•  
    Volume 5 || Issue 4|| Version-I-April- 2016
    Paper Id ::
    53046
    Paper Title :: Gas Resource Development in Nigeria and Global Lng Market
    Author Name :: Akintunde A. Carim || Prof. Adewale Dosunmu
    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    The aim of this research is to review the gas resource development in Nigeria and the contribution to global LNG and export markets. To engage in global LNG business, energy companies invest in the LNG value chain which involve different operations that are linked and dependent on one another. The evolution of global and regional LNG trade over the past twenty five years has been a story of rapid growth and diversification The only major investment in gas development in Nigeria has been the LNG projects. The LNG brings stranded natural gas reserves to the global markets. Some of the gas that would otherwise be flared are converted to the LNG as Nigeria has consistently been second worst gas flaring country in the world after Russia (Oniwon, 2011). The need to reduce flaring have contributed to increase interest in the LNG business as a means of utilizing valuable natural gas resources and contributing towards sustainable development. Overall the paper provides useful information to decision makers responsible for managing gas export projects including the LNG in a developing Country like Nigeria with huge proven gas reserves.

    Keywords -LNG projects, global and regional trade, gas flaring, Re-gasification, gas resources, gas export projects, Nigeria Niger delta.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Akintunde A. Carim , Prof. Adewale Dosunmu},
    title = {Gas Resource Development in Nigeria and Global Lng Market},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {01-22},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    53051
    Paper Title :: A study on the realization of pitch in Mandarin Chinese intonation
    Author Name :: Maolin Wang
    Page Number :: 08-14
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    This study explores the pitch realization of utterances in spontaneous Chinese speech, and it is found that there is a great variation of the pitch ranges of intonation phrases. Most of them are about half of the speaker's maximum pitch range, and the pitch register is usually in the lower part, which is due to the principle of economy. In an intonation phrase, owing to the mechanism of declination, tones always drop to a lower scale compared to the previous ones. Pitch tends to be high for intonation phrases at the initial position of a new topic, and low for those at the end position. Final lowering is common for intonation phrases, leading to increased pitch range for the final prosodic word.

    Keywords -Intonation, tone, pitch range

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Maolin Wang},
    title = {A study on the realization of pitch in Mandarin Chinese intonation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {08-14},
    month = {March}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    53040
    Paper Title :: Proposed Model for Predictive Mapping of Graduate's Skills to Industry Roles Using Machine Learnining Techniques
    Author Name :: Fullgence Mwachoo Mwakondo || Dr. Lawrence Muchemi || Prof. Elijah Isanda Omwenga
    Page Number :: 15-24
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    The main focus in training evaluation is not only to determine whether training objectives were achieved but also how to improve evaluation so as to enhance both employability of graduates and performance in the job. This is in response to challenges facing not only graduates in choosing industry jobs that befit their skills, but also employers in selecting graduates whose skills match to their needs. Problem solving is one of the skills acquired during training by graduates and strongly sought for by employers during evaluation to promote performance in the job. This paper presents a model for evaluating graduates' by mapping their problem solving skills to industry jobs' competence requirements and the potential of using machine learning techniques to train the model in predicting suitable industry jobs for new graduates from college. The paper outlines challenges facing both graduates and industry in selecting industry jobs and skilled graduates respectively, highlights trends, methods, and gaps in skill evaluation and prediction. A brief discussion is made of key strategies in skill evaluation and prediction that need to be undertaken and evaluation theories behind the key variables of the proposed model.

    Keywords -Gap, Mapping, Problem solving skills, Training evaluation, Tren

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Fullgence Mwachoo Mwakondo, Dr. Lawrence Muchemi, Prof. Elijah Isanda Omwenga},
    title = {Proposed Model for Predictive Mapping of Graduate's Skills to Industry Roles Using Machine Learnining Techniques},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {15-24},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    52071
    Paper Title :: Particle Swarm Optimization Based AGC for Two Area Hydro-
    Thermal Interconnected System
    Author Name :: Geeta Joshi || Deepak Kumar Gupta
    Page Number :: 25-32
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    This paper deals with Automatic generation control of two area interconnected hydro-thermal system using proportional plus integral controllers with Particles swarm optimization techniques (PSO). The parameters of PI controllers are tuned with the help of optimal control strategies such as Integral square error (ISE) and Integral time multiplied by absolute error (ITAE) by particles swarm optimization technique. Mismatch in the total generation to total demand plus losses results in the system frequency deviation from its nominal value and causes variation in the Tie-line power flow. System performance is examined considering perturbation of .1 pu step load change in thermal system. Simulation studies and a comparison of dynamic responses reveal the
    performance of particle swarm optimization in terms of the frequency and Tie-line power responses in both the areas. Comparison is also made between the two different performance indices criteria (ISE, ITAE).

    Keywords -Automatic Generation control, Particle swarm optimization, PI controllers and Performance Indices criteria.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Geeta Joshi, Deepak Kumar Gupta},
    title = {Particle Swarm Optimization Based AGC for Two Area Hydro-
    Thermal Interconnected System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {25-32},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    52048
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of Vitamin A, E &C In Human Milk And Infant Formulae For Different Storage Conditions
    Author Name :: Klodiola DHAMO || Lauresha SHABANI || Amilda BALLATA
    Page Number :: 33-35
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    Storage of human milk for further use in infant feeding, now is more frequently, as a result of the social- economic activities of breastfeeding mothers. Expressed breast milk is usually stored frozen for consumption at a later time. Currently, human milk is stored in containers with headspace, where the removal of oxygen should minimize the oxidative effects in compounds of stored breast milk during shelf life, and improve nutritional quality.The purpose of this study was to analyze the quantity of some vitamins and compare any variation in vitamin A, E & C in milk frozen in two different containers; one with air in the headspace versus vacuum sealed storage containers. Vitamin A and E content were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fresh, mature, human milk donated by 4 women with healthy infants was used for analysis. Infant formula as powder and rehydrates liquid was also analyzed. According the results of analyses, the values of infant formula nutrient are generally higher than the human milk values.

    Keywords -Vitamins A, E &C high-performance liquid chromatography, human milk, infant formula

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Klodiola DHAMO , Lauresha SHABANI ,Amilda BALLATA},
    title = {Evaluation of Vitamin A, E &C In Human Milk And Infant Formulae For Different Storage Conditions},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {33-35},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    53015
    Paper Title :: Hough Transform Consolidation of Back Propagation Network Line Estimates for Self-Navigation for a Mobile Robot
    Author Name :: Gideon Kanji Damaryam || Adamu Sulaiman Usman
    Page Number :: 36-45
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    Work has previously been done to fully specify lines within a digital image. Here fully specify means determine the orientation of the line (for example in terms of angle to the vertical), determine the length in pixels from a reference point (for, example the center of the image), and specify the coordinates of the end-points of the line. This can be processor time intensive, and also too accurate for the purpose of vision based navigation, since visions systems typically just need a broad idea of the orientation of a line not its exact angle, and a rough idea of its position from important marker(s) in the image (not its exact distance). A strategy is presented in this paper,to use back-propagation network estimates ofportions of different categories (based on orientation) of lines in sub-images generated by breaking down the original image, as input for the Hough transform to consolidatethe estimated lines into the longest lines possible, spanning multiple sub-images if necessary, and taking into account the range of orientations that are valid for sub-lines for each category. This is in an effort to replace parts of an analytical vision-system for a mobile robot, with artificial intelligence in the hope of saving some processing time.

    Keywords -artificial intelligence, artificial neural networks, back propagation networks, Hough transform, line detection, machine vision

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Gideon Kanji Damaryam, Adamu Sulaiman Usman},
    title = {Hough Transform Consolidation of Back Propagation Network Line Estimates for Self-Navigation for a Mobile Robot},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {36-45},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    53061
    Paper Title :: Thermophysical Property and Heat transfer Analysis of R245fa/Al2O3 Nanorefrigerant
    Author Name :: Asif Faizan || Dong Han
    Page Number :: 46-53
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    Nanorefrigerants are special type of nanofluids that are synthesized by mixing or dispersing nanoparticles in refrigerants. They are relatively new with respect to other nanofluids and have broad range of application in refrigeration, air-conditioning systems and other heat transfer devices due to their enhanced heat transfer characteristics. In this paper thermophysical property of new type of nanorefrigerant, based on nanoparticles suspended in 1,1,1,3,3-pentafloropropane (R245fa) has been investigated. Models from existing studies have been used to determine thermophysical properties like thermal conduction, heat capacity, viscosity and density of R245fa nanorefrigerant. Nanoparticles of 1 to 5% volume fraction at temperature of 293 K have been used for the current study. Numerical study has been conducted using commercially available software FLUENT to investigate single phase heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of proposed nanorefrigerant at different nanoparticle concentration. Results from the current study shows that thermal conductivity increases and specific heat decreases with increase in particle concentration. In addition, viscosity and density shows increase with increase in volume fraction. Simulated results showed maximum increase of 70.2% and 48.9% in heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number respectively compared to pure refrigerant at 5% volume fraction

    Keywords -Nanorefrigerant, R245fa, Thermophysical Properties, heat transfer

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Asif Faizan, Dong Han},
    title = {Thermophysical Property and Heat transfer Analysis of R245fa/Al2O3 Nanorefrigerant},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {46-53},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    53059
    Paper Title :: Curve Subdivision Approach Available for Embedded System
    Author Name :: LUO Xiansong || YANG Li
    Page Number :: 54-59
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    This article presents a subdivision approach that subdivides a parameter curve in a binary style. The new subdivision approach, which is of high precision, is naturally incorporated with a full binary tree and can be realized with a firmware. The approach is valuable in developing embedded system or SoC.

    Keywords -Geometric modeling, Subdivision, Binary tree, Embedded system.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {LUO Xiansong, YANG Li},
    title = {Curve Subdivision Approach Available for Embedded System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {54-59},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    53075
    Paper Title :: Hand-Held Object Recognition for a Blind Person Using Raspberry Pi
    Author Name :: Aabi A.|| Dhivyalakshmi T.|| Joan Kanishka S.|| Ms.S.Jaipriya
    Page Number :: 60-64
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    In our project, blind person were recognizing the hand-held object by using eSpeaksoftware through the Raspberry Pi. The camera was placed in the spectacle of the blind person. Initially the objects are captured by camera. To match the captured image and the image in the MATLAB database, we have to find the histogram of the captured images and compare with the histogram of image in the MATLAB database. To find the histogram, initially we have to convert the captured image into the gray scale image and followed with LBP algorithm. LBP means Local Binary Pattern algorithm. This algorithm is used to recognize the objects. This algorithm used to convert the gray scale image into the LBP code image. Thenthe output of the MATLAB is given to the Raspberry Pi as an interrupt. By using eSpeak software, LBP code is converted into speech output. The speech output is obtained at the audio jack of the Raspberry Pi. By connecting microphone Bluetooth earpiece at the audio jack, we can hear the speech output.The entire application is based on Raspberry Pi. Using Raspberry pi the overall performance and efficiency get increased. The Raspberry Pi kit is a mini computer in built system and power consumption is very less..

    Keywords -Raspberry Pi, Raspibian, Camera, Spectacle, Python, Bluetooth earpiece, audio jack.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Aabi A., Dhivyalakshmi T., Joan Kanishka S., Ms.S.Jaipriya},
    title = {Hand-Held Object Recognition for a Blind Person Using Raspberry Pi},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {60-64},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    54020
    Paper Title :: Application of PorousТantalum for Formation of Energy Storage System
    Author Name :: Yu.Zh.Tuleushev|| V.N.Volodin || Е.А.Zhakanbaev
    Page Number :: 65-70
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    This article describes a method for producing a porous tantalum during heat treatment of tantalum-cadmium coatings in a vacuum system with various ratios of tantalum and cadmium. Thesurface area was assessed by BET method showing that increase of specific surface area of the samples equals to 277.52 m2/g in terms of porous tantalum. We studied the capabilities of the resulting porous structure to the charge accumulation and reviewed the processes occurring in porous tantalum during forming in the acid electrolyte..

    Keywords -tantalum, cadmium, porous structures, forming, capacity

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Yu.Zh.Tuleushev, V.N.Volodin, Е.А.Zhakanbaev},
    title = {Application of PorousТantalum for Formation of Energy Storage System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {65-70},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    54001
    Paper Title :: Improving Compressed Laterite Bricks using Powdered Eggshells
    Author Name :: Francis Adogla || Peter Paa Kofi Yalley || Moses Arkoh
    Page Number :: 71-75
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    Eggshells are notable agricultural wastes indiscriminately disposed on the environment. Coupled with their foul smell they tend to create an unpleasant environment wherever they could be found. As a way of improving this situation, an alternative use for these products have found identified by using it to improve the engineering properties of compressed laterite bricks for masonry purposes. This paper reports the results of a study evaluating the use of powdered eggshells on the compressive strength and durability characteristics of compressed laterite bricks. Laterite bricks were produced with varying quantities of eggshells which comprised of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% by weight of laterite. Compressed laterite bricks showed improvements in all the tests conducted after the inclusion of the powdered eggshells. Powdered eggshells were deemed appropriate for improving the general characteristics for compressed bricks although the optimum quantity was attained at 30%.

    Keywords -Compressed bricks, laterite, powdered eggshells, soil improvement

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Francis Adogla, Peter Paa Kofi Yalley, Moses Arkoh},
    title = {Improving Compressed Laterite Bricks using Powdered Eggshells},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {71-75},
    month = {April}
    }
    Volume 5 || Issue 4|| Version-II-April- 2016
    Paper Id ::
    54005
    Paper Title :: Overview of Cyber Security: Endangerment of Cybercrime on Vulnerable Innocent Global Citizens
    Author Name :: Dr. Joseph O. Esin
    Page Number :: 01-10
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    The global community is filled with uncertainties and constant threats of cybercrime, global economic collapse, social and economic insecurity. The evolving issue of cybersecurity will soon have far reaching economic consequences on our connected global society. Leaders of developed and developing nations must be prepared to launch protective plan of action against perpetrators of cybersecurity attacks. In the past, regular mail systems and fax machines were used for data and documents transmission and Radio network was used for local, national and international communications. Today, the culture of high definition television, broadband-direct connection, electronic mails, Internet access, and cyber technology has taken over the global transmission and communication operations. Cyber-technology is progressing at an overwhelming pace, posing an ever-present danger to all segments of innocent global populaces. Current researchers, such as Rejesh, (2013), Shinder (2008) and Enghelberg, (2003) recommends the creation of global collaborative partnership (GCP) to provide strategies and commanding directives to provide stable security for vulnerable global residents. The Paris and San Bernardino attacks on innocent citizens are a forewarning to leaders of developed and developing nations to create cyber security-savvy workforces to prevent future tragedies. As a part of GCP ground strategy, software developers must develop preemptive built-in capabilities to deter cybercriminals.Cyber-crime is affecting the physical existence of innocent citizens of the global society and it is a devastating threat. In isolation, individuals, government agencies, corporate organizations, financial institutions and higher education systems are vulnerable to cybercriminals. The most credible and reliable techniques to defeat perpetrators of cybercrime today and tomorrow, must include the implementation of a united front to work together through trust, dedication and commitment. The threats of cybersecurity are penetrating all segments of world organizations and educational settings. The culture of the education enterprise is the exchange of ideas, values, beliefs, cultural backgrounds, instruction and learning process. Presidents, vice-chancellors, professors, instructors, allied educators are strongly encouraged to create plan of action to protect vital data, information and infrastructure of the entire educational facilities from cyber-attacks. The unforeseen incidences in Paris, France and San Bernardino, in California, United States is an enduring development and a commanding steps empowering national and higher education leaders, professors, instructors and allied educators to implement a well-structured plan of action, effective security measures and workforces to dismantle perpetrators' malicious intent to destroy the entire institutions of human civilization.

    Keywords -----

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Joseph O. Esin},
    title = {Overview of Cyber Security: Endangerment of Cybercrime on Vulnerable Innocent Global Citizens},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {01-10},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    53024
    Paper Title :: Normalization of Non Standard Words for Marathi Speech Synthesis
    Author Name :: Imtiyaz Khan || Akshay Khilare ||Ganesh Bobde || Prof.S.R.Gulhane
    Page Number :: 11-14
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    This paper considers the task of text normalization in concatinative Text To Speech (TTS) synthesis for Marathi language. This deals on how Non-standard Marathi words - acronyms, abbreviations, proper names derived from other languages, phone numbers ,decimal numbers, fractions, ordinary numbers, sequence of numbers, money, dates, measures, titles, times and symbols - are pre-processed before passing it to the TTS system as an input. The paper also discusses about the methodology used to normalize the non-Marathi text present in the input text to get an equivalent Marathi as output. We are doing our project in MATLAB.

    Keywords -Concatenation, Non Standard Words (NSW), phoneme, Text-To-Speech (TTS) Synthesis.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Imtiyaz Khan, Akshay Khilare, Ganesh Bobde,Prof.S.R.Gulhane},
    title = {Normalization of Non Standard Words for Marathi Speech Synthesis},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {11-14},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    53073
    Paper Title :: Changes in Lipid Metabolism by Thin Layer Chromatography in Leaf Discs of Cajanus Cajan and Amaranthus Paniculatus under Aqueous Sulphur Dioxide
    Author Name :: B. Sujatha || B. Priyadarshini || M.V.V.P. Kumar || K.M. Priyanka || Ch. Umamahesh || J. Saraswathi
    Page Number :: 15-23
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    The impact of elevated aqueous SO2 (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100 and 250 ppm) on lipid metabolism by thin layer chromatography and lipid peroxidation of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cv. PDM1), a C3 plant and amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus L. a local cultivar), a C4 plant leaf discs under light and dark conditions has been studied. The total lipids, phospholipids, individual phospholipids and glycolipids decreased both in pigeonpea and amaranth in response to aqueous SO2. The reduction of lipid metabolism was expressed more in dark than in light exposed leaf discs of both the plant species. In between pigeonpea and amaranth the lipid peroxidation was observed more in the later and was always greater under dark than under light conditions.

    Keywords -Amaranthus paniculatus, aqueous SO2, Cajanus cajan, light and dark, lipid metabolism, lipid peroxidation.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {B. Sujatha*, B. Priyadarshini, M.V.V.P. Kumar, K.M. Priyanka, Ch. Umamahesh and J. Saraswathi},
    title = {Changes in Lipid Metabolism by Thin Layer Chromatography in Leaf Discs of Cajanus Cajan and Amaranthus Paniculatus under Aqueous Sulphur Dioxide},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {15-23},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    54019
    Paper Title :: Different Approaches to Modify the Properties of Jute Fiber: A Review
    Author Name :: Eshita Datta || Salvia Rahman || Mohammad Mobarak Hossain
    Page Number :: 24-27
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    This paper reviews several studies on physico- mechanical properties of jute fibre. Here a number of effective approaches are studied that has been using in order to enhance the physico- mechanical properties of jute fibre which are essential for it's spinning as well as weaving techniques. However, it has been seen that sulphonation of jute fibre is more beneficial than other existing procedures to modify the properties of jute fibre.

    Keywords -Jute fibre, physical properties, sulphonation, enzyme, aminosilicone

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Eshita Datta, Salvia Rahman, Mohammad Mobarak Hossain},
    title = {Different Approaches to Modify the Properties of Jute Fiber: A Review},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {24-27},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    54023
    Paper Title :: Photocatalytic Converter
    Author Name :: Sivanesan G || Sharran S.R || Vigneshraj C.T
    Page Number :: 28-32
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    The concept of Photo catalysis is being incorporated into catalytic converter to increase the efficiency as well as to reduce the production cost. Conventional converters make use of surface catalyst process using noble metals like palladium and rhodium. Our concept works based on photo catalytic reactions by Titanium dioxide and Zinc oxide thereby reducing the NOx emissions and CO emissions. Development of this proposal will reduce the fabrication cost of catalytic converter as well as lay seeds of foundation for the future of photocatalytic converters.

    Keywords -Photocatalytic Converters, Photo catalysis, UV Light, TiO2, ZnO, Catalytic converters, Wire Mesh, Dip Coating, Drop Casting, Reflux method–Preparation of ZnO, Nanoparticles.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sivanesan G, Sharran S.R, Vigneshraj C.T},
    title = {CPhotocatalytic Converter},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {28-32},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    53021
    Paper Title :: Ethnobotanical documentation of some plants among igala people of kogi state
    Author Name :: Aniama, S. O.|| Usman, S.S || Ayodele, S.M
    Page Number :: 33-42
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    This work is the documentation of ethno – medicinal and cultural utilization of some plants by the inhabitants of Dekina local government area of Kogi State. The data were collected by the researcher using the prepared check – list. Field trips were made to villages within the study area. A total of 200 willing respondents were interviewed. Information regarding the common uses of some plant species for various ethno – medicinal and cultural purposes were investigated. Vernacular names of the described species were also of interest. The respondents assisted in the collection and identification of plant samples. Standard literatures and floras were consulted for their proper identification. The data obtained were collated and tabulated showing botanical names, common names, vernacular or tribal names, families, uses and parts used. It was discovered that to protect our future planet and generation there is need to document this vital information and also create awareness or enlightenment for the conservation of this biodiversity rich area and also the proper use of these flora.

    Keywords -Ethno medicinal plants, cultural, floras, Botanical and Vernacular names

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Aniama, S. O.,Usman, S.S and Ayodele, S.M},
    title = {Ethnobotanical documentation of some plants among igala people of kogi state},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {33-42},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    54032
    Paper Title :: Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism
    Author Name :: Jyoti Maurya || Pooja Gupta || Pooja Gupta ||Tarannum Shahab || Amitabh Srivastava
    Page Number :: 43-48
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    In the current scenario demand of power is increasing day by day with increasing population. On the other hand energy crisis is also a main issue of today's life and all there is a shortage of conventional energy resources due to its large usage. So, we have to sort out this problem with a technique which will not only overcome this energy crisis but also should be eco-friendly. Many conventional resources are creating pollution so that's why focus is towards eco-friendly solution. This project emphasizes on idea which shows that power could be generated by specially designed speed breakers. A large amount of kinetic energy is being wasted on roads on daily basis in different forms which could be use to generate power and this power can be stored in batteries. This project shows clearly how we can generate power by using rack-pinion method where basically linear motion is converted into rotary motion and then can be used to generate electricity. Large amount of electricity can be generated using this method and this method is eco-friendly.

    Keywords -energy crisis, kinetic energy, power production, speed breakers.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jyoti Maurya , Pooja Gupta , Pooja Gupta, Tarannum Shahab , Amitabh Srivastava},
    title = {Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {43-48},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    54033
    Paper Title :: Microstructural and Dielectric Characterization of Sr doped Ba(Fe0.5Ta0.5)O3 Ceramics
    Author Name :: M.K.H Bhuiyan || M.A Gafur || M. N. I Khan || A. K. M. Akther Hossain
    Page Number :: 49-58
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    Solid state reaction method was used to synthesize Ba1-xSrx(Fe0.5Ta0.5)O3 ceramic(x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5). The raw materials of making Sr doped Ba(Fe0.5Ta0.5)O3 were BaCO3, SrCO3, Fe2O3, Ta2O5 (purity better than 99%). Pellet and ring shaped samples prepared from each composition were sintered at 1400 and 1450ºC for 5 hour. The phase formation of Ba1-xSrx(Fe0.5Ta0.5)O3 was checked using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and observed a cubic perovskite crystal structure in space group Pm3m (221). Microstructure of the individual compound was examined by the field emission scanning electron micrograph (FESEM). Grain size was found to be varied with Sr content. The lattice parameter decreased with increasing Sr content. Dielectric spectroscopy was applied to investigate the electrical properties of BSFT at room temperature and in a frequency range of 100Hz–100 MHz. An analysis of the dielectric constant εʹ and loss tangent tan with frequency was performed assuming a distribution of relaxation times. The low frequency dielectric dispersion corresponds to the DC electrical conductivity.

    Keywords -Ceramics, Dielectric, perovskite, space group, spectroscopy

    @article{key:article,
    author = {M.K.H Bhuiyan , M.A Gafur , M. N. I Khan, A. K. M. Akther Hossain},
    title = {Microstructural and Dielectric Characterization of Sr doped Ba(Fe0.5Ta0.5)O3 Ceramics},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {49-58},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    54036
    Paper Title :: Building Character Knowledge for Panin Bank Personal Banker Southeast Sulawesi Area
    Author Name :: David C.E. Lisapaly || Alida Palilati || Usman Rianse || Samdin
    Page Number :: 59-66
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    This research was conducted by qualitative analysis method using Miles and Huberman method. The problems raised were (1) How the efforts to build character knowledge for Panin Bank Personal Banker (PB) Southeast Sulawesi Area mainly the knowledge on the products to collect the community funding and service; (2) How the character knowledge built for Personal banker (PB) can be a strategic knowledge for Panin Bank Southeast Sulawesi Area. The results were that building the knowledge would not be sufficient without completing by building the strong character for Personal Banker, the character which should be set were excellence, professionalism and ethics which these three character indicators could reflect the knowledge as the behavior in daily works for a Personal Banker. This character Knowledge can be applied in a strategic knowledge consisting of 6 (six) components, namely unique, pragmatic or useful, generating value, difficult to imitate or substitute, dynamic dan based on intense learning process.

    Keywords -Character Knowledge.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {David C.E. Lisapaly, Alida Palilati, Usman Rianse, Samdin},
    title = {Building Character Knowledge for Panin Bank Personal Banker Southeast Sulawesi Area},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {59-66},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    54047
    Paper Title :: A Comparitive Analysis Of Steganography Techniques
    Author Name :: Kirandeep || Dr.Raman Maini
    Page Number :: 67-70
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    With the increase in rate of unauthorized access and attacks security of confidential data is important. Now a day Cryptography and Steganography are the secure communication media for security purposes. This paper focuses on quantitative comparision of steganography technique such as improved LSB technique for RGB images, pattern based steganography technique and raster scan technique. The simulation has been done on MATLAB 2013 using 20 images and output of few has been shown in this paper. It has been concluded that the on the basis of various factors such as quantitative measures of the three techniques, pattern based steganography technique is the best among the other techniques w.r.t to security , irrespective of the fact that this technique has low capacity.

    Keywords -Steganography, Cryptography, Security.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kirandeep , Dr.Raman Maini},
    title = {A Comparitive Analysis Of Steganography Techniques},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {33-42},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    53039
    Paper Title :: Influence of Temperature on Corrosion Characteristics of Metals in Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester
    Author Name :: S. K. Fasogbon || O. R. Olagoke
    Page Number :: 71-75
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    Biodiesel has become a rapid growing liquid biofuel across the world as a substitute for fossil fuel. Corrosion of metals in biodiesel poses a great threat as this can affect durability of engine parts with which it comes in contact. This study aims at investigating influence of temperature on the corrosion characteristics of metals in used cooking oil methyl ester. The corrosion characteristics of copper-magnesium alloy, mild steel, aluminium, and stainless steel in used cooking oil methyl ester, commercial diesel and diesel- methyl ester blends were studied and the results of corrosion rates obtained in methyl ester and diesel methyl ester blends were compared with that obtained in commercial diesel. Static immersion tests of each metal were carried out in B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100 fuels at room temperature (25-30 °C) for 965 hours, 40 °C, 60 °C, 80 °C, and 100 °C for 8 hours. At the end of the test, the corrosion rates of each metal were investigated by converting loss in weight into corrosion rate. Results showed that the corrosion rate of each metal sample increased as temperature increased. Also, Copper-magnesium alloy presented highest corrosion rates in all test fuels.

    Keywords -Used cooking oil methyl ester, copper, mild steel, aluminum, stainless steel.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. K. Fasogbon, O. R. Olagoke},
    title = {Influence of Temperature on Corrosion Characteristics of Metals in Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {71-75},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    54022
    Paper Title :: Low Peak to Average Power Ratio and High Spectral Efficiency Using Selective Mapping for Of Dm System
    Author Name :: Marie Jenifer .D || Anagha T.R || Aravindraj .E || Nethra. L
    Page Number :: 76-80
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    A low complexity peak to average power ratio (PAPR) reduction scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is proposed. All pass filters technique used PAPR is reduction but small amount of reduction, So use Selective Mapping (SLM) technique reduce PAPR and SNR increases.

    Keywords -Selective Mapping (SLM), Peak To Average Power Ratio (PAPR), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM).

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Marie Jenifer .D, Anagha T.R, Aravindraj .E, Nethra. L},
    title = {Low Peak to Average Power Ratio and High Spectral Efficiency Using Selective Mapping for Of Dm System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {76-80},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    54026
    Paper Title :: Contemporary Teaching Methods in Mongolian Secondary School Chemistry
    Author Name :: Huzeyfe CANBAZ
    Page Number :: 81-84
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    New developments in science education can take place due to the use of contemporary teaching strategies in teaching general chemistry. In this paper, the advantages of various teaching methods such as concept map drawing, workshops, problem-based learning, case study, predict-Observe-Explain (POE) methods will be brought into light.

    Keywords -teaching method, student-centered, secondary school, case study, workshop

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Huzeyfe CANBAZ},
    title = {Contemporary Teaching Methods in Mongolian Secondary School Chemistry},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {81-84},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    54039
    Paper Title :: 15-bit NOVEL Hamming Codec using HSPICE 22nm CMOS Technology based on GDI Technique
    Author Name :: Raj Kumar Mistri || Rahul Ranjan || Manohar Mahto || Manish Jose Minz
    Page Number :: 85-89
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    GDI(Gate Diffusion Input) technique allows low power consumption, low propagation delay and also minimum number of transistor count (low chip area) for the logic design. in this paper 15-bit NOVEL hamming codec has been proposed. This Novel hamming codec has been simulated with HSPICE using 22nm CMOS technology with various design methodologies like TG technology, pass transistor logic and GDI Technique and designs are compared to 15-bit simple hamming codec with each of various design methodologies respectively. GDI technique provide excellent result in terms power consumption, chip area and propagation delay and also novel hamming codec provide less transistor count over general hamming codec.

    Keywords -GDI, VLSI, CMOS, Pass Transistors, TG.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Raj Kumar Mistri, Rahul Ranjan ,Manohar Mahto, Manish Jose Minz},
    title = {15-bit NOVEL Hamming Codec using HSPICE 22nm CMOS Technology based on GDI Technique},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {85-89},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    53053
    Paper Title :: Failure Analysis of Feedstock Preheater Unit of the Kaduna Refinery using Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)
    Author Name :: Ibrahim Z. Z || Ibrahim A || El-Nafaty U. A
    Page Number :: 90-96
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/xxxxxxxx

    The use of failure modes effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) as a failure or reliability analysis tool, checks the probabilities that an item will perform a required function under stated condition(s) when operated properly.Failure analysis of process equipment is an important issue in any process industry. This study aims at analyzing the failure of feedstock preheater unit of the Kaduna Refining and Petrochemicals (KRPC), Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU), using the failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). The unit failure and its effects were identified through seven sub-units (fresh feed surge drum, heavy naphtha exchanger, light cycle oil exchanger, heavy cycle oil exchanger, fractionator bottom exchanger, feed preheater and fresh feed charge pump), using the failure mode effects analysis (FMEA). Both quantitative and qualitative criticality analyses (CA) were used for failure analysis of the unit (feedstock preheater). For the qualitative analysis, items risk priority number (RPN) were computed and it was found that, four sub-units (heavy naphtha exchanger, main fractionator bottom exchanger, feedstock preheater, and fresh feed charge pump) had their Risk Priority Number (RPN) greater than 200, these sub-units are said to be critical. Three of the sub-units (fresh feed surge drum, light cycle oil exchanger, and heavy cycle oil exchanger) had their RPN less than 200, these sub-units are said to be less critical. For the quantitative analysis, items criticality number (Cr) were computed and it was found that most of the sub-units had their Cr>0.002. In addition, the results of the criticality matrix showed that, eight out of the sixteen failure modes identified were above or closely below the criticality line. Finally, FMECA was effectively used for failure analysis of the feedstock preheater andpredictive maintenance was recommended..

    Keywords -FCCU, Feedstock Preheater, Failure Analysis, FMEA/FMECA, Risk Priority Number, Criticality Number, and Criticality Matrix

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ibrahim Z. Z, Ibrahim A , El-Nafaty U. A},
    title = {Failure Analysis of Feedstock Preheater Unit of the Kaduna Refinery using Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2016},
    volume = {5},
    number = {4},
    pages = {85-89},
    month = {April}
    }