Grid, Data Replication, Graph topology grid, Replica Catalog, Replica Manager, Replica Placement.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {N. Devakirubai and A. Kannammal},
    title = {Optimal Replica Placement in Graph Based Data Grids},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {95-103},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31153
    Paper Title :: Design and Comparision of Band Pass Cascade Trisection Microstrip Filter
    Author Name :: Lakhan Singh ||P. K. Singhal
    Page Number :: 104 -107
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0230104107
    In this paper two six pole of cascade trisection microstrip bandpass filter are design and simulated. The one cascade trisection filter is without split ring resonator and other is with split ring resolator. After simulation the results are compared. The filter without SRR is resonating at frequency 1.4 GHz with return loss -20db where as the filter with SRR is resonating at frequency 2.05 GHz with return loss -31db in the pass band. The filter with SRR having frictional band width (FBW) of 10% as compared to filter without SRR having frictional band width is 8.5%.
    Keywords: Microstrip Cascade Trisected filter, Meta meterial split ring resonator, cross coupling, Quality factor.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Lakhan Singh And P. K. Singhal},
    title = {Design and Comparision of Band Pass Cascade Trisection Microstrip Filter},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {104 -107},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31157
    Paper Title :: Synthesis and Characterization of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles
    Author Name :: P. Kavitha||S. Suseela||R. Mary Mathelane
    Page Number :: 108-110
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02301080110
    Cadmium sulfide is one of the most promising materials for solar cells and of great interest for their practical applications in up to electronics and photonics. The optical properties get modified due to the confinement of charge carrier within the nanoparticles. The physical and chemical properties of thus nano- particles are found to be size depended. In the present work describes synthesis and characterization of cadmium sulfide using chemical precipitation techniques. A pure nanostructure cadmium sulfide is synthesized at room temperature. The crystallite sizes (Dhkl) of cadmium sulfide crystals were estimated from the peaks of XRD. The optical properties of the samples were estimated by UV visible spectroscopy. The absorption spectrum were studied FTIR. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used to carry out the structural characterization of the nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles, XRD, UV, FTIR, SEM
    @article{key:article,
    author = {P. Kavitha and S. Suseela and R. Mary Mathelane},
    title = {Synthesis and Characterization of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {108-110},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31143
    Paper Title :: A Field Study on Heave Reduction of Flooring Panels Resting on Expansive Soils Using Granular Anchor Piles and Cushions
    Author Name :: Dr. P. Hari Krishna||Dr. V. Ramana Murty||J. Vakula
    Page Number :: 111-115
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02301110115
    The individual influence of cushions and granular anchor piles on heave control of structures resting on expansive soils was studied previously at NIT-Warangal by conducting field investigations. The present study is an attempt to understand the combined influence of these techniques in controlling the ground heave. For this, three flooring panels of 3 m x 3 m size were cast in the field with different treatment alternatives and their cyclic swell-shrink movements were monitored for four years. This study revealed that the heave is decreased by 26% and 92% for cushioned flooring panel and cushion-cum- anchored granular piled flooring panel respectively.
    Expansive soil, Granular anchor pile, Cushions, Heave measurements, cyclic swell-shrink movements.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. P. Hari Krishna and Dr. V. Ramana Murty and J. Vakula},
    title = {A Field Study on Heave Reduction of Flooring Panels Resting on Expansive Soils Using Granular Anchor Piles and Cushions},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {111-115},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21086
    Paper Title ::

    Fault analysis for circuit breakers ratings determination on nigerian 330kv transmission grid

    Author Name :: Gafari A. Adepoju || Olusola A. Komolafe || Muhammed A. Tijani || Akeem O. Bisiriyu
    Page Number :: 116-123
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02301160123
    Fault Studies form an important part of power system analysis for stable and economical operations of a Power System. Faults on a power system are divided into symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. In this paper, three-phase symmetrical fault was simulated on the Nigerian 330kV National Grid using Nigerian 24 bus power system from Power Holding Company of Nigeria. Two different MATLAB based programs were written; one program was for Load Flow Studies to determine the pre-fault conditions based on Newton-Raphson method, while the other was for three-phase short-circuit studies. It was observed that the fault currents were mostly excessively high. The information gained from the fault studies were used for the determination of circuit breaker ratings on the power system
    Keywords: Circuit breakers, Load Flow, Power System, Short-Circuit Current, Three-Phase Fault.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Gafari A. Adepoju and ,Olusola A. Komolafe,and ,Muhammed A. Tijani ,and Akeem O. Bisiriyu},
    title = {FAULT ANALYSIS FOR CIRCUIT BREAKERS RATINGS DETERMINATION ON NIGERIAN 330kv TRANSMISSION GRID},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {116-123},
    month = {March}
    }
     

    Volume 2 || Issue 3 || versions 2 || March 2013

    Paper Id :: 23029
    Paper Title ::

    VOCAL VISION For VISUALLY IMPAIRED

    Author Name :: Shrilekha Bangar ||Preetam Narkhede ||Rajashree Paranjape
    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02320107
    FThis project is a vision substitute system designed to assist blind people for autonomous navigation. Its working concept is based on 'image to sound' conversion. The vision sensor captures the image in front of blind user. This image is then fed to MATLAB for processing. Processing unit processes the captured image and enhances the significant vision data. This processed image is then compared with the database kept in microcontroller. The processed information is then presented as a structured form of acoustic signal and it is conveyed to the blind user using a set of earphones. Colour information from the interested object is evaluated to determine the colour of the object. The colour output is informed to the blind user through headphones.
    Keywords: object identification,visually impaired,colour detection,edge detection
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Shrilekha Bangar and Preetam Narkhede and Rajashree Paranjape},
    title = {VOCAL VISION For VISUALLY IMPAIRED},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {01-07},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23001
    Paper Title ::

    Design and Analysis of an Array Multiplier Using an Area Efficient Full Adder Cell in 32nm CMOS Technology

    Author Name :: Kripa Mathew || S.Asha Latha || T.Ravi || E.Logashanmugam
    Page Number :: 8-16
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023208016
    Multiplier is one of the basic functional unit in digital signal processor. Most high performance DSP systems rely on hardware multiplication to achieve high data throughput. In this paper a low power and low area array multiplier is proposed. The conventional array multiplier is synthesised using 16T full adder cell. In conventional array multiplier the final stage of addition is removed and the carry bits are given to the input of the next left column input, thereby causing a large trade off in power and area. The proposed array multiplier is synthesised using 10T full adder cell. The proposed array multiplier design uses 96 less transistor count and saves 2.82% of total power, 13.24% of more speed and 15.69% less power delay product when being compared with the conventional array multiplier in 32nm MOSFET Technology using HSPICE.
    Keywords: array multiplier, full adder, low power, VLSI
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kripa Mathew and S.Asha Latha and T.Ravi and E.Logashanmugam},
    title = {Design and Analysis of an Array Multiplier Using an Area Efficient Full Adder Cell in 32nm CMOS Technology},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {8-16},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23002
    Paper Title ::

    DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A 4-BIT LOW POWER BARREL SHIFTER IN 20nm FINFET TECHNOLOGY

    Author Name :: Rinu Pappachan ||V.Vijayakumar ||T.Ravi ||V.Kannan
    Page Number :: 17-25
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0232017025
    A barrel shifter is an important block of a floating point arithmetic unit and it is capable of shifting data word by a specified 'n' number of bits in one cycle. Whereas shift registers are capable of shifting only one bit in one clock cycle. Barrel shifter can perform the following functions: shift left logical, shift left arithmetic, rotate left, shift right logical, shift right arithmetic and rotate right. The design of the barrel shifter is purely MUX based and therefore designing a MUX for low power to use it as a repetitive block in the barrel shifter will improve its efficiency. The MUX based barrel shifter circuits are designed using transmission gate. The barrel shifter is designed in FinFET technology. Fin-type field-effect transistors (FinFETs) are promising substitutes for bulk CMOS in nano-scale circuits.
    Keywords: barrel shifter, low power, MUX, shifting, rotating
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rinu Pappachan andV.Vijayakumar andT.Ravi and V.Kannan},
    title = {DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A 4-BIT LOW POWER BARREL SHIFTER IN 20nm FINFET TECHNOLOGY},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {17-25},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31170
    Paper Title ::

    Dynamic Of Green Open Space And Temperature Humidity Index In Malang City

    Author Name :: Ferry Andriono||Imam Hanafi ||Bagyo Yanuwiadi ||Soemarno
    Page Number :: 26-32
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0232026032
    The purpose of this study were (1) contruct structuring model of Green Open Space (GOS) and Temperature Humidity Index(THI) in Malang City (2) design asimulationscenarios ofGOSplanning policies in Malang City. This studyemphasizes thequantitative approach, usingsoftwaretools modeling with "PowersimConstructor". The study does not ignore the naturalistic paradigm with a qualitative approach through grounded research. Governance of this study includes (1) the collection, presentation and analysis of data, (2) engineering dynamic models using software Powersim Contructor: system analysis; engineering dynamic models; analysis of several scenarios, (3) development of policy alternatives / engineering model. Based on the structure of the model is constructed, the results obtained by the declining trend of GOS in Malang, where at the beginning of the simulation (2010), GOSamounted52,598,270 m², whereas at the end of the simulation (2060) only 18,898,531 m². The increase in temperature and decrease in relative humidity cause increased THI values, where the results of simulations carried out at the beginning of the year amounted 23.82 increased to 27.53 in the final simulation. Analysis of GOS planning policies in Malang City formulated three scenarios: independent, moderate and sustainable. The simulation results in independent scenario, the end of the simulation shows GOS in Malang City amounted to 7,356,628 m² and THI value amounted to 33.86 (uncomfortable). In the moderate scenario, the end of the year amounted to 24,379,079 m² and THI value amounted to 26.52 (uncomfortable). While the scenario at the end of the simulation sustainable scenario,GOSamounted to 34,521,096 m² and THI value amounted to25.61 (enough comfortable). Sustainable scenario can be used as an effective policy alternatives related for planning of green open space (GOS) in Malang City.
    Keywords: GOS, THI, Malang, dynamic, temperature, humidity, scenario
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ferry Andriono and Imam Hanafi and Bagyo Yanuwiadi andSoemarno},
    title = {Dynamic Of Green Open Space And Temperature Humidity Index In Malang City},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {26-32},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31163
    Paper Title ::

    Artificial Neural Network Approach to Clustering

    Author Name :: Farhat Roohi
    Page Number :: 33-38
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0232033038
    In the field of computing, learning and artificial intelligence the developments have seen a transition from developing powerful computing powers, programmed closed systems devoid of learning capability to attempts to model the human brain as far as its learning and functioning is concerned. Attempts at this have to make models which have inbuilt self learning mechanism capable to learn from data continuously and modify the rules and output accordingly. Towards this end many attempts have been made amongst which neural networks based on their robustness and emulating capability of human brain deserve special attention. These networks which are combinations and interconnections of large number of artificial neurons mimic the learning capability and mechanism of human learning. They form the base of artificial intelligence and are central to various clustering programmes. Clustering, which is at the base of most of the data analysis, decision making, designing, forecasting, problems finds wide applications of neural networks. They have greatly facilitated the clustering function in both supervised and unsupervised kind of learning. They are of great help when the number of clusters is not known before hand. Against this backdrop this paper attempts to gain an insight into ANN and its basic components with main focus on its application in clustering.
    Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), cluster analysis, competitive learning, self-organizing map.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Farhat Roohi},
    title = {Artificial Neural Network Approach to Clustering},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {33-38},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31114
    Paper Title ::

    Development of Intensity Duration Frequency Curves for Calabar Metropolis, South- South, Nigeria

    Author Name :: Antigha R.E || Ogarekpe N.M.
    Page Number :: 39-42
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/F0232039042
    The estimation of rainfall intensity is commonly required for the design of hydraulic and water resources engineering control structures. The IDF relationship is a mathematical relationship between the rainfallintensity, the duration and the return period.Rainfall data collected from the Nigerian Meteological Agency (NIMET) at the MargaretEkpo International Airport, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, were used to developed rainfall models for the Calabar catchment area. The afore-mentioned data were obtained on the basis of daily recordings. Twenty three years peak rainstorm intensity values with their corresponding durations were extracted and analysed using statistical methods of least square using Microsoft Excel software.The IDF curves were developed for return periods between 2 years and 100 years using the Extreme Value Type 1 (Gumbel) distributionfor rainfall intensity values for durations of 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 320 minutes. The IDF curves are recommended for the prediction of rainfall intensities for Calabar.
    Keywords: CRainfall intensity, rainfall duration, intensity-duration-frequency curves, IDF
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Antigha R.E||Ogarekpe N.M.},
    title = {Development of Intensity Duration Frequency Curves for Calabar Metropolis, South- South, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {39-42},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31051
    Paper Title ::

    Effects of Slots on Deflection and Stresses in Belleville Spring

    Author Name :: H.K.Dubey || Dr. D.V. Bhope || Sneha Tahilyani || Kushal Singh
    Page Number :: 43-48
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0232043048
    This paper reports stress and deflection analysis of a Belleville Spring with slots and without slots using finite element method. For a particular dimension of its outer diameter and inner diameter i.e. (OD/ID), diameter between slots and outer diameter (TD/OD) and its Height to thickness i.e. (H/T) have been considered to investigate the Von-misses stresses in the spring along with the deflections. Finite element method is used for analysis. The FE results are compared with existing analytical results.
    Keywords: Stress, Deflection, Finite element method, slotted Belleville Spring
    @article{key:article,
    author = {H.K.Dubey and Dr. D.V. Bhope ||Sneha Tahilyani ||Kushal Singh},
    title = {Effects of Slots on Deflection and Stresses in Belleville Spring},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {43-48},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23036
    Paper Title ::

    Design and Simulation of a Composite Digital Modulator

    Author Name :: Soumik Kundu
    Page Number :: 49-55
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0232049055
    In a communication system, modulators play an important role in transmitting signal from one place to another. Different modulators are used for different types of communication. If we combine a set of modulators together into single modulators, the single composite modulator so obtained can be used for different communication purpose. And this may lead to minimization of cost and effort for developing modulators. With this idea in hand, an experimental research for design and simulation of a composite modulator model has been presented in this paper. The concept of union of directed graphs of four digital modulator models has been invested for combining four digital modulators.
    Keywords: Binary Modulation, Composite Modulation, MATLAB Simulation, Modulator, Shift Keying Modulation.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Soumik Kundu},
    title = {Design and Simulation of a Composite Digital Modulator},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {49-55},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23018
    Paper Title ::

    Implementing Security on Android Application

    Author Name :: Kirandeep ||Anu Garg
    Page Number :: 56-59
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0232056059
    In these days, Android has become a very popular operating system for smart phones. There are some advanced features in android Smartphone, with which user can easily share applications via online market store i.e. Google market store. But, there are attacks and threats include in this platform, like malware applications are also attack on Android actual applications. Because malware on device can create number of risks, which creates problem while connectivity because of security issues. In this paper, it will be described that how security can be improve of Android Operating System so that users can safely used the android smart phones.
    Keywords: Android, Security, Encryption, TISSA.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kirandeep and Anu Garg},
    title = {Implementing Security on Android Application},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {56-59},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23015
    Paper Title ::

    Web Based Single Sign On Across Open Cloud

    Author Name :: Ankita Kakade || Sarika Bothe || Sapana Waje
    Page Number :: 60-63
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0232060063
    With an increase use of mailing services, single sign-on applications are being implemented by ample amount of mailing services. In this research, efforts have been taken to implement SSO scheme for Gmail, yahoo, hotmail and customized mail. User no need to login multiple times in order to access services of Gmail, yahoo, hotmail and customized mail. If a user has accounts on Gmail, yahoo, hotmail the overload of authenticating each time each account increases. To overcome this, the concept of web based single sign on has been implemented in this system. User can read, compose, send mails, send SMS and maintain block list. This leads to decrease in overhead to remember multiple usernames and passwords and thus ensures time saving by avoiding multiple logins. This provides switching in between different mailing services which are located on different cloud.
    Keywords: SSO, Authentication, Web services, Web APIs, Open Cloud
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ankita Kakade and Sarika Bothe and Sapana Waje},
    title = {Web Based Single Sign On Across Open Cloud},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {60-63},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23012
    Paper Title ::

    An Optimization Image Watermarking Technique Using Biogeography Based Optimization

    Author Name :: Rajat Tiwari || Navneet Kaur ||Manpreet Kaur
    Page Number :: 64-70
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0232064070
    Digital watermarking is process of embedding information into a digital signal which is used to know about its authencity or identity of its owners and producers in the same manner as document having a bench mark for visible identification. This paper presents an innovative watermarking scheme based on biogeography based optimization in transform domain. The proposed approach is robust against watermarking attacks. Also, the watermarked image quality is considered. Simulation results also show both robustness and image quality with bbo.
    Keywords: BBO, DWT, Digital, Image, Watermarking.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rajat Tiwari and Navneet Kaur and Manpreet Kaur},
    title = {An Optimization Image Watermarking Technique Using Biogeography Based Optimization},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {64-70},
    month = {March}
    }
    Paper Id :: 23050
    Paper Title ::

    An Adaptive Cruise Control

    Author Name :: Minal Zunjarrao ||Sayali Shirude
    Page Number :: 71-74
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023071074
    Digital This project is an Adaptive cruise control (ACC) system which provides assistance to the driver in the task of longitudinal control of their vehicle during motorway driving by using ultrasonic sensor. The system controls the accelerator, engine power train and vehicle brakes to maintain a desired time-gap to the vehicle ahead. This system will also send message to the pre defined number by using GSM if vehicle meet with an accident. The send message contains place of an accident by using GPS.
    Keywords: speed control, distance measurement,
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Minal Zunjarrao and Sayali Shirude},
    title = {Adaptive Cruise Control},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {71-74},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 12072
    Paper Title ::

    Vulnerability of Soil Erosion in Okitipupa Area of Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria: A Climatic Problem

    Author Name :: Obasi, R. A
    Page Number :: 75-83
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023075083
    Soil erosion is a natural phenomenon caused by a multidimensional factors. The soil vulnerability to erosion in Okitipupa area is studied with focus on climate and geotechnical characteristics as causatives. Rainfall and to a lesser extent temperature facilitate weathering, runoffs, flooding and erosion of any soil. Rainfall and temperature data of Ondo State were used for Okitipupa area since the latter is under the same climatic coverage. These data were grouped into decades for purposes of trend analyses. The results suggest that in the last three and half decades (1971-1980, 1981- 1990, 1991-2000, and 2001- 2007) the rainfall has been on the increase, an indication to show a change in the climate. The unusual increase in the trend of rainfall over time is attributable to the cause of flooding and erosion in Okitipupa area. Fifteen (15) soil samples subjected to atterberg tests ,particle size analysis, and permeability show the liquid limits of 18.3 to 44.3%, moisture content of 5.5-16.6% , fine- medium grained sand of 68.7% -96.2 and a low permeability respectively. These characteristics coupled with the increase in the trend of rainfall are suggested attributes that can make the soil vulnerable to runoffs, flooding and erosion. Dry season farming is suggested for those areas with high percentage of fine- medium grained sand. Government should discourage the construction of civil infrastructures along the coastal terrain of Okitipupa area.
    Keywords: Atterberg test, dry farming , particle size, permeability, vulnerability.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Obasi, R. A},
    title = {Vulnerability of Soil Erosion in Okitipupa Area of Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria: A Climatic Problem},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {75-83},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 3 || versions 3 || March 2013

    Paper Id :: 23067
    Paper Title ::

    Es-Aodv: Efficient Secure Aodv Using Hybrid Shortest Path Routing To Improve the Performance for Grid Computing

    Author Name :: R.Rameshkumar||Dr. A.Damodaram
    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02330107
    A MANETs require a reliable, efficient, and scalable and most importantly, a secure protocol as they are highly secure, self-organizing, rapidly deployed and they use dynamic routing. AODV is flat to attacks like modification of sequence numbers, modification of hop counts, source route and production of error messages. AODV does not specify any special security measures. The proposed scheme we have to using a hybrid routing used to avoiding any type of attacking model on the network. The attacking model to avoid using a shortest path routing algorithm (SPR) to using avoids the malicious attack method. Hybrid routing using a proactive and reactive model to used the RREQ and RREP method network. Route Request and Route Reply from the data transmission on the source to destination on network process. Since proactive and reactive routing protocols best in oppositely different scenarios, there is good reason to develop hybrid routing protocols, which use a mix of both proactive and reactive routing protocols. These hybrid protocols can be used to find a balance between the proactive and reactive protocols. The basic idea of hybrid routing protocols is to use proactive routing mechanisms in some areas of the network at certain times and reactive routing for the rest of the network. The proactive operations are restricted to a small domain in order to reduce the control overheads and delays. The reactive routing protocols are used for locating nodes outside this domain, as this is more bandwidth efficient in a constantly changing network. If have any attack or traffic on network to avoiding the traffic and send the data to destination. That time we have to using traffic aware routing method to using improved the network performance model system. Mainly to focus on the model are to reduce the packet delay and improve network performance and then saving an energy level of the network.
    Keywords: AODV, MAC, ES-AODV, SPR, GA, ODASARA, T-AODV, OTCL
    @article{key:article,
    author = {R.Rameshkumar and Dr. A.Damodaram},
    title = {Es-Aodv: Efficient Secure Aodv Using Hybrid Shortest Path Routing To Improve the Performance for Grid Computing},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {01-07},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31020
    Paper Title ::

    The Structural Profile Of The Socio Economic And Housing Problems Of The Slum Areas In Enugu City, Nigeria; An Insider's Perception

    Author Name :: Dr. B. O. Uwadiegwu Mnitp, Rtp
    Page Number :: 8-14
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/023308014
    This study aims at the identification of the structural profile of the socio-economic and housing problems of the slum areas. Five slum areas in Enugu City were chosen for the study consisting of three core and two peripheral spontaneous slum areas, namely Coal Camp, Obiagu, and Ogui Urban (core slum areas), Ngenevu and Jamboree (peripheral slum areas). 412 slum dwellers randomly selected from the chosen areas participated in the study. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) version of Factor Analysis (FA) statistical technique was employed for the data analysis. The technique reduced the 17 variables used for the study to 7 components or factors. The PCA also produced the structural profile of the variables with lack of housing amenities being the paramount. This is followed in descending order by household size, lack of job and low income, accommodation, tenancy and lastly security problems. It is therefore recommended that programme for the improvement of the slum areas in Nigeria should be phased in accordance with this structure.
    Keywords: Problem structure, housing, upgrading, phased programme and problem severity.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. B. O. Uwadiegwu Mnitp, Rtp},
    title = {The Structural Profile Of The Socio Economic And Housing Problems Of The Slum Areas In Enugu City, Nigeria; An Insider's Perception},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {8-14},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23076
    Paper Title ::

    2d To 3d in Real Time

    Author Name :: Prof. H.N.Patil || Rohit Devare || Kshitija Bathe ||Kirti Bhosale ||Shraddha Devdikar
    Page Number :: 15-24
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0233015024
    In this paper, we present a simple 3D paint system that does not require any critical programming or technical bias. Presently many 2D to 3D conversion system needs a prior knowledge of the software and its use, so it's difficult to be used by everyone. We have made an attempt to use the simplest of all possibly usable technologies in 2D-3D conversion to aid the conversion process in the paint system. This paper proposes a simple system that has a plausible implementation through high frequency sound and the known propagation delay of acoustic waves to trilaterate distances. The system developed consists of sensing real time data (drawing), instant conversion and displaying the 3D drawing on the MATLAB. This project achieves the goals by first sensing the real-time drawing, calculating the time delay and hence the distances from it and then displaying its 3D drawing simultaneously from all angles.
    Keywords: Artistic interface, MATLAB, Real- time, Trilateration
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prof. H.N.Patil and Rohit Devare and Kshitija Bathe and Kirti Bhosale and Shraddha Devdikar},
    title = {2d To 3d in Real Time},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {15-24},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23042
    Paper Title ::

    A SURVEY ON WEB MINNING ALGORITHMS

    Author Name :: Sandhya(M.tech CSE)||Mala chaturvedi(M.tech CSE)
    Page Number :: 25-30
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0233025030
    Web mining is data mining from web. We all know that now days data on web exceeding day. Web mining algorithms are slightly different from data mining algorithms, because on data mining the content or data is store in one particular place and we have metadata for our data. But in web mining data is distributed on various places and data is not in only text form it could text, audio, video, images and many more. The aim of this paper to study the algorithms that we have been using for web mining in current scenario and compare them with each other according to their performance..
    Keywords: web mining, PageRank, Weighted PageRank, HITS, clustering .latent semantic analysis, k-means, relevance ranking , CHCA.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sandhya(M.tech CSE) and Mala chaturvedi(M.tech CSE)},
    title = {A SURVEY ON WEB MINNING ALGORITHMS},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {25-30},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23032
    Paper Title ::

    The Effects Of Cheese Wood Stem Bark (Alsonia Boonei) On The Mecanical Properties Of Low Density Polyethylene 

    Author Name :: Francis Ngozichi Onuoha ||Michael Ifeanyichukwu Ugbaja ||Callistus Izunna Iheme. ||Iheaturu nnamdi Chibuike
    Page Number :: 31-33
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0233031033
    In this study, Cheese Wood Stem Bark (Alstonia Boonei) was reinforced with Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) using the process of injection moulding and then compressed into a dumb-bell shape. It was surprisingly found that the filler reduced the mechanical properties of the composites. However, the density of the reinforced LDPE composites was enhanced. The fillers used in blend proportion in the order: 100/0%, 99/1%, 98/2%, 97/3% and 96/4% LDPE-filler ratios.
    Keywords: Fillers, reinforcement, low density polyethylene and mechanical properties
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Francis Ngozichi Onuoha, Michael Ifeanyichukwu Ugbaja, Callistus Izunna Iheme. ,Iheaturu nnamdi Chibuike},
    title = {THE EFFECTS OF CHEESE WOOD STEM BARK (Alsonia Boonei) ON THE MECANICAL PROPERTIES OF LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {31-33},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23024
    Paper Title ::

    Silicon Solar Microcells

    Author Name :: S.Sumera Fatima ||Deepthi.P ||Kendagannaswamy
    Page Number :: 34-40
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0233034040
    In this paper we describe modules that use large-scale arrays of silicon solar microcells created from bulk wafers and integrated in diverse spatial layouts on foreign substrates by transfer printing. The resulting devices can offer useful features, including high degrees of mechanical flexibility, user-definable transparency and ultrathin-form-factor microconcentrator designs. Detailed studies of the processes for creating and manipulating such microcells, together with theoretical and experimental investigations of the electrical, mechanical and optical characteristics of several types of module that incorporate them, illuminate the key aspects.
    Keywords: μ-cells,μ-bar,SEM,
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S.Sumera Fatima and Deepthi.P and Kendagannaswamy},
    title = {Silicon Solar Microcells},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {34- 40},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31164
    Paper Title ::

    Corrosion Inhibition of Stainless Steel (316l) Using Cola Nitida,Cola Acuminata and Cola Garcinia

    Author Name :: Adindu .C. Iyasara || Oduagwu Ferdinand Azubuike ||Stan.C. Ekenyem || Okeahialam Solomon|| Geoffrey Okafor
    Page Number :: 41- 48
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0233041048
    Recently, investigations have been made into the corrosive characteristics and inhibitive properties of natural plants. In order to make a meaningful contribution to the contemporary interest, the corrosion inhibitive effects of Cola Nitida (Red Cola/Native Cola), Cola Acuminata (White Cola) and Cola Garcinia (Bitter Cola) solution extracts on the corrosion of austenitic stainless steel (316L) immersed in soil (pH 5.4), seawater (3% NaCl), 1M and 2M hydrochloric (HCl) acids environments were studied at ambient temperature. The corrosion rates of the stainless steel specimens were determined using the weight loss method for a period of forty-two days. The solution extracts inhibited the corrosion of the stainless steel specimens to an extent depending on the composition of the extracts and the type of the environment. The results obtained showed that the lowest and highest corrosion rates were observed in the soil and 2M HCl acid environments respectively. Cola Garcinia (Bitter Cola) exhibited the best inhibitor extract in the soil and 2M HCl acid environments while Cola Acuminata (White Cola) showed the best inhibitor in the seawater and 1M HCl acid environments. The inhibition was attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitors on the surfaces of the stainless steel specimens.
    Keywords: Corrosion, austenitic stainless steel, corrosion rate, ambient temperature, inhibition efficiency.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adindu .C. Iyasara andOduagwu Ferdinand Azubuike and Stan.C. Ekenyem and Okeahialam Solomon. and Geoffrey Okafor5},
    title = {Corrosion Inhibition of Stainless Steel (316l) Using Cola Nitida,Cola Acuminata and Cola Garcinia},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {41- 48},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23062
    Paper Title ::

    Investigation of the Direction of Causality and Effect of Climate Change on Food Grain Output in Nigeria (1970-2010)

    Author Name :: Igwe, K. C.||Agu-Aguiyi, F. N. ||Uguru, J. O
    Page Number :: 49-54
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0233049054
    Agricultural production in Nigeria is weather dependent; extreme variations in rainfall and temperature have influence on food production. Most of the crops produced in Nigeria are low-technology based and are therefore heavily susceptible to environmental factors. The study analyzed the direction of causality and effect of climate change on food grain output in Nigeria from 1970-2010.Time series data were employed for the study. The data were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria and National Bureau of Statistics. Granger causality test analysis and regression analysis were the analytical tools used. The Granger causality approach showed that changes in rainfall and temperature (climatic parameters) positively affect food grain output in Nigeria. While from the regression analysis, most of the food grains were significantly affected by rainfall and temperature. It is, therefore, recommended that for food grain output to increased and sustained; irrigation agriculture as most suitable mode of water provisions should be contemplated for the farmers by government and concerned agencies. Policies and government intervention programmes should aim at increasing the technological capacity for agricultural production and the budgetary allocation to agricultural sector in order to boost the contribution of the industry to the economy.
    Keywords: Causality, Climate Change, Food Grain Output, Nigeria
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Igwe, K. C. and Agu-Aguiyi, F. N. and Uguru, J. O},
    title = {Investigation of the Direction of Causality and Effect of Climate Change on Food Grain Output in Nigeria (1970-2010)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {49-54},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23085
    Paper Title ::

    Informational Role of Non-Price Variables: An Empirical Study of the Indian Options Market

    Author Name :: Dr.V.V. Ratnaji Rao Chowdary ||Mr.R.Sreenivasa Rao
    Page Number :: 55-61
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0233055061
    The "Informational role of the options market in predicting the future price index in the underlying cash market in India‟ is studied in this paper by applying the method of open interest and volume-based predictors (Bhuyan and Yan, 2002). Daily data for both price as well as non-price variables for four different sub-periods (2005 to 2008) have been employed to explore the above said relationship and its changes (if any) in the subsequent period. The results show that these predictors have significant explanatory power with open interest being more significant as compared to trading volume. The study provides deterministic parameters, which can be used by the uninformed investors to predict the price of underlying shares using index options market data and formulate the profitable trading strategies based on it.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr.V.V. Ratnaji Rao Chowdary and Mr.R.Sreenivasa Rao},
    title = {Informational Role of Non-Price Variables: An Empirical Study of the Indian Options Market},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {55-61},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31006
    Paper Title ::

    Public Awareness of Low-Carbon Economy in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kaduna State North-West Nigeria Instead Of Central Nigeria

    Author Name :: E. E. Etim||U.Lawal||C. Andrew||I. S. Udegbunam
    Page Number :: 62-65
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0233062065
    This paper studied the level of awareness, understanding, opinions and perceptions of residents of Kaduna State North-Central Nigeria. The results expressed herein were gathered across the three geopolitical zones of the state, Kaduna north, central and south senatorial zones. A number of 600 questionnaires were sampled randomly across the various local government areas of these geopolitical zones. The results showed an appreciated level of understanding of LCE combined with low level awareness among respondents, and with the low level awareness due to inadequate information from trusted sources like newspapers, radio etc. and inadequate background in education which clearly shows the difficulty government faces bringing this issue to the forefront of public discuss. Respondents generally showed positive attitudes toward pro-environmental actions, such as refusing to use plastic bags, waste recycling, and water and energy conservation. Apart from regulation and policies, they considered education and economic incentives as effective mechanisms to promote LCE implementation. Overall, those consulted responded favorably towards the prospect of LCE. Results of the study, at this preliminary stage, suggest that the general public in Nigeria has the potential to be a facilitator of environmental improvements in the country.
    Keywords: Low carbon economy, Kaduna state, Nigeria, Government, Awareness
    @article{key:article,
    author = {E. E. Etim, Ie and E. E. Etim and U.Lawal andC. Andrew and I. S. Udegbunam},
    title = {Public Awareness of Low-Carbon Economy in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kaduna State North-West Nigeria Instead Of Central Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {62-65},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23083
    Paper Title ::

    A New Shape Function for Analysis of Line Continuum By Direct Variational Calculus

    Author Name :: O. M. Ibearugbulem || L. O. Ettu || J. C. Ezeh ||U. C. Anya
    Page Number :: 66-71
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0233066071
    Trigonometric and polynomial functions are generally used in classical analysis of line continuum. Trigonometric functions tend to be good for direct use in the governing differential equations as well as in direct variational calculus. On the other hand, polynomial functions are only good for use in direct variational calculus because they give trivial results when used directly in governing differential equations. This explains the general resort to trigonometric functions in classical flexural linear continuum analysis. However, the problem with trigonometric functions is that it is very difficult to satisfy the boundary conditions of a propped cantilever linear continuum when a trigonometric shape function is used. Thus, many trial functions based on trigonometric functions, polynomial functions, and combinations of both are currently in use, none of which is effective for all cases of line continuum analysis. This work presents a new polynomial shape function derived from the exact general solutions of the governing differential equations that would be suitable for use in direct variational calculus for analyzing all the basic forms of line continuum. A general polynomial shape function for linear continuum is first developed from the basic governing differential equations. Peculiar polynomial shape functions were then developed for four different cases of linear continua, namely pin–roller supports, clamp–roller supports, clamp–clamp supports, and clamp–free supports by satisfying their boundary conditions in the general shape function. These peculiar polynomial shape functions were applied in analyzing pure bending, free vibration, and buckling of line continuum by direct variational calculus. The results were found to be identical or very close to the exact results obtained using standard trigonometric shape functions in equilibrium approach, the percentage differences being 0% for pure bending analysis, 0-6.383% for buckling analysis, and 0-2.52% for free vibration analysis. These results confirm that the new polynomial shape function developed in this work is effective for analysis of all cases of line continuum with different boundary conditions. It is therefore recommended for use by structural analysts.
    Keywords: Shape function, Variational calculus, Line continuum, Differential equation, Polynomial, Trigonometric
    @article{key:article,
    author = {O. M. Ibearugbulem and L. O. Ettu and J. C. Ezeh and U. C. Anya},
    title = {A New Shape Function for Analysis of Line Continuum By Direct Variational Calculus},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {66-71},
    month = {March}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23089
    Paper Title ::

    Girdle Based Transmission In Manets

    Author Name :: Annie Brunette|| A.Kannammal|| Venkatesan N
    Page Number :: 72-76
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/233072076
    The Increasing Challenges In MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network) Such As Multicast Packet Forwarding, Crew Maintenance And The Path Structure Over The Dynamic Topology Arises As The Size Of The Network Increases. The Topographic Locatable Multicast Protocol (TLMP) Proposed In This Paper Is To Resolve The Issues That Is Being Faced In Large Size MANET's. The Virtual Tree Structure Used In The Protocol Without Need Of Maintaining State Information For More Crew Management And Packet Forwarding In The Dynamic Network Due To Unstable Node Movements. The Scalable And Efficient Crew Is Managed Through Virtual Tree Structure And The Position Of The Node Is Managed Through The Crew Management. The Message Information And Data Packets Are Forwarded Along The Virtual Tree Paths, But There Is No Need To Explicitly Create And Actively Maintain A Structure. This Virtual Structure Efficiently Reduces The Tree Management Overhead And Support The Transmissions.The Periodic Source Information Is Avoided And Efficient Source Tracking Mechanism Is Designed Using The TLMP. The Null-Girdle Problem Is Handled By Using The BPRT (Back Pressure Restoration Technique) Algorithm. It Induces The Empty Packets To Flow In The Network Where The Link Break And Transmission Failures Are Identified.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Annie Brunette and A.Kannammal and Venkatesan N},
    title = {Girdle Based Transmission In Manets},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {3},
    pages = {72-76},
    month = {March}
    }