•  
    Volume 4 || Issue 8|| Version-I-August 2015
    Paper Id ::
    47049
    Paper Title :: Growth and Structural studies of Zn doped L-Threonine single crystal
    Author Name :: S.Antony Dominic Christopher || Dr.N.Neelakanda Pillai
    Page Number :: 01-04
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0480104

    Non linear optical phenomenon in material plays a major role in the emerging photonics and opto electro technologies. In the search of new and efficient NLO material in organic element (Zn) doped L-Threonine organic crystal were grown in the present study. The grown crystals were characterized by measuring the density by floatation technique. The structure of the crystals were studied by FTIR spectrum. The lattice parameters of pure and doped crystals were calculated from SXRD and PXRD respectively. The lattice parameters shows the crystal belong to orthorhombic system

    @article{key:article,
    author = {S.Antony Dominic Christopher , Dr.N.Neelakanda Pillai},
    title = {Growth and Structural studies of Zn doped L-Threonine single crystal},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {01-04},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    47031
    Paper Title :: Application of Data-mining Technique and Intelligent System on Demography Analysis in Nigeria
    Author Name :: Okeke Ogochukwu C.|| Ezenwegbu Nnamdi C.
    Page Number :: 05-11
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04805011

    Controversy over Nigeria's census figures is nothing new. Accusations that the country's official population figures had been rigged date back to the 1950s and have continued unabated under military and civilian regimes. Furthermore, the demographics of Nigeria have undergone several changes over the past few decades as a result of migration and settlement from the far off countries. At the present, demographic figures in Nigeria mires in controversy. This paper is an attempt to straighten Nigerian demographic analysis through data mining techniques and intelligent system to properly identify patterns and trends in Nigerian demographic figures. The study will first focus on Uli community and subsequently applied for Nigeria at large. We use Decision-Tree-Based classification model to extract from rich demographic data hidden information that can be used for the investigation of national conditions and national power. We also utilized the power of intelligent system for complex processing and data analysis. We propose an intelligent system developed on Microsoft .NET platform. Since the intelligent system is an object oriented system, we used the Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOADM).

    Keywords: demographic analysis, data mining, Tree-Based classification, intelligent systems.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Okeke Ogochukwu C. , Ezenwegbu Nnamdi C.},
    title = {Application of Data-mining Technique and Intelligent System on Demography Analysis in Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {05-11},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    46062
    Paper Title :: Study on the Effect of Ggbs & M Sand in Self Compacting oncrete
    Author Name :: M.Adams Joe || A.Maria Rajesh
    Page Number :: 12-18
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/048012018

    Conventional concrete is the most widely used construction material throughout the world because of its versality, mouldability, durability, and resistance to fire and energy efficiency. However, its major disadvantages like poor tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking resists its use as a structural material. Hence, in order to overcome these difficulties several new materials have been developed in the recent past.Admixtures are ingredients other than water, aggregates, hydraulic cement and fibers that are added to the concrete batch immediately before or during mixing. Mineral admixtures are usually added to concrete in larger amounts to enhance the workability of fresh concrete, to improve resistance of concrete to thermal cracking, alkali-aggregate expansion and sulphate attack and to enable a reduction in cement content. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of various mineral admixtures in producing SCC. In this study the scope of GGBS ( Ground granular blast furnace slag ) as a mineral admixture to some percentage replace cement in SCC were studied. The study showed that a maximum of 50% GGBS were able to be used as a mineral admixture without affecting the self-compactability
    Japan has used self-compacting concrete (SCC) in bridge, building and tunnel construction since the early 1990's. In the last five years, a number of SCC bridges have been constructed in Europe. In the United States, the application of SCC in highway bridge construction is very limited at this time. However, the U.S. precast concrete industry is beginning to apply the technology to architectural concrete. SCC has high potential for wider structural applications in highway bridge construction. This paper covers the SCC by replacing certain percentage of cement and adding some percentage of lime. It discusses the potential for structural applications in the India and the needs for research and development to make SCC technology available to the bridge engineers.

    Keywords: - GGBS, M-Sand, Steel fibre, Compressive strength, Split tensile strength and Flexural Strength

    @article{key:article,
    author = {M.Adams Joe, A.Maria Rajesh},
    title = {Study on the Effect of Ggbs & M Sand in Self Compacting Concrete},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {12-18},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    4806
    Paper Title :: Transient Stability Evaluation of the Power Generation under a Blackout Condition based on the Branch Tripping Scenario
    Author Name :: A.N. Afandi
    Page Number :: 19-24
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/048019024

    An operational condition of a power system is able to affect to stability performances after disturbed by a certain fault on the interconnection system. Moreover, this fault also gives impact to the blackout situation created by a large disturbance as disconnecting back bone lines of the interconnection system. In detail, this case is presented in this paper for evaluating transient stability performances of generating units while producing energy for the load center online the power system operation with the blackout situation designed using a branch tripping method. Furthermore, the transient stability responses are subjected to the power generation of the electric power system in Malang Raya as a real system operation for interacting the generating and demand sites. Results obtained show that voltage changes of Wlingi power station is 0.944 pu to 0.946 pu and its overshoot is 0,962. But the other overshoot of the power generation in Sutami remained to 0.968 pu at 0.5 second after appearing a blackout fault and its voltage increase to 0.952 pu from 0.948 pu at the final stable position.

    Keywords – Blackout, branch tripping, power system, stability.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {A.N. Afandi},
    title = {Transient Stability Evaluation of the Power Generation under a Blackout Condition based on the Branch Tripping Scenario},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {19-24},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    4809
    Paper Title :: In-vitro Interaction of αB-Crystallin on Serum Amyloid A and Serum Amyloid A Fibrils with Hepta 1-6 Cells
    Author Name :: Asokan C || Otitolaiye Catherine A
    Page Number :: 25-32
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/048025032

    The interactions of SAA and SAA protofibrils with protecting role of alphaB-Crystallin with hepta 1-6 cells of the mouse are dealt with in detail to study the binding of SAA protofibrils in various conditions. Specifically, interaction of serum amyloid A fibrils with a cell surface binding site/receptor might alter the local environment to cause cellular dysfunction and to be more favorable for amyloid formation and prevention with alphaB-Crystallin. This is important in relation to the activity of membrane proteins, because losing the activity of such systems will ultimately lead to malfunction or death of the cell. The interactions of Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and Serum Amyloid A protofibrils with hepta 1-6 cells of the mouse are dealt with in detail to study the binding of SAA protofibrils in various onditions. The induced fluorescence, induced circular dichroism, FACScan and MTT assay results have shown the SAA and SAA prototfibrils binding and cell toxicity with the hepta 1-6 cells with different concentrations of alphaB-Crystallin 0.15-15 nM. Specifically, cells were incubated with 1.25-6.25 M SAA-FITC and SAA protofibrils-FITC assayed. The 50% viable hepta 1-6 cells at 4–6 M with an LD50 of 3.5 M. The interaction of serum amyloid A fibrils with a cell surface binding site/receptor might alter the local environment to cause cellular dysfunction and to be more favorable for amyloid formation. In the present study, concluding that the SAA fibrils and SAA protein binding and cell cytotoxicity was reduced in the presence of alphaB-Crystallin.

    Keywords – Serum Amyloid A, Crystallin, hepta 1-6 Cells, FITC, Fibril, Protofibril.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Asokan C, Otitolaiye Catherine A},
    title = {In-vitro Interaction of αB-Crystallin on Serum Amyloid A and Serum Amyloid A Fibrils with Hepta 1-6 Cells},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {25-32},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    48016
    Paper Title :: Bacteriology of otitis media among patients attending general
    hospital Bichi, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Habibu A. U.
    Page Number :: 33-37
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/048033037

    Otitis media is the inflammation of the middle ear and has a worldwide distribution, particularly among children. A total of 68 patients between the ages 0-42 years who presented with sign and symptoms of otitis media at Bichi general hospital were enrolled for this study. Middle ear discharge were collected, processed and bacterial isolates identified using standard microbiological techniques. Disc susceptibility tests were performed on bacterial isolates. Results indicated that there was a high frequency of occurrence of bacteria incriminated in otitis media in the 0-5 and 6-11 year age groups in the two sexes. Male patients in the two age groups were more infected than the female counterparts. The sensitivity pattern obtained in this study show a progressive increase in the emergence of strains that are resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents. Drug resistance among bacterial isolates is a common phenomenon placing challenge to both medical practitioners and genetic scientists. A routine check on sensitivity patterns among these pathogens is vital so as to regulate the prescription measure to be employed.

    Keywords – Otitis media, antibiogram, prevalence, resistance.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Habibu A. U},
    title = {Bacteriology of otitis media among patients attending general hospital Bichi, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {33-37},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    46029
    Paper Title :: Modeling of LDO-fired Rotary Furnace Parameters using Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System
    Author Name :: Gurumukh Das || Ranjit Singh
    Page Number :: 38-43
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/048038043

    In this paper a novel approach i.e. neuro-fuzzy technique is used for the first time in modeling rotary furnace parameters to predict the melting rate of the molten metal required to produce homogenous castings. The relationship between the process variables (input) viz. flame temperature, preheat air temperature, rotational speed of the furnace, excess air, melting time, and fuel consumption and melting rate (output) is very complex and is agreeable to neuro-fuzzy approach. The neuro-fuzzy model has been created out of training data obtained from the series of experimentation carried out on rotary furnace. The results provided by neuro-fuzzy model compares well with the experimental data. This work has considerable implications in selection and control of process variables in real time and ability to achieve energy and material savings, quality improvement and development of homogeneous properties throughout the casting and is a step towards agile manufacturing.

    Keywords –Adaptive Network - based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Light Diesel Oil (LDO), Rotary Furnace.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Gurumukh Das,Ranjit Singh},
    title = {Modeling of LDO-fired Rotary Furnace Parameters using Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {38-43},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    48010
    Paper Title :: Diffusion of Big Data and Analytics in Developing Countries
    Author Name :: Elyjoy Muthoni Micheni
    Page Number :: 44-50
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/048044050

    The purpose of this study is to shed light on the capabilities for storing, analysing and sharing big data in developing countries. The study takes an in-depth look at adoption of big data as a technological innovation, as well as the adoption issues for Big Data, its availability and access. The paper presents a review of academic literature, policy documents from international agencies and reports from industry in order to assess the diffusion and adoption of big data innovation in developing countries. The study was broadened by a Google Scholar search for relevant literature where the combinations of the following key words were used big data and analytics, developing countries, and diffusion of Innovations. Diffusion of innovations can greatly accelerate adoption and utilization of Big Data, even though there are challenges faced by developing countries which limit capability and utilization of these technologies effectively. The paper presents the Innovations Diffusions Theoretical framework for the study of Big Data innovation adoption in developing countries. The study concludes that the diffusion theory concepts provide an effective mechanism for policy leaders in developing countries to maximize adoption of Big Data innovations, and can also be used in informing policy implementers on how to increase adoption rates for Big Data.

    Keywords –Big Data, Data Analytics, Developing Countries

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Elyjoy Muthoni Micheni},
    title = {Diffusion of Big Data and Analytics in Developing Countries},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {44-50},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    4808
    Paper Title :: Acoustic Parameters of acetic acid in benzene at 3 MHz.
    Author Name :: K.D. More || R.S. Kawale || P.G. Gawali
    Page Number :: 51-53
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/048051053

    In present study, Ultrasonic velocity (U) and density (ρ) for binary liquid mixtures of acetic acid with benzene have been measured at 3 MHz ultrasonic frequency at 303K. From this data, acoustic parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (βad), acoustic impedance (Z), relative association (RA) and intermolecular free length (Lf) are calculated. The result is interpreted as per molecular interaction between the mixtures.

    Keywords –Acetic acid, ultrasonic velocity, acoustic parameters..

    @article{key:article,
    author = {K.D. More, R.S. Kawale , P.G. Gawali},
    title = {Acoustic Parameters of acetic acid in benzene at 3 MHz.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {51-53},
    month = {August}
    }
    Volume 4 || Issue 8|| Version II-August 2015
    Paper Id ::
    47018
    Paper Title :: The Challenges of Building Maintenance in Nigeria (A Case Study of Ekiti State)
    Author Name :: Anifowose Ojo Segun|| Olanrewaju Sharafadeen Babatunde Owolabi
    Page Number :: 01-06
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04820106

    This study examined the challenges of building maintenance in Nigeria. The study embarked on physical inspection of the facilities of some public and private buildings, identified defects in the buildings, determined the causes of the defect and proffered remedies for them. Data for the study were collected through well-structured questionnaire administered to building industryprofessionals. Data collected were analyzed using frequency distribution tables and relative significance index. The findings revealed that in the level of dilapidation of services in the facilities,kerosene cooking system ranked first (68% significance) followed by flush toilet (66%), while the pail system ranked least with (50%) significance. Considering the severity of defects in facilities, peeling of wall surface ranked first (50.8% significance)while foundation failure and sagging of beamswere ranked least with (42.8%). The causes of defects in the facilities were investigated and the use of untested or inferior materials (56.8%) was the most devastating factor. Availability of qualified and competent construction industry professionals was generally believed to be the most significant factor that would impact on the drive to achieve quality of maintenance operations in Nigeria.

    Keywords –Defects, facilities, dilapidation, building maintenance, building systems

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anifowose Ojo Segun, Olanrewaju Sharafadeen Babatunde Owolabi},
    title = {The Challenges of Building Maintenance in Nigeria (A Case Study of Ekiti State)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {01-06},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    47023
    Paper Title :: An Evaluation of the Impact of Government Assisted Housing Programmes (GAHPs) in Bauchi State, Nigeria: A case study of Tambari and Dungal Housing Estates.
    Author Name :: RASAK|| Tiamiyu Olusegun TANKO || Bruno Lot
    Page Number :: 07-13
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/048207013

    Housing investment has been considered as a major contributor to economic growth with many social and economic benefits. This research work was carried out to evaluate the impact of Government Assisted Housing Programmes (GAHPs) in Bauchi State. The methodology employed were Oral interview, Self-assessment, Checklist and Questionnaires. Two target groups were considered for this research: the first group was construction professionals such as Architects, Engineers, Quantity surveyors, Builders and Service Engineers involved in the construction of such housing programmes, while the second group was family heads/occupants of government housing programmes. The research was conducted using completed Tambari housing estate and 1000-units of two bedrooms semi-detached / three bedrooms under construction at Dungal as case studies. The information obtained from these case studies were analysed using relative index, linear correlation, regression and one - way ANOVA (Analysis of variance). The research revealed that the first five critical impact of housing programmes were employment for skilled and unskilled workers (RI = 0.77); increase demand for building materials market (RI =0. 75); Generates income and employment in a number of related /non-related industry (RI = 0.75); increases income to land owners due to compensation paid for land acquisition (RI=0.74) and attracts infrastructural facilities to such localities (RI = 0.72). It also revealed that most of the respondents were satisfied with the impact of GAHPs within their vicinity.

    Keywords –Nigeria, Housing, Housing Programmes.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {RASAK, Tiamiyu Olusegun TANKO, Bruno Lot},
    title = {An Evaluation of the Impact of Government Assisted Housing Programmes (GAHPs) in Bauchi State, Nigeria: A case study of Tambari and Dungal Housing Estates.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {07-13},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    48024
    Paper Title :: Feasibility of an eco – friendly disposal method for Iron ore tailings
    Author Name :: G E Sreedhar || Dr. P C Naganoor
    Page Number :: 14-19
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0482014019

    The greatest challenge ahead of the Iron ore mining industry is to tackle the issues related to management of tailings. The tailing disposal and storage methods are sensitive to the environment and care must be taken to keep them at the helm. The method being practiced for disposing the tailings is as thickener underflow at around 45% solids. The development of paste thickener & deep cone thickener are encouraging and can dispose tailings at around 65% solids. However, they are yet to be established over different range of mineral tailings and also the economic aspects related to their transportation are yet to be resolved. Thus the development of improved tailing disposal system is of paramount importance and need of the hour. Filtration of tailings after thickening is an alternative to current practices. However, the suitability of this application is to be assessed for tailings of different nature. In this perspective an attempt has been made to assess the filterability of tailings generated from beneficiation of slimes from Donimalai area. From the studies it is evident that the application of filtration process to these tailings is encouraging. By adopting pressure filtration technique it was possible to produce filtered tailings with moisture in the range of 16 - 21%. It is possible to get the filtration rate in the range of 200 – 300 Kg/hr/m2 while operating in the aforesaid moisture range. The greatest advantage ascertained is in the reduction in volume of tailings to be disposed by around 63% which is significant apart from increase in the water recovery by about 10%.

    Keywords –Tailings, Filtration, Moisture.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {G E Sreedhar, Dr. P C Naganoor},
    title = {Feasibility of an eco – friendly disposal method for Iron ore tailings.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {14-19},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    48014
    Paper Title :: Effects of Variable Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity on MHD
    free Convection and Mass transfer Flow over an Inclined Vertical
    Surface in a Porous Medium with Heat Generation
    Author Name :: Santana Hazarika|| 2G.C. Hazarika
    Page Number :: 20-27
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0482020027

    A steady two-dimensional MHD free convection and mass transfer flow past an inclined vertical surface in the presence of heat generation and a porous medium have been studied numerically when the fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to be vary as inverse linear function of temperature. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations by introducing similarity transformations. The non-linear similarity equations are solved numerically by applying the Runge-Kutta method of fourth order with shooting technique. The numerical results are presented graphically to illustrate influence of different values of the parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also completed and presented in tabular form.

    Keywords - Heat generation, inclined vertical surface, mass transfer, shooting method, variable viscosity and thermal conductivity.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Santana Hazarika , G.C. Hazarika},
    title = {Effects of Variable Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity on MHD free Convection and Mass transfer Flow over an Inclined Vertical Surface in a Porous Medium with Heat Generation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {20-27},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    4609
    Paper Title :: The Effects of Inhibition on Corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4 Using Ethanol Extract of Vernonia Amygdalina
    Author Name :: Achebe C. H || Ilogebe A. B ||Chukwuneke J. L.|| Ezeanyim O. C.
    Page Number :: 28-36
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0482028036

    In this paper, adsorption and thermodynamic study of the inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in 1M H2SO4 medium using ethanol extract of vernonia amygdalina was carried out using weight loss and IR methods of monitoring corrosion. The results reveal that ethanol extract of vernonia amygdalina inhibited corrosion of mild steel. The inhibition efficiency ranged from 83.91% to 89.11%, 81.09 % to 85.00%, 81.08% to 84.90% and 77.45% to 79.66% at 303, 313, 323 and 333K respectively. The inhibition efficiency of the extract increased as the concentration of the extract increases but decreased as temperature and time of immersion increases. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface of mild steel was found to be exothermic, spontaneous and consistent with the mechanism of physical adsorption as the value for heat of adsorption ranged from -35.22 to -42.90J/mol. The adsorption of the inhibitor followed the Langmuir isotherm. IR spectra of the corrosion product (without inhibitor), the extract and the corrosion product (with the inhibitor) confirmed that ethanol extract of vernonia amygdalina is an adsorption inhibitor.

     

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Achebe C. H, Ilogebe A. B, Chukwuneke J. L., Ezeanyim O. C.},
    title = {The Effects of Inhibition on Corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4 Using Ethanol Extract of Vernonia Amygdalina},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {28-36},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    47028
    Paper Title :: Fuzzy Logic Framework for Qualitative Evaluation of Supply Chain Responsiveness
    Author Name :: Amina S. Omar || Prof. Mwangi Waweru, PhD,||Dr. Richard Rimiru, PhD
    Page Number :: 37-48
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0482037048

    Fuzzy logic can be a powerful tool for managers to use instead of traditional mathematical models when measuring the of supply chains responsivess. The flexibility of the model allows the decision maker to introduce vagueness, uncertainty, and subjectivity into the evaluation system. Responsiveness measurement represents a critically important decision that often involves subjective information. Fuzzy logic models provide a reasonable solution to these common decision situations. After extensive exploration of the literature, we recommend an outcome of developing a Fuzzy logic framework in measuring qualitative aspects of supply chain responsiveness. In this paper, responsiveness as one of the important factors of measuring qualitative performance is discussed and a fuzzy logic framework is developed to measure supply chain responsiveness.

    Keywords –Supply Chain, Performance Measurement, qualitative measures and fuzzy logic

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Amina S. Omar, Prof. Mwangi Waweru, PhD, and Dr. Richard Rimiru, PhD},
    title = {Fuzzy Logic Framework for Qualitative Evaluation of Supply Chain Responsiveness},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {37-48},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    48030
    Paper Title :: Socio-cultural Study of the Unattended Urban Poor (Study of the Poor in the City of Kendari)
    Author Name :: Hasan Aedy
    Page Number :: 49-55
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0482049055

    This study was conducted in capital city of Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study objectives were to find out factors that cause the poverty of the unattended poor in urban areas as well as to determine the most appropriate form of intervention suiting their condition. The research method was case study with qualitative approach through in-depth interview. Sampling was done through snowball sampling technique. The number of sample saturated after the informant reached 10 persons. The research population was the urban poor working as beggars, scavengers, and casual labourers. They live and earn a living in the city of Kendari. To obtain reliable data the research used sources triangulation, time triangulation, and techniques triangulation. The results of the study were as follows: (1) The unattended urban poor in this region are poor people, most of whom are poor of property, poor of knowledge, poor of morals and poor of faith (religion). They are poor of faith for not performing the command of God and performing activities prohibited by Allah instead; (2) The unattended urban poor in this region are those who suffer structural poverty as they have no access to decent work, receive no attention from the government and rich people nearby as well as often beyond the reach of formal assistance structure. In addition, they accept zakah (alms-giving) or social aid as sympathy to survive; (3) The unattended urban poor in this area are commonly coming migrants who do not possess production factors of land unless their workforce only; (4) A few of the unattended urban poor in this region is culturally poor since they do not want to be regulated, be lazy and disobedient and it accounts for why some of them survive by expecting the mercy of others, even stealing and taking away the rights of others; (5) The unattended urban poor in this region are those who are in need of both psychological and social empowerment in terms of knowledge, mental and faith.

    Keywords –Poor, Urban, Displaced, Empowered, Social, Cultural

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Hasan Aedy},
    title = {Socio-cultural Study of the Unattended Urban Poor (Study of the Poor in the City of Kendari)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {49-55},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    48011
    Paper Title :: Impact on Aquatic Environment for Water Pollution in the Vahirab River
    Author Name :: F. Ahmed || M. A. Aziz || M. J. Alam || M. A. Hakim || M. A. S. Khan || M. A. Rahman
    Page Number :: 56-62
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0482056062

    Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Vahirab river is the prominent & important rivers for vital source of water from Jessore to Khulna. The prime reason of deterioration and pollution of the river water quality by effluents discharged from industries, municipal sewage, household wastes, clinical wastes and oils. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of this wastewater on the river and thus to provide an updated report on the state of water quality of river Vahirab. The water sample were collected from different areas in the river Vahirab and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters and fresh water elements in the month of July, 2013 to November, 2013. The values of temperature, turbidity, pH, chloride, hardness, DO, BOD, COD, Fe, As, Pb, Cd and Cr in the river water were measured. During study period the temperature, turbidity, pH, hardness, chloride, DO, BOD and COD were found to be 280C to 31.50C, 37 to 947 NTU, 7.2 to 8.01, 92 to 140 ppm, 9 to 34 ppm, 122 to 5.51 mg/L, 0.22 to 5.79 mg/L and 3.80 to 10.80 mg/L respectively. The concentration of Fe, Pb, As, Cd and Cr were found to be 0.10 to 2.60 ppm, 0.004 to 0.025 ppm, 0.001 to 0.004 ppm, 0.00015 to 0.0094 ppm and 0.001 to 0.006 ppm respectively. From the results of investigation, it was observed that the values of pH, Cl- , hardness, As, Pb, Cd and Cr were within standard limit but the values of temperature, turbidity, DO, BOD, COD and Fe were not within acceptable limit as recommended by WHO and BDS guidelines. The results obtained from this investigation will help the people of the research area to be conscious for using the water in the Vahirab river.

    Keywords –Vahirab river, pollution, physico-chemical parameters, water elements.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {F. Ahmed, M. A. Aziz, M. J. Alam, M. A. Hakim, M. A. S. Khan, M. A. Rahman},
    title = {Impact on Aquatic Environment for Water Pollution in the Vahirab River)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {8},
    pages = {56-62},
    month = {August}
    }