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    Volume 03 || Issue 01|| versions 1 || January 2014
    Paper Id :: 212062
    Paper Title :: Modeling Security with Localization of Multiple Spoofing Attackers in Wireless Network
    Author Name :: Archana Shelar|| M.D.Ingale
    Page Number :: 01-06
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101001006
    As the current age is the age of computers, the wireless spoofing attacks that can be easily launched and these attacks also degrade the performance of the system or networks. The cryptography can be used to maintain security in such networks but such conventional approach can't be desirable due to its overhead requirements. Hence in this paper we propose to use RSS (Received Signal Strength) i.e. the spatial information which is the physical property of each node. This physical property is not reliant on any cryptographic scheme and also it is hard to falsify n hence essential to use. This paper mainly focuses on-A.To Detect spoofing attacks in the network B. Determines the number of attackers C. Localizing multiple attackers. The spoofing attacks can be detected using RSS (Received Signal Strength) and Medoids levels which can be inherited from wireless nodes in the network. Also we then use the multiclass detection problem to find number of spoofing attackers. Further the IDOL model is used to localize positions of actual attackers. Our experimental results show that the techniques used in this paper provide high level of security with topmost hit rate and precision, also it gives the accuracy in localizing multiple adversaries.
    Keywords: Spoofing attack, Attack detection, Localizing attack, Wireless network security.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Archana Shelar, Guide: M.D.Ingale},
    title = {Modeling Security with Localization of Multiple Spoofing Attackers in Wireless Network},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {01-06},
    month = {January}
    }
    Paper Id :: 212020
    Paper Title :: Comparative study of the heating capacity of biogas and conventional cooking gas
    Author Name :: U J Ovueni
    Page Number :: 07-10
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101007010
    A comparative study of the heating capacity of biogas and conventional cooking gas was carried out using a biogas stove was constructed from a 500 x 500 Ansun camping gas burner and one inch angle bar metal. The lumen of the gas supply jet was increased with a 3.5mm drill bit. The heating capacity of the biogas stove and conventional camping gas was done by heating 1000cm3 of waster for 4 minutes, taking the temperature readings at 20s interval. The mean temperature rise of water heated, for 4 minutes, using biogas stove was 27.8oC, giving an average of 0.12oC rise per second. This compared favorably with that of the conventional Ansun 500 x 500 camping gas with an average of 0.13oC rise in temperature per second. Statistical analysis using Mann-Whitney U test (P 0.05), indicate no significant difference between the heating capacity of the biogas stove and that of the camping gas. Performance evaluation of the biogas stove depict the stove was operating at a power rating of 486.5W. Comparing this with the estimated energy content of biogas feed, the efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 38.4%. This was based on the assumption that the methane content of the biogas was 45%. This efficiency assessment is the best the stove can obtain as higher methane content will mean a reduction in the present efficiency estimate.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {U J Ovueni},
    title = {Comparative study of the heating capacity of biogas and conventional cooking gas},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {07-10},
    month = {January}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212091
    Paper Title :: A Review on Fluid Structure Interaction in Farings Design
    Author Name :: T.Rajapandian|| Dr.K.Arulselvan|| Dr.P.Maniiarasan|| S.Senthilkumar
    Page Number :: 11-16
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101011016
    Structural loads are critical for aircraft design, especially joining members of the system. Wings, they are joining with fuselage through a structural member called fairings, these fairings plays major role in aerodynamic and structural factors of the wing and fuselage system. To design these fairings, there are standards followed by the industry worldwide, but it is vital to understand the behaviours of the fairings under flying condition, the aerodynamic load in the form of pressure will test the strength of the any structural members, especially joints like fairings in the aircraft, so it is important to understand and integrate design of the same through computational techniques like computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and structural analysis. With the focus on this, the work reviews and presents studies related for fairing design and behaviours under subsonic flying condition with different angle of attach. This work provides comprehensive guide design and implementing FSI in fairing design.
    Keywords: FSI, fairings, wings, CFD
    @article{key:article,
    author = {T.Rajapandian, Dr.K.Arulselvan, Dr.P.Maniiarasan, S.Senthilkumar},
    title = {A Review on Fluid Structure Interaction in Farings Design},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {11-16},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212066
    Paper Title :: Surveying of Electrochemical and Thermal Properties of Lithium Ion Batteries Cathode Materials Coated by Al2O3 and ZrO2 using Sol-Gel Method
    Author Name :: H. M. Omanda||R. Ondo-Ndong||Z.H. Moussambi Membetsi||H. Gnanga ||A. Eya'a-Mvongbote||T. Brousse ||D.M. Scheilch
    Page Number :: 17-22
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101017022
    In this study, we analyze the impact of the cathode material coating by using the sol-gel method. ZrO2 and Al2O3 Layers were synthesized on the LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 particles surface. The thickness of the layers was estimated at a theoretical value of 5μm. Suitable quantities of acetylacetonate of zirconium and aluminum isopropoxide were dissolved in acetylacetone and isopropanol as organic solvents, respectively. The solution was stirred and heated at low temperature. After a partial evaporation of the solution, the LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 powder was immersed and the mixture was heated in air at suitable temperatures. A comparative study by x-rays diffraction was carried out on the uncoated, ZrO2-coated and Al2O3-coated compounds. The electrochemical tests were performed on the three samples for the first 20 cycles. The samples in a galvanostatic charged state were analyzed by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results show that the integrity of material of cathode is preserved after treatment. One observes a best cycling stability when the material is coated with ZrO2 or Al2O3. For the DSC thermal analysis, we note that the exothermic reaction starts around temperature of 215°C (±8%) and that the released energy during this process is reduced approximately 40%.
    Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries, Sol-Gel coating; alumina, cathode; X-ray diffraction, Electrochemistry, Thermal stability.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {H. M. Omanda, R. Ondo-Ndong, Z.H. Moussambi Membetsi, H. Gnanga, A. Eya'a-Mvongbote,T. Brousse and D.M. Scheilch},
    title = {Surveying of Electrochemical and Thermal Properties of Lithium Ion Batteries Cathode Materials Coated by Al2O3 and ZrO2 using Sol-Gel Method},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {17-22},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 26117
    Paper Title :: Geophysical Investigation of Weathered Basement, Using Electrical Resistivity Method in Zainawa Village, Kano State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Aliyu N.S|| Aminu A.L|| Chiemeke Collins
    Page Number :: 23-29
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101023029
    The type of method adopted for this research was the 1D electrical resistivity, using the GEOPULSE Tarrameter. A schlumberger configuration was carried out to map out the Geological features of the earth subsurface. Five profiles were carried out in the study area. Each profile, the layout geometry for the electrical resistivity were the normal schlumberger arrays. The maximum current electrode separation (AB) was 200m, that is, AB/2=100m. The data obtained using Geopulse resistivity Meter SAS 300 were processed using computer software (IPI2Win--
    Keywords: Vertical electrical sounding, Zainawa, Geoelectrical section, Resistivity, Aquifer, Alluvial
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Aliyu N.S, Aminu A.L, Chiemeke Collins},
    title = {Geophysical Investigation of Weathered Basement, Using Electrical Resistivity Method in Zainawa Village, Kano State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {23-29},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212079
    Paper Title :: Scatter Search Optimization for Multi Node Machining Fixture Layout
    Author Name :: P. Maheandera Prabu|| Dr.K. P. Padmanaban|| R. Rajasekar|| R. Devaraja Vignesh||Dr.S.Navaneethasanthakumar
    Page Number :: 30-37
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101030037
    Geometric problems during machining of a work piece have been an archaic and prominent problem in industries. This problem has been overcome by installation of clamps and locators. Clamps and locators are excellent solutions to minimize geometric error in work piece machining, but fixing the point of contact of clamps and locators on the work piece has a major impact on reduction of deformation. Optimization of fixture layouts has been a crucial topic under research because of the above reason. Lot of optimization techniques has been implemented in fixture layout. This particular article deals with implementation of scatter search methodology in fixture layout selection. Scatter search with randomized subset combination was used for solving a case study and deriving the layout with minimum deformation. The diversification generation was formed in such a way that it covers all possible layouts for improvement method. The case study chosen was a multi nodal machining problem, so after multiple iterations of subset formations a ranking method was used for finalizing the result which suits best for all machining nodes without any discontinuity
    Keywords: Finite Element Method, Fixture layout, Objective Function, Optimization, Scatter Search,
    @article{key:article,
    author = {P. Maheandera Prabu, Dr.K. P. Padmanaban, R. Rajasekar, R. Devaraja Vignesh,Dr.S.Navaneethasanthakumar},
    title = {Scatter Search Optimization for Multi Node Machining Fixture Layout},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {30-37},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211036
    Paper Title :: Organophosphate and Ageing Induced Decline in Activity of Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme: Potential Implication on Cognitive Function
    Author Name :: 1Akinduko D. S.||Adewole T. I. E.
    Page Number :: 38-42
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101038042
    Nigerian local farmers are occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides with a resultant side effect on the cholinergic pathway. Impairment of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) enzyme activity is characteristic of this defect, leading to accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. The main objective of this study was therefore to determine the plasma levels of AchE activity and their correlation with age of the subjects...
    Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Cholinergic Pathway, Defects, Ageing, Cognitive Function
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Akinduko D. S., Adewole T. I. E.},
    title = {Organophosphate and Ageing Induced Decline in Activity of Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme: Potential Implication on Cognitive Function},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {38-42},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212083
    Paper Title :: An Multi-Variant Relational Model for Money Laundering Identification using Time Series Data Set
    Author Name :: G.Krishnapriya||Dr.M.Prabakaran
    Page Number :: 43-47
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101043047
    Money laundering an unfair money transaction activity which threats the finance industries in higher rate. The illegal commercial peoples and terrorist, transfers huge amount into a single or many accounts, and it follows a big chain of accounts to reach the destination to which it has to be sent. Generally the financial banks enforce many restrictions to transfer amounts between accounts where they are done between internal or external accounts of the country. Identifying money laundering is a challenging task where the origin of transaction could not be identified easily when it follows a big chain or transferred as number of small amounts. There are methods discussed, which detects MI based on amount transferred and other factors. They suffer with the accuracy of MI detection and time complexity values. We propose a relational model which uses multiple factors and metrics to detect the money laundering. The proposed method uses time series data and identifies one-many and many-one relation between transactions to select vulnerable accounts. Identified vulnerable accounts and transactions of those accounts are split into different time frames and analyzed at each time frame to identify the presence of money laundering. The proposed method has produced higher accuracy in MI detection and has less time complexity which improves the performance of the method proposed.
    Keywords: Network security, Money Laundering, Relational Model, Multi-Variant
    @article{key:article,
    author = {G.Krishnapriya,Dr.M.Prabakaran},
    title = {An Multi-Variant Relational Model for Money Laundering Identification using Time Series Data Set},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {43-47},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212082
    Paper Title :: Aerodynamic Designing Of Autogyro: Gyrocame
    Author Name :: Irish Angelin S|| Senthilkumar S|| Maniiarasan P|| Arulselvan K
    Page Number :: 48-52
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101048052
    To design a compound architecture of a surveillance autogyro, combined with the short Takeoff and Landing STOL and efficient autorotation, free from rotor blades cyclic retrieval striking, vibration free features of gyroplanes. It comprises counter rotating transverse twin rotors mounted on the dihedral wing support, which is placed on top of the fuselage symmetrically, to produce the desired lift. The rotor blades are attached to the shaft at a constant pitch angle which operates efficiently during cruise flight. A tractor type configuration prop-rotor is used in order to propel the auto gyro at an efficient forward speed. The tractor prop-rotor is powered by means of a brushless motor. The general disadvantage of auto gyro (large drag) is overcome in our Gyrocame by increasing the wing span and reducing the length of the transverse rotor blades
    Keywords: rotor blades, disc area, pitch angle, drag.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Irish Angelin S, Senthilkumar S, Maniiarasan P, Arulselvan K},
    title = {Aerodynamic Designing Of Autogyro: Gyrocame},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {48-52},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212081
    Paper Title :: CFD Study of Air Intake Diffuser
    Author Name :: Prasath M S|| Shiva Shankare Gowda A S|| Senthilkumar S
    Page Number :: 53-59
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101053059
    Aircraft propulsion systems often use subsonic diffusing ducts as air-intakes to supply the atmospheric air to the engine compressor. Due to space constraint, the diffusers need to be curved; this causes severe flow non-uniformity at the engine face. The air intake of the aircraft supplies the mass flow demand of the engine over a range of aircraft speeds and altitudes with high pressure recovery and minimum total pressure loss at the engine face. Also the duct must deliver air to the compressor under all flight conditions with a little turbulence. This paper attempts to study the flow inside diffusing duct and the pressure distribution at the AIP. The air intake duct was designed using CATIA. The meshing and analysis of the duct was accomplished using ICEM-CFD and CFX respectively.
    Keywords: air intake, duct, diffuser, AIP
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prasath M S, Shiva Shankare Gowda A S, Senthilkumar S},
    title = {CFD Study of Air Intake Diffuser},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {53-59},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212074
    Paper Title :: Investigation on Low Speed Rectangular Jet
    Author Name :: Gurunath K|| Maniiarasan P|| Senthilkumar S|| Arulselvan K
    Page Number :: 60-65
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101060065
    The jet noise in the aircraft has detrimental effects on the environment, causing economic hardships to those living in and around airports and in the case of non-ideally expanded screeching jets, damage to the structure of the aircraft. Proven methods for reducing jet noise do exist, but at great expense to the aircraft overall performance, increasing the weight and drag of the vehicle. Researchers have been developing various noise reduction techniques, which work on the premise that by increasing the mixing of the jet flow with a bypass flow, and thereby reducing the velocity, noise will be reduced. Other methods for increasing the mixing of jet flows with the ambient air, which have demonstrated the ability to decrease the overall radiated noise in both subsonic and supersonic jet flows include tabs or vortex generators, non-axially symmetric nozzles and simple shaping of the nozzle trailing edge.
    Keywords: Aspect Ratio, Decay, Mixing, Rectangular Jet, Spread
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Gurunath K, Maniiarasan P, Senthilkumar S, Arulselvan K},
    title = {Investigation on Low Speed Rectangular Jet},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {60-65},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211031
    Paper Title :: Determination of Electric Power Losses in Distribution Systems: Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria as a Case Study
    Author Name :: Adegboyega Gabriel A.|| Onime Franklin
    Page Number :: 66-72
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101066072
    The purpose of distribution system is to take electric power from transmission system and deliver it to customers to serve their needs. However, a significant portion of the electric power that a utility generates is lost in the distribution process. Power losses in Ekpoma distribution network were computed from data obtained from Power Holding Company of Nigeria, Ekpoma for five years (January, 2008 to December, 2012). The results were shown graphically. The results reveal that distribution losses in Ekpoma are due to technical and non-technical losses. The technical losses are due to resistance and reactance of the conductors and faults. Several factors which includes unbalanced loading of transformers, transformer leakage current, aged transformer, damage accessories, inadequate size of conductors were discovered to have also attributed to power losses in Ekpoma. Suggestions were made in order to reduce power losses in Ekpoma distribution network
    Keywords: Distribution Feeders, Non-Technical Power Losses, Power Losses, Technical Power Losses, Transformer Losses.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adegboyega Gabriel A., Onime Franklin},
    title = {Determination of Electric Power Losses in Distribution Systems: Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria as a Case Study},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {66-72},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212046
    Paper Title :: Enviromental Effect of Continuous Use of Timber Harvesting Machines in Free Areas and the Fate of Forest Reserve in Southern Adamawa State-Nigeria
    Author Name :: D.A. Mada||G.Y. Jamala
    Page Number :: 73-78
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030101073078
    Forestry is a source of energy for cooking, domestic heating, baking, grilling and oven drying in the study zone. It provides a habitat for wild life and tools that humans use to survive in the 21st century society. Forest products such as mushroom, fruit, honey and leaves are used in the study for food and medicine. It helps to regulate gases that accumulate in the earth and atmosphere, especially air craft and boom sprayer use as an optimum tool for crop protection. Trees help in absorbing the chemicals dust and poison fumes. It sanitizes environment with fresh air. A single tree will produce 3000 sheets of paper. The study had revealed that 120,136 volumes of trees are razed monthly for fuel wood and local timber from 2000-2012 in free areas with Agro forestry machines without replanting. It had increased local temperature from 30-40 per cent and changes in hydrological cycle. Annual looses as a result overcutting trees is estimated N800, 000.00--N900, 000.00 annually caused by water and wind erosion.
    Keywords: Environment, Effect, Forest reserve, free area, Machines
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D.A. Mada||G.Y. Jamala},
    title = {Enviromental Effect of Continuous Use of Timber Harvesting Machines in Free Areas and the Fate of Forest Reserve in Southern Adamawa State-Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {73-78},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 01|| versions 2 || January 2014
    Paper Id :: 212011
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of Biogas Production from Food Waste
    Author Name :: OjikutuAbimbola O|| Osokoya Olumide O
    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030102001007
    A comparative study on anaerobic digestion of some common food wastes (yam peels, plantain peels, orange rind and fish waste) and mixtures of these wastes were carried out in batch type digesters for 70 days digestion period. During the experiment, the digestion temperature and volume of biogas produced were monitored daily while the pH of the slurry was monitored weekly. The digestion was carried out in mesophilic temperature range of 30 ˚C to 37 ˚C with a total solid concentration of 8%. The results of study showed that the food waste type had significant (P≤0.05) effect on substrate temperature and pH but had no significant (P>0.05) effect on biogas production. The mean values showed that biogas production was in the range of 1090 ml/day and 8016.67 ml/day. The study concluded that anaerobic digestion of the mixture of the food wastes enhanced biogas production although not significantly
    Keywords: Biogas Production, Anaerobic digestion, Food waste, pH
    @article{key:article,
    author = {OjikutuAbimbola O||Osokoya Olumide O},
    title = {Evaluation of Biogas Production from Food Waste},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {01-07},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 211080
    Paper Title :: In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of the Extracts of Lactuca Taraxaxifolia L from Nigeria
    Author Name :: Giwa-Ajeniya, A. O|| Lawal O. A|| Awe, F. A|| Kuyoro, O.
    Page Number :: 08-10
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030102008010
    Evaluation of the medicinal relevance of the leaves of Latuca taraxaxifolia L against some microbial strains using standard method analyses. The leaves of Latuca taraxaxifolia L was air dried and extracted using four different solvents, Chloroform, Hexane, Ethyl Acetate, and Methanol. The extracts were screened for anti-bacterial activities using disc diffusion method; the effectiveness of the extracts was then tested on Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Erythromycin and Gentamycin as standard control drugs. The results obtained from the extract shows that methanol extract display more inhibition on the micro organisms
    Keywords: Latuca taraxaxifolia L, Antibacterial
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Giwa-Ajeniya, A. O|| Lawal O. A|| Awe, F. A|| Kuyoro, O},
    title = {In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of the Extracts of Lactuca Taraxaxifolia L from Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {08-10},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 210014
    Paper Title :: Infrared Studies Of Curing Of Araldite DLS 772 / 4 4'DDS And Araldite LY 5052 / 4 4' DDS Epoxy Systems Using Conventional And Microwave Energy
    Author Name :: Babatunde Bolasodun|| Olubukola Rufai1 and Stephen Durowaiye
    Page Number :: 11-23
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030102011023
    Comparative studies were carried out on the effects of infrared radiation on the cure of two epoxy resins Araldite DLS 772, Araldite LY 5052 and a hardener, 4 4' Diaminodiphenyl sulfone. A microwave heated calorimeter and an industrial oven were used to cure the samples at various isothermal conditions and different holding times. A FT-IR spectrometer was used to carry out infrared studies of the cured epoxy samples. The infrared spectra of microwave and conventionally cured samples are similar, indicating a similar reaction pathway. For both epoxy systems, the rate of consumption of epoxy and amine groups was higher during curing under microwave conditions. This is because microwave heating directly heats the polymer molecules as a result of the relaxation of the polarized polymer dipoles along the electric field, allowing more epoxy to be reacted with the amine in the curing reaction
    Keywords: Infrared, Epoxy, Microwave, Curing
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Babatunde Bolasodun, Olubukola Rufai, Stephen Durowaiye},
    title = {Infrared Studies Of Curing Of Araldite DLS 772 / 4 4'DDS And Araldite LY 5052 / 4 4' DDS Epoxy Systems Using Conventional And Microwave Energy.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {11-23},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 29029
    Paper Title :: Hydrocarbon and Mineral Exploration in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria
    Author Name :: Ezema P.O|| Eze Ifeoma Doris|| G. Z. Ugwu|| Abdullahi U A
    Page Number :: 24-30
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030102024030
    Aeromagnetic data of Abakaliki in the Lower Benue Trough flown at an altitude of 80m with line spacing of 500m and cross tie line of 2km was used for this study. The data was made available in digital form on the scale of 1:50,000 by the Nigeria Geological Survey Agency (NGSA). The data was processed using computer software (Potent V4.10.3). Forward and Inverse modeling techniques were used in addition to spectral analysis. Three profiles were taken on the contour map and modeled. The results showed five intrusive bodies made up of granulites, pyrite, and basalt. The depths of the intrusives range from 2.4km-6.32km. Dolerite intrusives were mainly found at areas around Idemba-Iza, and Abba Omega at depths of 2.4km, 2.7km, and 3.6km respectively.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ezema P.O, Eze Ifeoma Doris, G. Z. Ugwu, Abdullahi U A},
    title = {Hydrocarbon and Mineral Exploration in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {24-30},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212086
    Paper Title :: Delineation of a Productive Zone in "Abjnr" Oil Field, Southwestern Niger Delta
    Author Name :: Abraham-Adejumo M. Richardson
    Page Number :: 31-37
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030102031037
    3-D seismic data have been used to delineate a productive zone in "Abjnr" oil field, Southwestern Niger Delta. The research involved importing digital seismic data into the Seismic Micro-Technology (SMT) software to generate seismic sections on which faults where mapped. A Horizon was selected prior to loop tying and timing and posting. Structural maps generated, contoured in time and depth reveals regions with structural highs. The reservoir area extent was determined using the planimetering software method. The structural maps produced revealed fault dependent closures at the central portion of the field, which served as possible trapping mechanism for the reservoir.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Abraham-Adejumo M. Richardson},
    title = {Delineation of a Productive Zone in "Abjnr" Oil Field, Southwestern Niger Delta},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {31-37},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212073
    Paper Title :: Stress Analysis on Bulkhead Model for BWB Heavy Lifter Passenger Aircraft
    Author Name :: Vigneshwaran R|| Maniiarasan P||Arulselvan K|| Senthilkumar S
    Page Number :: 38-43
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030102038043
    In modern aviation for passenger and military transportations, a new and efficient design in fuselage is necessary. BWB fuselage will confidently satisfy this requirement. BWB centerbody is the most load withstanding component among the full length of BWB fuselage structure. Unlike a conventional cylindrical pressurised Fuselage, the centre body of a BWB suffers from both internal cabin pressurisation and spanwise wing bending loads. The combined loading results in non-linear stress behaviour, whose complexity is undesirable for the design process. This project is fully concentrating on the stress analysis of rear structural pressure Bulkhead component used for the BWB centerbody configuration for passenger fuselage. A New combination of Multi-bubble and Box type Bulk head is proposed for the ultra heavy lifter by Boeing & NASA. In this project initially the Bulkhead is modeled for their given specifications and the stress analysis carried out in Ansys analysis software tool for the same configuration. Theoretical calculations for the bending stress and the values are validated with the numerically stimulated values. It is expected to prove that the BWB model with the multi bubble combined with Box type centerbody is more suited for the future ultra heavy lifter passenger aircrafts.
    Keywords: BWB, bulkhead, panel stress
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Vigneshwaran R, Maniiarasan P, Arulselvan K, Senthilkumar S},
    title = {Stress Analysis on Bulkhead Model for BWB Heavy Lifter Passenger Aircraft},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {38-43},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212095
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of thermodynamic parameters (conductometrically) for the interaction of Cu(II) ion with 4-phenyl -1-diacetyl monoxime -3- thiosemicarbazone (BMPTS) in (60%V) ethanol (EtOH-H2O) at different temperatures
    Author Name :: E.A.Gomaa || K.M.Ibrahim || N.M.Hassan
    Page Number :: 44-51
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030102044051
    The association constant ,formation constants and Gibbs free energies are calculated from the conductometric titration curves of CuCl2 with 4-phenyl-2-diacetyl monoxime-3-thiosemicarbazone (BMPTS) in 60 % by volume of ethanol (EtOH) - water at different temperatures( 293.15 K , 298.15 K , 303.15 and 308.15 K). On drawing the relation between molar conductance and the ratio of metal to ligand concentrations, different lines are obtained indicating the formation of 1:2 , 1:1 and 2:1 (M:L) stoichiometric complexes. The formation constants of different complexes in absolute ethanol follow the order: Kf (2:1) › Kf (1:1) >Kf (1:2) for (M: L). As the temperature increases, the formation constants and association constants of different complexes increase. The enthalpy and entropy of formation and association of the interaction for CuCl2 with (BMPTS) were also estimated and their values were discussed.
    Keywords: Association constants; formation constants; Gibbs free energies; solvation free energies; enthalpy and entropy of solvation
    @article{key:article,
    author = {E.A.Gomaa , K.M.Ibrahim and N.M.Hassan},
    title = {Evaluation of thermodynamic parameters (conductometrically) for the interaction of Cu(II) ion with 4-phenyl -1-diacetyl monoxime -3- thiosemicarbazone (BMPTS) in (60%V) ethanol (EtOH-H2O) at different temperatures},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {44-51},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3116
    Paper Title :: Ranking Wireless Sensor Networks
    Author Name :: Jenifer.G||Ramya Dorai.D
    Page Number :: 52-55
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030102052055
    Wireless sensor network are often deployed in unattended and vast environment for monitoring the environment and sending information to base station. If any node in the network is compromised then the whole working of the system is collapse and lead to the failure of the network. In our proposed scheme ranking of nodes take place based on the rank node can be identified for malicious and that can be removed. This ranking is made through three stages like global ranking, stepwise ranking and hybrid ranking. The extensive analysis and simulation can be carried by ns2 to verify effectiveness and efficiency of the network.
    Keywords: collapse, heuristics, sensor node
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Jenifer.G,Ramya Dorai.D},
    title = {Ranking Wireless Sensor Networks},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {52-55},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3108
    Paper Title :: Review on a packet hiding: a new paradigm for avoiding
    jamming attack over wireless network
    Author Name :: Miss Gavali S.B|| Mrs. Gavali A.B.|| Mr.Patil D.S.
    Page Number :: 56-63
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030102056063
    The wireless network are usually preferred because of its challenging features such as its faster accessibility, compatibility and its connectivity among extended variant set of users. Due to its better transfer rate the authentication mechanism is ignored in wireless sensor network. This shortens the limitation of the existing wired network. By using the wireless sensor network various types of jamming attacks are invited. Some detection strategies are available but they are failed sometime in analyzing and reporting the presence of jammer. In case of external threat model it is quite easy but in case of an internal threat model the person has great knowledge about network secrets and internal protocol specifications, so these persons can easily launch low effort squeeze attacks. These attacks are very difficult to detect and count. So as to protect the packets from such attacks various methodologies are implemented. The main goal of these methodologies is to prevent that packet from the jammer, so as to enable the safe transmission among intended nodes even in presence of jammer
    Keywords: Packet hiding schemes, jamming attacks, commitment schemes, overview
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Miss Gavali S.B, Mrs. Gavali A.B.},
    title = {Review on a packet hiding: a new paradigm for avoiding jamming attack over wireless network},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {56-63},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3104
    Paper Title :: Gbbs free energies for interaction of CuCl2 with (E)-1-phenyl-2-(2-(4-((E)-pheyldiazenyl) phenyl hydrazono)-2-(phenylsulfonyl) ethanone in ethanol at different temperatures
    Author Name :: E.A.Gomaa|| H.M.Abu El-Nader || Sh.E.Rashed
    Page Number :: 64-73
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030102064073
    the association constants, formation constants and Gibbs free energies of solvation are calculated from the conductometric titration curves of CuCl2 with (E)-1-phenyl-2-(2-(4-((E)- henyldiazenyl)phenyl)hydrazono)-2-(phenylsulfonyl)ethanone(L) in absolute ethanol at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K. On drawing the relation between molar conductance and the ratio of metal to ligand concentrations, different lines are obtained indicating the formation of 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 (M:L) stoichiometric complexes. The formation constants and Gibbs free energies of these different complexes in absolute ethanol at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K follow the order: Kf (2:1) > Kf (1:1) > Kf(1:2) for (M:L); and ΔGf (2:1)>ΔGf (1:1)>ΔGf (1:2) for (M:L)..
    Keywords: Association constant; formation constant; Gibbs free energy of solvation
    @article{key:article,
    author = {E.A.Gomaa, H.M.Abu El-Nader and Sh.E.Rashed},
    title = {Gbbs free energies for interaction of CuCl2 with (E)-1-phenyl-2-(2-(4-((E)-pheyldiazenyl) phenyl hydrazono)-2-(phenylsulfonyl) ethanone in ethanol at different temperatures},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {64-73},
    month = {January}
    }
    Paper Id :: 212098
    Paper Title :: Sustainable Residential Complexes Design with Incorporating Internal & External Landscape and Using Ecological Design (Case Study: Residential Complex Of Apadana, Tehran,Iran)
    Author Name :: Mojtaba Ansari|| Hasan Ali Laghai|| Hadiseh Baghi
    Page Number :: 74-84
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030102074084
    Designing for human life related environment and landscapes requires noticing the environment values and potentials on one hand, considering human needs on the other hand. Such environment designing should persistently be performed by the interaction and balance with the environment. The goal of the present research was to provide designing strategies in order to connect internal and external landscapes of residential complexes horizontally and vertically. The study region is Apadana residential complex located at 5th district of Tehran. The research method is descriptive- analytic and of applied kind. Performing this research both through field and documentary methods, data collection, analysis, and their integration were done. In order to distinguish Weakness and internal weakness, and also external opportunities and threats we used the SWOT analysis model, following the most preferred strategies to design Apadana was determined along with integration of external and internal environment landscapes using the QSPM matrix. Results showed that the most preferred strategy to design open area and landscapes considering ecological vision and visual quality improvement is through spatial and visual continuation approaches with internal atmosphere of residential complexes.
    Keywords: Residential Complex, Sustainable, Ecological Design, Apadana
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mojtaba Ansari, Hasan Ali Laghai , Hadiseh Baghi},
    title = {Sustainable Residential Complexes Design with Incorporating Internal & External Landscape and Using Ecological Design (Case Study: Residential Complex Of Apadana, Tehran,Iran)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {74-84},
    month = {January}
    }
    Paper Id :: 212098
    Paper Title :: Fuzzy-Statistical Modeling of Hydro generator for its Reliability Appreciation
    Author Name :: Volodymyr V. Litvinov ||Katheryna A. Manukian
    Page Number :: 85-95
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/030102085095
    In article are reviewed the problems of Risk-Oriented Management of hydro power station generating equipment. Fuzzy-statistical method of hydrogenerator and its bundles fault risk estimation is proposed. This method lies in the using both generators operation statistical data and individual characteristics of concrete generator. For the consideration of generator individual characteristics fuzzy model of stator winding technical stuff appreciation is developed. Obtained method and model are used for the appreciation of the Dnipro-2 HPS generators fault risk at the 1 year time interval.
    Keywords: hydrogenerator, stator winding, risk, fault probability, technical stuff, fuzzy model
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Volodymyr V. Litvinov , Katheryna A. Manukian},
    title = {Fuzzy-Statistical Modeling of Hydro generator for its Reliability Appreciation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {85-93},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 01|| versions 3 || January 2014
    Paper Id :: 3136
    Paper Title :: Redesigning the Rudder for The Boat Nigat
    Author Name :: Yonas Mitiku Degu
    Page Number :: 01-09
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/03130109
    Boat Nigat is a medium sized boat launched before three years ago on its maiden voyage in the Lake Tana to ferry passengers and goods across the lake.Nigat's rudder is an intuitive design, not manufactured to standard specifications, because of limited facilities in terms of designing and manufacture. Obviously it is difficult to predict controllability efficiency (characteristic) of the boat with the intuitively designed rudder. This paper proposes an optimized rudder design for Nigat based on an airfoil shape. The design presented here uses NACA 0012 airfoil shape for the rudder cross-section in order to improve its better performance. It is hoped that the design suggested herein can be used as a standard rudder design for use in other boats irrespective of the size of the boat.
    Keywords: Rudder Design, Rudder Profile, Stock Diameter, NACA Profiles, Yacht Maneuvering
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Yonas Mitiku Degu},
    title = {Redesigning the Rudder for The Boat Nigat},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {01-09},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3134
    Paper Title :: Skidded Distance V. Initial Velocity of Vehicle in Chain Accidents on Highways
    Author Name :: Robert M. Brooks|| Mehmet Cetin
    Page Number :: 10-14
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0313010014
    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of skidded distance on the initial velocity of the first vehicle in a chain accident on highways involving three vehicles. Regression analysis on the results of these variables was conducted. Excellent correlation coefficient was found for the relationship at α = 0.05 significance level. The influence of Skidded Distance on the Initial Velocity is shown by a quadratic equation (Initial velocity = -5E-05 Skidded distance 2 -0.05 Skidded Distance + 113.21) with R = 1.
    Keywords: Accident Reconstruction, Chain Accident, Initial Velocity, Regression Analysis, Skidded Distance.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Robert M. Brooks, Mehmet Cetin},
    title = {Skidded Distance V. Initial Velocity of Vehicle in Chain Accidents on Highways},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {10-14},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212107
    Paper Title :: Experimental Study to Determine the Variation over the Material While Exposed To Magnetic Field
    Author Name :: Chilambarasan C||Shiva Shankare Gowda A S||Senthilkumar S||Suresh C
    Page Number :: 20-22
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0313020022
    Magnetism is a phenomenon through which materials assert an attractive or repulsive force. However, the underlying principles and mechanisms that explain the magnetic phenomenon are complex. Iron, some steels and rare earth minerals exhibit magnetic attraction. Thus, a piece of mild steel in its lowest energy state ("non-magnetized") generally has little or no net magnetic field. However, if it is placed in a strong enough external magnetic field, the domain walls will move, reorienting the domains so more of the dipoles are aligned with the external field. The domains will remain aligned when the external field is removed, creating a magnetic field of their own extending into the space around the material, thus creating a "permanent" magnet. The domains do not go back to their original minimum energy configuration when the field is removed because the domain walls tend to become 'snagged' on defects in the crystal lattice, preserving their parallel orientation. By using the magnetic field the material's mechanical property like yield strength, hardness, toughness, ductility, ultimate strength, fatigue, Young's modulus can be enhanced. While comparing the properties of magnetized and non-magnetized specimen, if the properties of the magnetized specimen are enhanced it can be used for aircraft applications. Due to its enhanced property it can withstand more shear load, tension, bending, because of its improved fatigue, impact strength and hardness.
    KEYWORDS: Magnetostriction, Enhanced, Domains, Magnetic Property
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Chilambarasan C,Shiva Shankare Gowda A S,Senthilkumar S,Suresh C},
    title = {Experimental Study to Determine the Variation over the Material While Exposed To Magnetic Field},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {20-22},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212075
    Paper Title :: Tensile Test for Environmental Effect On Glass Fiber Composite Materials
    Author Name :: Kalidass R|| Balaji S
    Page Number :: 23-27
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0313023027
    The basic reason for working on this area arises from the fact that composites are vulnerable to environmental degradation. A moist environment, coupled with high or low temperature conditions is extremely detrimental for composites. There have been several efforts made by researchers in the last few years to establish the much needed correlation between the mechanical properties of the material and the moist environment or similar hydrothermal conditions, subjected to thermal shocks, spikes, ambient & sub ambient temperatures. But most research has been on the mechanical aspects rather than the physical & chemical interface and how this brings change in the internal mechanical properties and affects a variety of other morphological changes. The focus of our research has been to understand the physical changes that take place at the bonding interface between the fibers and the matrix, as it is of prime importance due to its link to the stress transfer, distribution of load and it also governs the damage accumulation & propagation. This has wide significance in aerospace applications, because the aircraft components are exposed to harsh moist environment. Hence our project work aims at the characterization of the hybrid GFRP'S by DSC/SEM and to analyze the variation of Tg and flexural strength along with the mode of failure due to variation in moisture and temperature gradient.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kalidass R, Balaji S},
    title = { Tensile Test for Environmental Effect On Glass Fiber Composite Materials},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {23-27},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212059
    Paper Title :: Stackelburg Strategy for Pricing Mechanism of Video Streaming In Content Redistribution Network
    Author Name :: Binayak Parashar || S.Suresh
    Page Number :: 28-35
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0313028035
    With the utilization of mobile devices and with the development of the smart phones and as such the 3G networks, these mobile phones have become the most popular consumer devices. Due to ubiquitous access of mobile phones and its features, data-plan subscribers can redistribute the video content to nonsubscribers and has become a great difficulty for the mobile service provider to trace the given user's high mobility. Thus, it is the sole responsibility of the service provider to set a reasonable price for the data plan in order to prevent from the unauthorized access of the video content in the redistribution network. This paper tried to focus on analyzing the optimal price setting for the service provider by understanding the equilibrium condition between the subscribers and the secondary buyers, and also to model the behaviour between the subscribers and the secondary buyers as a noncooperative game. For this purpose the strategy of Game Theory has been implemented in this paper. Such an analysis can help the service provider preserve his/her profit under the threat of the redistribution networks and can improve the quality of service for end users.
    Keywords: Game theory, mobile video streaming, pricing.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Binayak Parashar , S.Suresh},
    title = {Stackelburg Strategy for Pricing Mechanism of Video Streaming In Content Redistribution Network},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {28-35},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212016
    Paper Title :: Agile Software Development: Novel Approaches For Software Engineering
    Author Name :: Sk. Safikul Alam||Sourabh Chandra
    Page Number :: 36-40
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0313036040
    Incremental software development methods have been traced back to 1957. In 1974, it was introduced an adaptive software development process. So-called "lightweight" software development methods evolved in the mid-1990s as a reaction against "heavyweight" methods, which were characterized by their critics as a heavily regulated, regimented, micromanaged, waterfall model of development. Proponents of lightweight methods (and now "agile" methods) contend that they are a return to development practices from early in the history of software development. Early implementations of lightweight methods include Scrum (1995), Crystal Clear, Extreme Programming (1996), Adaptive Software Development, Feature Driven Development, and Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) (1995). These are now typically referred to as agile methodologies, after the Agile Manifesto published in 2001.
    Keywords: Agile, Lightweight, Heavyweight, Regimented, Micromanaged, Waterfall model
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sk. Safikul Alam ,Sourabh Chandra},
    title = {Agile Software Development: Novel Approaches For Software Engineering},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {36-40},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212065
    Paper Title :: An Effective Live Video Streaming System
    Author Name :: Rajasekhar Muppavarapu|| Mastan Rao Kale
    Page Number :: 41-47
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0313041047
    A number of commercial peer-to-peer systems for live streaming have been introduced in recent years. The behavior of these popular systems has been extensively studied in several measurement papers. Due to the proprietary nature of these commercial systems, however, these studies have to rely on a "black-box" approach, where packet traces are collected from a single or a limited number of measurement points, to infer various properties of traffic on the control and data planes. Although such studies are useful to compare different systems from end-user's perspective, it is difficult to intuitively understand the observed properties without fully reverse-engineering the underlying systems. In this paper we describe the network architecture of Zattoo, one of the largest production live streaming providers in Europe at the time of writing, and present a large-scale measurement study of Zattoo using data collected by the provider. To highlight, we found that even when the Zattoo system was heavily loaded with as high as 20,000 concurrent users on a single overlay, the median channel join delay remained less than 2 to 5 seconds, and that, for a majority of users, the streamed signal lags over-the-air broadcast signal by no more than 3 seconds.
    Keywords: Peer-to-peer system, live streaming, network architecture
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rajasekhar Muppavarapu|| Mastan Rao Kale},
    title = {An Effective Live Video Streaming System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {41-47},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3128
    Paper Title :: Extension of Time Determination in Construction Projects in Nigeria: The Critical Path Method
    Author Name :: Mee-Edoiye M. Andawei
    Page Number :: 48-51
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0313048051
    Project time and cost are important aspects of a construction contract. Efforts are made in this regard by operators and researchers to optimize the use of time and cost resources of projects. These efforts, which are aimed at reducing the overall production time and cost of construction works has recorded limited successes. It is also a common practice with contracting companies to call for extension of construction time and make claims for loss and expenses resulting from such extensions. This has in most cases, resulted to increase in the total project cost and delivery time of projects. It has in many cases led to protracted conflicts between the parties to the contract and the abrupt and untimely termination of projects. This paper is aimed at determining the appropriateness or otherwise of contractors' requests for extension of project activity time and the claims arising thereof with the aid of the Critical Path Method.
    Keywords: Critical Path Method, contractual claims, time and cost overruns
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mee-Edoiye M. Andawei},
    title = {Extension of Time Determination in Construction Projects in Nigeria: The Critical Path Method},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {48-51},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3127
    Paper Title :: Application of Linear Programming in Multi-Design Selection
    Author Name :: Mee-Edoiye M. Andawei
    Page Number :: 52-55
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0313052055
    The primary aim of the employer, the contractor and project managers engaged in the management of construction and other allied project is to maximize the return on investment and or to minimize the cost of production. The final states of these hitherto capital – intensive projects usually show the outcomes of design and cost decisions that were made at the planning stages of these projects. Noticeably too, conceptual/planning errors noticed in construction projects accounts for a huge amount of schedule slippage and budgetary overrun experienced in the construction industry. This paper therefore, attempts to provide an optimal decision-making framework using linear programming model to meet the challenging dynamic requests of today's clients.
    Keywords: Linear programming, optimal solution, multi-design selection.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mee-Edoiye M. Andawei},
    title = {Application of Linear Programming in Multi-Design Selection},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {52-55},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 01|| versions 4 || January 2014
    Paper Id :: 24172
    Paper Title :: Time Series Model of Nigeria's External Reserves
    Author Name :: Zubair M.A || Olanrewaju S.O,
    Page Number :: 01-10
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/031401010
    This Research work is about the Time Series Analysis of the Nigeria's External Reserves from 1960-2008. The data used is a Secondary data collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria 50 Years special anniversary Bulletin. The data was analyzed using SPSS 19.0 version. The trend of the raw data shows non-stationary, plunge or drain, and a downhill in nature. The stationary of the data was achieved after second difference. ARIMA 1,2,2 was the ARIMA model that best fitted the data collected. The value of the R2 adjusted was 0.643, and the significant level of the data was 0.000, which means that the data from 1960-2008 was significant at the 0.05 significance level. As a result of the plunge or drain in the Nigeria's External Reserves it is therefore, recommended and a call on all Nigerian standing firmly on our ground to demand for fairness, justice and equality for all. Henceforth, our leaders, should be taking the bull by the horns by employing into office those that have a semblance of peoples' interest at heart.
    Keywords: Time series, model, external reserves, Autoregressive, Moving Average.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Zubair M.A, Olanrewaju S.O,},
    title = {Time Series Model of Nigeria's External Reserves},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {01-10},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24173
    Paper Title :: Production Index of Electricity Generation and Consumption In Nigeria
    Author Name :: Zubair M.A. || Olanrewaju S.O.
    Page Number :: 11-17
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0314011017
    Electricity as a source of energy is vital to the growth and development of any economy. Its significance arises from the impact it has on infrastructure, a range of socio-economic activities and consequently on the country's standard of living. This means that transportation, communication, construction, and other facilities depend on electricity to function effectively. Electricity has continued to play a significant role in the development process. In the Nigerian situation the reverse appears to be the case because power outages have continued to affect the country's development. Some have argued that privatizing electricity supply through the unbundling of power generation arm of National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) now Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) will ensure its efficiency. Index number is used here to study the rate of growth in electricity consumption and hence the inflation rate over time.
    Keywords: Index, Electricity, Production, Consumption.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Zubair M.A., Olanrewaju S.O.},
    title = {Production Index of Electricity Generation and Consumption In Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {11-17},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 28050
    Paper Title :: On Cycle Index and Orbit – Stabilizer of Symmetric Group
    Author Name :: Mogbonju M. M. || Bello G . G. || Ogunleke I. A.,
    Page Number :: 18-22
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0314018022
    In this paper explicit formulas are used to find the cycle index of permutation group especially the symmetric groups, the alternating group and the number of orbits of . Finally we presented the orbits – stabilizer of symmetric group.
    Keywords: Cycle index, Orbit, Stabilizer, Permutation group, Symmetric group.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mogbonju M. M., Bello G . G., Ogunleke I. A.,},
    title = {On Cycle Index and Orbit – Stabilizer of Symmetric Group},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {18-22},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212080
    Paper Title :: Study of Trace Metals in Surface Sediments of the Dam Reservoir Sidi Chahed (Meknes, Morocco)
    Author Name :: Driss Abrid ||Abdellah El Hmaidi || Abdelaziz Abdallaoui|| Ali Essahlaoui
    Page Number :: 23-32
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0314023032
    Twenty surficial sediment samples, distributed in space and time in Sidi Chahed dam (NE Meknes) were collected using an Eckman grab sampler. The analysis focused on the physico-chemical characteristics and heavy metal content (Fe, Mn, As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd) by ICP-AES after digestion of the fraction less than 200 microns. The elements As, Pb, Cd and Cr contents are high compared to watershed natural geochemical levels. Runoff, erosion of agricultural land and domestic sewage spills are likely sources of contamination. The elements As, Pb, Cd and Cr contents are high compared to watershed natural geochemical levels. Runoff, erosion of agricultural land and sewage spills are likely sources of contamination.
    Keywords: heavy metals, Meknes, pollution, Sediments, Sidi Chahed dam.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Driss Abrid , Abdellah El Hmaidi , Abdelaziz Abdallaoui , Ali Essahlaoui},
    title = {Study of Trace Metals in Surface Sediments of the Dam Reservoir Sidi Chahed (Meknes, Morocco)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {23-32},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 212097
    Paper Title :: Stress Analysis and Weight Optimization of a Wing Box Structure Subjected To Flight Loads
    Author Name :: Immanuvel D || Arulselvan K || Maniiarasan P || Senthilkumar S
    Page Number :: 33-40
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0314033040
    Optimal proportion of the weight of the vehicle and payload is important in design of an aircraft. It needs to be strong and stiff enough to withstand the exceptional circumstances in which it has to operate. Wing creates the lift required for flight. Spars, ribs and skins are the major structural elements of the wing. Spars are the structural members which run through the wing root at the fuselage to the wing tip.Spars carry the major wing bending loads. Ribs are the structural members which are oriented in the chord wise direction.Ribs carry the shear loads on the wing. Aerodynamic shape of the wing is important in creating the required lift for the aircraft.Ribs also help the wing to maintain its aerodynamic shape under loaded condition. In this paper, a wing box consisting of four ribs and two spars is considered for the analysis. The aerodynamic distributed load on the wing creates shear force, bending moment and torsional moment at wing stations. The wing box is subjected to externally applied shear loads which generates the above mentioned loading actions at various wing stations. A linear stress analysis of the wing box will be carried out for the given shear loads. Several iterations will be carried out for design optimization of the wing box. Different rib design will be considered for the optimization process.An analytical approach will be followed for the optimization. The top skin of the wing box will experience the axial compression during wing bending.
    Keywords: CFD, FSI, fairings, wings.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Immanuvel D, Arulselvan K, Maniiarasan P, Senthilkumar S},
    title = {Stress Analysis and Weight Optimization of a Wing Box Structure Subjected To Flight Loads},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {33-40},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 28009
    Paper Title :: Prevalence Of Coccidiosis Among Poultry Birds Slaughtered At Gwagwalada Main Market, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria.
    Author Name :: Comfort A. Olanrewaju || Rita Y. Agbor
    Page Number :: 41-45
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0314041045
    Poultry sector plays a vital role in income and employment generation as well as source of protein. This vibrant sector is seriously affected by coccidiosis, a protozoan parasite disease caused by the genus Eimeria. A survey of the prevalence of Coccidial infections in chickens was assessed by random sampling of bird faecal samples from Gwagwalada market, FCT. A total of 200 faecal samples were examined using concentration by flotation method. 138(69%) of the faecal samples were positive for coccidian oocysts. Eimeria species encountered were E. tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima (respectively). E. maxima and E. tenella were found to be most common among young birds examined. Birds with their ages less than 3 months examined were 130 and had a prevalence rate of 70.77%. Birds which were 3 months and above (i.e. adults) examined were 70 and had the prevalence rate of 65%. Prevalence was extremely high (80%) in cockerel birds followed by laying birds (70%), however, local birds and broilers had the lowest, 66% and 60.67% respectively. Two-way ANOVA test shows that there is no significant difference between the types of chicken examined and the rate of infection in this research; meanwhile, there is a significant difference between the different coccideal species infection in chicken examined (p>0.05).There is also no significant difference between the numbers of chicken infected in relation to age of the chicken at 0.05 level of significance. The present findings suggest that this parasite (coccidian) may constitute sources of zoonotic infections for humans especially those who consume the cooked parasitized coccidian chickens and the caretakers. Birds infected with this parasite should be treated and chicken house should be periodically cleaned and disinfected.
    Keywords: Eimeria sp, flotation method, Gwagwalada market, poultry birds, zoonotic infection.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Comfort A. Olanrewaju, Rita Y. Agbor},
    title = {Prevalence Of Coccidiosis Among Poultry Birds Slaughtered At Gwagwalada Main Market, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {41-45},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 25118
    Paper Title :: Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activities of Ocimum Gratissimumleaves
    Author Name :: OLANREWAJU || C. A. 2,UJU, B. C.
    Page Number :: 46-51
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0314046051
    The phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activities of Ocimumgratissimum leaf extracts were carried out in the month of July, 2012.The phytochemical screening of Ocimumgratissimumleaves revealed the presence of steroids, saponins, alkaloids in the aqueous extract while flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and tannins were found in the ethanolic extract. The bacterial strains used in this study were pure clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureusand Escherichia coli obtained from the Microbiology Laboratory, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja. The isolates were tested for viability by sub-culture into nutrient broth at 370C and kept in the incubator for 24 hours prior to antibacterial testing.The antibacterial activities of the plant extracts were tested on the test isolates using Agar-well diffusion techniques. The MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) of the potent extracts was determined according to the macro broth dilution technique. The Minimum BactericidalConcentration (MBC) was also carried out. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus showed inhibition zones ranging from 11.0 to 20.0mm. From this study, it was observed that ethanol extracts exhibited high inhibitory activity on Escherichia coli; a representative of enteric coliforms and Gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus; a representative of Gram positive bacteria than the aqueous extract. This can be deduced to the ability of ethanol to extract more of the essential oils and secondary plant metabolites which are believed to exert antibacterial activity on the test organisms. This study however can justify the use of the leaves in traditional medicine practice as a therapeutic agent for the maintenance of health and can explain the long use of this plant. Further experimental research efforts on the plant and its extracts are needed to be able to ascertain the safety of the plant.
    Keywords: nutrient broth, agar well diffusion, MIC, MBC, E.coli, S. areus.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {OLANREWAJU, C. A. 2,UJU, B. C.},
    title = {Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activities of Ocimum Gratissimumleaves},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {46-51},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3145
    Paper Title :: Chronological Construction Sequence Effects on Reinforced Concrete and Steel Buildings
    Author Name :: Yousuf Dinar || Munshi Md. Rasel || Muhammad Junaid Absar Chowdhury || Md. Abu Ashraf
    Page Number :: 52-63
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0314052063
    Building structures are analyzed in a single step using linear static analysis on the assumption that the structures are subjected to full load once the whole structure is constructed completely. In reality the dead load due to the each structural components and finishing items are imposed in separate stages as the structures are constructed story by story for nonlinear behavior of materials. Advancement of finite element modeling accelerates the accuracy of finite element simulation by taking the consideration of construction sequential effects. In this paper, rigid frame structures of both concrete and steel model of different configurations have been taken for sequential analysis. The analysis outcomes will help to understand how the structural response against loads varies for construction sequential analysis and linear static analysis while highlighting the material property. For vivid understanding of necessity of sequential analysis, analysis outcomes are eventually compared with conventional one step analysis. The effect of sequence of construction due to the self-weight of members has been studied and its effect on the overall design forces has also been highlighted using finite element modeling.
    Keywords: Nonlinear behavior, finite element modeling, construction sequential, sequential analysis, structural response
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Yousuf Dinar, Munshi Md. Rasel, Muhammad Junaid Absar Chowdhury,
    Md. Abu Ashraf},
    title = {Chronological Construction Sequence Effects on Reinforced Concrete and Steel Buildings},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {52-63},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3146
    Paper Title :: Design and Contact Stress Analysis for Fixture Design of Pressure Valve Plate
    Author Name :: Shradha M. Patil
    Page Number :: 64-71
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0314064071
    The fixture designing and manufacturing is considered as complex process that demands the knowledge of different areas, such as geometry, tolerances, dimensions, procedures and manufacturing processes. Milling fixtures must be sturdy, with relatively large locating and supporting areas and strong clamp. Work piece deformation is unavoidable due to its elastic/plastic nature, and the external forces impacted by the clamping actuation and machining operations. Deformation has to be limited to an acceptable magnitude in order to achieve the tolerance specifications.The forces for which the fixtures are analysed are external loads. The external loads comprise of cutting forces, the weight of the part and fixture and inertia forces. With modern analytical and computational techniques it is often possible to estimate the stresses to which a component is subjected in service. This in itself is not sufficient for the reliable prediction of component performance. Indeed, in many cases where unexpected failure has occurred, this has been due to the presence of residual stresses which have combined with the service stresses to seriously shorten component life. The stresses at the contact point are computed by means of the theory of Hertz. This theory provides mathematical expressions of stresses and deformations
    Keywords: Hertzian contact theory, Fixtures, Contact stresses, Locators
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Shradha M. Patil},
    title = {Design and Contact Stress Analysis for Fixture Design of Pressure Valve Plate},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {64-71},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Volume 03 || Issue 01|| versions 5 || January 2014 
    Paper Id :: 212099
    Paper Title :: Detachable Thrust Vectoring Mechanism and Stress Analysis
    Author Name :: Chithra V P
    Page Number :: 01-10
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/031501010
    This paper relates to the development of a methodology which overcomes the shortcomings of the conventional system of thrust vectoring, which is relatively inexpensive, highly efficient, detachable thrust vector mechanism is provided for addressing the current shortcomings in the art. Which is used in conjunction with a nautical or aeronautical vehicle having primary propulsion system and at least one fin movable to provide maneuverability, in response to a conventional control system. The method is a detachable thrust vector mechanism comprising auxiliary propulsion system pivotally attached to the missile through connecting means. Connecting means are provided for transferring bi-directional motion of the fin to the auxiliary propulsion system. The mechanism is operable to provide auxiliary thrust for the missile along a thrust vector determined by the control system. The present method falls away during flight. The drawings were done in Catia V5 software and the stress analysis were made by using Ansys software.
    Keywords: Thrust vectoring, control system, motors.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Chithra V P},
    title = {Detachable Thrust Vectoring Mechanism and Stress Analysis},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {01-10},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3161
    Paper Title :: Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Biomass Gasification Using Circulating Fluidised Bed Gasifier
    Author Name :: Rajeev Kumar|| R.Sundaresan||M.Nagaraja||Vivek Kumar Singh
    Page Number :: 11-15
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0315011015
    The gasification of juliflora chip is investigated experimentally and the effect of equivalence ratio and temperature on gas composition, gas heating value, and gas yield. Gasification efficiency is shown. Equivalence ratio is maintained at 0.2-0.3 for experimental set up having 0.156m internal diameter and height of 5m.Gas composition has been found theoretically using Equilibrium gas composition for the temperature range of 700-900°C.Gas composition of experimental data is compared with the theoretical result. The concentration of CO2 increases whereas CO decreases with increase in temperature. With increasing equivalence ratio the concentration of CO2 increases and the gas heating value decreases
    Keywords: Biomass, Circulating fluidized bed, Equivalence ratio; Gasification, Modelling
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rajeev Kumar, R.Sundaresan , M.Nagaraja, Vivek Kumar Singh},
    title = {Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Biomass Gasification Using Circulating Fluidised Bed Gasifier},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {11-15},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3138
    Paper Title :: Hierarchy of Cultural Identity in Traditional Markets, Iran
    Author Name :: Sara Bahmani Kazerooni || Mohammadreza Pourjafar
    Page Number :: 16-24
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0315016024
    The culture contains components including deeds, beliefs, arts, faiths and other social findings that are inherited through the society and form life context. These social activities are generally being formed within public and urban areas. One of these public areas is bazaar that expands cultural identity within society by users. Hierarchy also helps this study through investigation for ways of areas arrangement near each other. The main research question is how and where cultural areas of bazaars have been formed. In this study we practiced to investigate cultural identity hierarchy within Iranian bazaars to realize this question. This research aims at studying Iranian bazaars hierarchy and to extend and promote their culture. The research method applied in this study is explanatory – analytical and is a kind of field studies. Data collection method is of library and field type through observation and using schemes and figure. The study first introduced literature subject and then practiced to investigate cultural, physical and social activities within Iranian prominent bazaars including Tabriz, Shiraz, and Isfahan. In this research, cultural activities position within bazaars and their effects on social stability regarding components like cultural identity, function and framework have been investigated. Results of this paper practiced to provide effective strategies for cultural activities stability and to promote cultural identity
    Keywords: Iranian bazaars, cultural identity, social interactions, bazaar
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sara Bahmani Kazerooni , Mohammadreza Pourjafar},
    title = {Hierarchy of Cultural Identity in Traditional Markets, Iran},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {16-24},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3166
    Paper Title :: Study of Combustion Modeling In CI Engine with Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel: A Review
    Author Name :: Darshana S. Gaikwad|| Ajay V. Kolhe
    Page Number :: 25-29
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0315025029
    The gasification of juliflora chip is investigated experimentally and the effect of equivalence ratio and temperature on gas composition, gas heating value, and gas yield. Gasification efficiency is shown. Equivalence ratio is maintained at 0.2-0.3 for experimental set up having 0.156m internal diameter and height of 5m.Gas composition has been found theoretically using Equilibrium gas composition for the temperature range of 700-900°C.Gas composition of experimental data is compared with the theoretical result. The concentration of CO2 increases whereas CO decreases with increase in temperature. With increasing equivalence ratio the concentration of CO2 increases and the gas heating value decreases
    Keywords: Biomass, Circulating fluidized bed, Equivalence ratio; Gasification, Modelling
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Darshana S. Gaikwad , Ajay V. Kolhe},
    title = {Study of Combustion Modeling In CI Engine with Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel: A Review},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {25-29},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3139
    Paper Title :: The Effects of Color on Patient Recovery Process Centered at Child Psychology
    Author Name :: Morteza Seddigh || Pardis Pazira
    Page Number :: 30-39
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0315030039
    having developed technology and increasing effects of this on diseases cure and special diseases we tried to investigate these factors and their impacts on human psyche and spirit. Thus, having in mind that children will make the future of the state and noting their health is of high importance we investigated the effects of light and color as an internal factor for hospital specialized in child care. Within developing countries like Iran, one puts high importance for this issue. This study is in range of fundamentals and based on comparative and logic methods. Correlation and other common methods within psychology were used to study the issue better like color questionnaire. One can practice to analyze indices and criteria within users' ethology .Through this one can make better the relation between human and the environment and provide generalization fields for patients cure applying light and color within internal architecture. Data analysis showed that the effects of light and color on formation way of human ethical patterns can be organized in three general indices; skeletal, performance, and organization besides sub-indices based on priority and effect level. Data analysis also indicated that they can be studied well to provide patterns for patient's recovery process.
    Keywords: Psychology, Light and Color, Hospital, Children
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Morteza Seddigh , Pardis Pazira},
    title = {The Effects of Color on Patient Recovery Process Centered at Child Psychology},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {30-39},
    month = {January}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 3163
    Paper Title :: A Novel Approach to Transient Stability Using Stochastic Energy Functions Suitable For Power System Risk Assessment
    Author Name :: Sowmya.S || Anuradha.K
    Page Number :: 40-47
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0315040047

    It is very important to maintain supply reliability under the deregulated environment. The transient stability problem is one of the major concerns in studies of planning and operation of power systems. Although the equal-area criterion method is useful in determining the stability as a transient stability evaluation method, the method is only applicable to a one-machine system connected to an infinite bus or to a two machine system and the time domain simulation is the best available tool for allowing the use of detailed models and for providing reliable results. The main limitations of this approach involve a large computation time. This paper describes a method for estimating a normalized power system transient stability of a power system that is four machines, six bus system and three machines, nine bus systems. The critical clearing time is evaluated using corresponding energy function Therefore, the transient energy function (TEF) is constructed for large power system.

    KEYWORDS : Critical Clearing Time (CCT), Direct Stability Analysis (DSA),Structure preserved power system, Transient Energy Function (TEF).

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sowmya.S , Anuradha.K},
    title = {A Novel Approach to Transient Stability Using Stochastic Energy Functions Suitable For Power System Risk Assessment}
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {3},
    number = {01},
    pages = {40-47},
    month = {January}
    }