• Volume 2 || Issue 8 || versions 1 || August 2013
    Paper Id :: 25060
    Paper Title :: Faqcase: A Textual Case-Based Reasoning System
    Author Name :: Aminu Bui Muhammad|| Abba Almu
    Page Number :: 01-08
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02810108
    We present FAQCase, a Textual Case-Based Reasoning system for solving Frequently Asked Questions. The system uses an adapted Lesk algorithm to disambiguate senses of query terms and then transform the query with synonyms from WordNet. This is to improve matching at the retrieval phase since, in natural languages; the same information can be expressed using lexically different words. An evaluation of the system shows that there is significant retrieval improvement over a baseline system with no query transformation
    KEYWORDS: Textual Case-based Reasoning, Word Sense Disambiguation, WordNet.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Aminu Bui Muhammad, Abba Almu},
    title = {Faqcase: A Textual Case-Based Reasoning System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {01-08},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 27038
    Paper Title :: The Effect of Microbes on Textile Material: A Review on the Way-Out So Far
    Author Name :: BORYO, D.E.A
    Page Number :: 09-13
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/028109013
    It is revealed that microbes survive on all classes of textiles materials comfortably and used them as source of nutrient. The outcome of this on the textile materials, environments and humans is devastating. Several attempt by researchers to minimize the effects using antimicrobial agents ended up with mixed results. However, chitosan seem to be the way out so far.
    Keywords: microbes, fabrics, stain, odour, degradation, antimicrobes, chitosan.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {BORYO, D.E.A.},
    title = {The Effect of Microbes on Textile Material: A Review on the Way-Out So Far},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {09-13},
    month = {August
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27092
    Paper Title :: Effect Of Soil Burial On Properties Of Polypropylene (Pp)/ Plasticized Potato Starch (Pps) Blends
    Author Name :: Obasi H.C, ||Onuoha F.N, ||Eze I.O || Nwanonenyi S.C, || Arukalam I.O|| Uzoma P.C.
    Page Number :: 14-18
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0281014018
    The effect of potato starch on the mechanical properties and biodegradability of polypropylene was investigated using the soil burial test method. Polypropylene and plasticized potato starch with and without compatibilizer were produced through melt blending for soil burial that lasted for 90 days. The results showed that tensile properties of the various PP blends decreased progressively with the increase in starch content and burial time for PP/PPS blends. Similarly, tensile properties of PP/PCPS blends followed the same trend but with less decrease in tensile properties than PP/PPS blend due to compatibilizing effect of maleic anhydride-graft- polypropylene which offered an improved interfacial adhesion between starch and matrix. The tensile properties however, for both PP/PPS and PP/PCPS decreased with increased in starch content and burial period
    Keywords: Plasticized potato starch, polypropylene, soil burial, mechanical properties, compatibilizer
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Obasi H.C, Onuoha F.N, Eze I.O, Nwanonenyi S.C, Arukalam I.O, Uzoma P.C},
    title = {Effect Of Soil Burial On Properties Of Polypropylene (Pp)/ Plasticized Potato Starch (Pps) Blends},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {14-18},
    month = {August
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27121
    Paper Title :: Random Number Based Dynamic Anti-Screenshot Virtual Keyboard for Securer Web Login
    Author Name :: Afolayan A. Obiniyi|| Mohammed Aminu Umar
    Page Number :: 19-22
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0281019022
    Virtual Keyboards have for long been employed by online bank portals and other Internet web portal to mitigate threats of key loggers, this has now being made inefficient by use of screen capture technologies to steal user credentials. Thus, these have made the quest for a newer approach eminent
    Keywords: Virtual Keyboard, Keyloggers, Anti-Screenshot, Trojan, Online Banking.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Afolayan A. Obiniyi, Mohammed Aminu Umar},
    title = {Random Number Based Dynamic Anti-Screenshot Virtual Keyboard for Securer Web Login},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {19-22},
    month = {August}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 28002
    Paper Title :: Feedback Controller for a 3-Phase 6-Pulse Rectifier.
    Author Name :: Sudeep Pyakuryal || Mohammad Matin
    Page Number :: 23-27
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0281023027
    In all phase controlled thyristor bridges, the dc output voltage is a function of supply line to line voltage and the phase angle of gate firing signal. In an ac to dc converter, it is desired to obtain a constant dc output voltage, in spite of disturbances. Some of the disturbances are due to change in supply voltage, supply frequency, or load current, and due to harmonics produced by converter itself. The values of circuit parameters are also within a certain tolerance. So in high-volume production of rectifiers, the rectifier output voltage lies in some distribution. It is desired to have the output voltage within a range. However, this is not practical to achieve the dc output voltage within the range without the use of a negative feedback controller. Thus, we cannot just set a fixed firing angle for thyristors and obtain a desired dc output voltage under all conditions. The idea behind the use of negative feedback controller is to design a circuit that automatically adjusts the firing angle to obtain desired dc output voltage regardless of the disturbances. In this paper a 3-phase 6-pulse rectifier is designed first with the independently running pulse generators and then a negative feedback integral control is applied to the rectifier. Alternative Transients Program, ATP, has been used to model the rectifier and negative feedback system, and to obtain thyristor firing signals, input voltage and current waveforms, and output voltage waveform.
    Keywords: Integral Control, Negative Feedback, Phase Control, Rectifier, Thyristor.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sudeep Pyakuryal , Mohammad Matin},
    title = {Feedback Controller for a 3-Phase 6-Pulse Rectifier},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {23-27},
    month = {August
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27118
    Paper Title :: Synthesis And Dyeing Properties Of Novel Bifunctional Reactive Dyes Via 4-(4-Nitrophenyl)-1, 3-Thiazole-2-Amine,4-(4-Methylphenyl)-1, 3-Thiazol-2-Amine And H-Acid On Nylon Fabrics
    Author Name :: A.I. Ezeribe|| K. A., Bello|| H. M. Adamu|| D.E.A Boryo|| P,G,Omar
    Page Number :: 28-36
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0281028036
    Bifunctional reactive dyes are coloured compounds that possess more than one reactive moiety per molecule or groups, capable of forming covalent bonds between dye ions or molecules and the substrate. Two bifunctional reactive dyes 14e and 14f with a single monochlorotriazinyl and vinyl sulphone reactive groups were synthesised via 4-(4-Nitrophenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-amine and 4-(4-Methylphenyl)-1,3- thiazol-2-amine. The intermediates were diazotized and coupled with H-acid and other coupling components to derive the dyes (14e) and (14f). Wavelength of maximum absorption (λmax ) of dyes were obtained. The dyes were applied on nylon fibres at various pH and temperature conditions. The optimum % exhaustion, % fixation and fixation efficiency were determined in glubber salt as the fixing agent. Washing and light fastness properties of dye samples were determined. The result revealed a λmax of 580nm in (14e) and 640nm in (14f) respectively, % exhaustion maximum values of 61in (14e) and 69 in (14f) at 80 oC,61% in (14e), and 75% in (14f) at pH 11,for 70 minutes respectively, % fixation gave maximum values of 70 and 72 in (14e) and (14f) at pH 11 respectively. The fixation efficiency gave maximum values of 70% and 60 % at pH 11 respectively. The fairly good shades observed may be due to better, substantivity as well as good covalent fixation of the dyes with nylon fabrics. The overall results suggest that nitro and methyl groups introduced on the para position of benzene ring of dye molecules induced a hypochromic shift of 60 nm on (14e) and 120nm on (14f) respectively.
    Keywords: Bifunctional Reactive dyes, %Exhaustion, Fastness properties, %Fixation,Fixation,Efficiency.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Bifunctional Reactive dyes, %Exhaustion, Fastness properties, %Fixation,Fixation,Efficiency.},
    title = {Graph Theoratic Techniques for Web Content Mining,
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {28-36},
    month = {August}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 27133
    Paper Title :: The Impact Of Information And Communication Technology (Ict) Compliant Librarians On Library Services Delivery In Academic Library: The Case Of National Open University Of Nigeria(Noun)Library
    Author Name :: Nebeolise|| Lucy Ndidiamaka
    Page Number :: 37-43
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0281037043
    The study aimed at examining the impact of information and communication Technology (ICT) compliant librarians on library services delivery on NOUN library. The paper traces briefly the history of National Open University Library. The e-resources, staff strengths are highlighted. The study adopted the descriptive survey method. The questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. A total of fifty (50) questionnaires were distributed and collected back. The data collected were analyzed with the use of tables and simple percentages. From the analysis of the data collected, it was found that the use of ICT compliant librarians on library service delivery aids immensely in the development of NOUN library, quick delivery of information services, access and easy retrieval of information by users. The study shows thatInadequate ICT skilled professional Librarians, Inadequate provision of ICT training programmes, Inadequate Power supply and inadequate ICT infrastructures hinder the effective use of ICTs in NOUN library. Therefore, it was recommended that there should be massive injection of funds and financial assistance from both the Nigerian government and some international donor agencies for the provision of ICT infrastructural facilities and training and retraining of librarians to enable them meet the standard of technology age for effective library services. This will result in the delivery of the effective information services and make it easily accessible to users
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nebeolise, Lucy Ndidiamaka},
    title = {The Impact Of Information And Communication Technology (Ict) Compliant Librarians On Library Services Delivery In Academic Library: The Case Of National Open University Of Nigeria(Noun)Library},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {37-43},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 27142
    Paper Title :: Customer Relationship Management as Key Factor For Gaining Sustained Entrepreneurial Success
    Author Name :: Kenneth Chukwujioke Agbim ||Godday Orziemgbe Oriarewo ||Zechariahs Benapugha Owutuamor
    Page Number :: 44-47
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0281044047
    Today's competitive and constantly changing business environment has brought to the fore the need for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to manage the relationship with their valuable customers like any other resource. Thus, the study investigated the effect of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) on sustained entrepreneurial success. Two-way communication and conflict handling skills were adopted as key dimensions of CRM, while the stakeholder theory was used as a measure of sustained entrepreneurial success. Data was generated via questionnaire and analysed using multiple regression. It was found that two-way communication and conflict handling have positive effects on CRM. The study therefore concluded that SMEs can gain and sustain their entrepreneurial success through enhanced two-way communication and conflict handling skills. This can be achieved by ensuring that persons hired as employees have the capacity to deal with difficulty customers; training and retraining of both old and new employees so as to help them develop the requisite values and skills; and the development of a policy of openness by the SMEs that will allow customers' complaints to be heard, assure timely reaction to the complaints, and the treatment of such complaints to the satisfaction of the customers.
    Keywords: Conflict handling, customer relationship management, small and medium enterprises, sustained entrepreneurial success, two-way communication.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kenneth Chukwujioke Agbim , Godday Orziemgbe Oriarewo ,Zechariahs Benapugha Owutuamor},
    title = {Customer Relationship Management as Key Factor For Gaining Sustained Entrepreneurial Success},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {44-47},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 27143
    Paper Title :: Fertility And Fertility Determinants: A Nexus For Understanding The Need To Manage The Fertility Of Women In Awka Town, Anambra State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Kenneth Chukwujioke Agbim ||James Ikyernum
    Page Number :: 48-56
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0281048056
    Research has shown that childbearing preferences greatly contribute to high fertility rate and by extension the low incidence of the development of female entrepreneurs. Consequently, this study examined the contribution of 17 selected fertility determinants to the fertility of ever-married women in Awka town. The selected fertility determinants are: age at first marriage, menopause, average length of breast feeding, coital frequency, still birth, average length of birth spacing, educational level, religious denomination, value of a son, value of a daughter, child labour, income, job classification, number of siblings, age at menarche, marriage type and age at first birth. A survey research method was adopted for the study, while systematic sampling technique was employed to generate data using questionnaire. The generated data were analysed Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple regression. The PCA collapsed the 17 determinants into 5 components, while multiple regression was used to determine the contributions of each of the 5 components to the fertility of the ever-married women. The result showed that component one (comprising age at first marriage, age at menarche and age at first birth) made the highest contribution to the variations. The study therefore recommends increase in girl child education up to secondary school and higher institution levels, and increased and better employment opportunities for women so as to militate against early marriage, early child bearing age and consequently high fertility rate.
    Keywords: Children-ever born, Ever-married women, Female entrepreneurs, Fertility determinants, High fertility rate.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kenneth Chukwujioke Agbim , James Ikyernum},
    title = {Fertility And Fertility Determinants: A Nexus For Understanding The Need To Manage The Fertility Of Women In Awka Town, Anambra State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {48-56},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 27145
    Paper Title :: The Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustained Entrepreneurial Success: An Investigation Using The Stakeholder Theory
    Author Name :: Kenneth Chukwujioke Agbim || Zechariahs Benapugha Owutuamor ||Godday Orziemgbe Oriarewo,
    Page Number :: 57-61
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0281057061
    This study employed the stakeholder theory to explore the relationship between entrepreneurial success and the dimensions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) – environmental protection, customer care, employee care and community care. Data were generated by means of questionnaires that were administered on the major stakeholders of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) – customers, employees and the community. The data generated were analysed using product moment correlation. It was found that the SMEs showed a high sense of social responsibility to their customers and employees but lacked commitment to environmental protection and community care. The study concluded that the unprecedented increase in the population of Nigeria without a corresponding increase in social/infrastructural development, the dwindling revenue base of the government, the lack of commitment to community development, and the sheer misuse of the environment by SMEs have contributed to the upward trend in the dilapidated/obsolete condition of our infrastructures, unemployment, poverty and heaps of refuse that has dotted our roads. To reverse the trend, SMEs should be sensitized on the need to be committed to environmental protection and community development. In addition, a law that will compel SMEs to be socially responsible to their host community should be enacted.
    Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, Entrepreneurial success, Small and medium enterprises, Stakeholder theory sustained
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Kenneth Chukwujioke Agbim , Zechariahs Benapugha Owutuamor , Godday Orziemgbe Oriarewo},
    title = {The Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustained Entrepreneurial Success: An Investigation Using The Stakeholder Theory},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {57-61},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 27144
    Paper Title :: Job Rewards as Correlates of Job Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from the Nigerian Banking Sector
    Author Name :: Godday Orziemgbe Oriarewo ||Kenneth Chukwujioke Agbim ||Zechariahs Benapugha Owutuamor
    Page Number :: 62-68
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0281062068
    Reduction in job rewards has been identified as one of the attendant consequences of the measures introduced by the Central Bank of Nigeria to salvage the banking sector from total collapse in the wake of the global economic meltdown. Thus, this study was designed to examine the relationship between job rewards and job satisfaction of employees in the Nigerian banking sector. Data was collected from bank employees and analysed using correlation and linear regression analysis. It was found that job satisfaction is more related to extrinsic rewards than intrinsic rewards. The result further revealed that age and gender differences moderates the relationship between job satisfaction and job rewards as older employees were more satisfied than younger employees, while the satisfaction levels with respect to the job rewards received by the male and female employees varied. The study recommends: that the knowledge of the moderating influences of age and gender differences should be adopted in recruitment, placement, appraisal and compensation of employees; and the adoption of a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards as a more effective job satisfaction strategy rather than employing them separately.
    Keywords: Age differences, extrinsic rewards, gender differences, intrinsic rewards, job Satisfaction
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Godday Orziemgbe Oriarewo , Kenneth Chukwujioke Agbim ,Zechariahs Benapugha Owutuamor},
    title = {Job Rewards as Correlates of Job Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from the Nigerian Banking Sector},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {62-68},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 27050
    Paper Title :: Computational Analysis of Laminated Glass Panels Under Blast Loads: A Comparison Of Two Dimensional And Three Dimensional Modelling Approaches
    Author Name :: H. D. Hidallana-Gamage || David P Thambiratnam || Nimal J Perera
    Page Number :: 69-79
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0281069079
    This paper illustrates the use of finite element (FE) technique to investigate the behaviour of laminated glass (LG) panels under blast loads. Two and three dimensional (2D and 3D) modelling approaches available in LS-DYNA FE code to model LG panels are presented. Results from the FE analysis for mid-span deflection and principal stresses compared well with those from large deflection plate theory. The FE models are further validated using the results from a free field blast test on a LG panel. It is evident that both 2D and 3D LG models predict the experimental results with reasonable accuracy. The 3D LG models give slightly more accurate results but require considerably more computational time compared to the 2D LG models.
    Keywords: Blast load, Finite element modelling, Laminated glass, 2D shell elements, 3D solid elements
    @article{key:article,
    author = {H. D. Hidallana-Gamage , David P Thambiratnam , Nimal J Perera},
    title = {Computational Analysis of Laminated Glass Panels Under Blast Loads: A Comparison Of Two Dimensional And Three Dimensional Modelling Approaches},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {69-79},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 27138
    Paper Title :: Efficiency And Hydraulic Power Of Poldaw Windpump Systems At Some Locations In Northern Nigeria
    Author Name :: G. Y. Pam ||I. B. Mansir ||M. I. Borok ||Y. B. Kolo
    Page Number :: 80-85
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0281080085
    The overall efficiencies and mean hydraulic power outputs for the 1.8m, 2.2m, 3.5m and 5.0m Poldaw windpump systems were evaluated for Jos, Kano, Sokoto and Zaria, which are all, locations in northern Nigeria. The overall efficiencies for the four windpump systems ranged between 10% and 16 %. The overall efficiency for each windpump system was found to increase with increase in the hydraulic equivalent load and decrease in wind speed. The hydraulic power outputs were found enough to irrigate more than one hectare of agricultural land in Jos, Kano and Sokoto for the 5.0m windpump system; Jos only for the 3.5m windpump system; none for the other two. However, the 5.0m and 3.5m windpump systems were found capable of supplying domestic water to more than 500 inhabitants in the four locations; 2.2m windpump system in Jos, Kano and Sokoto; Jos only for the 1.8m windpump
    Keywords: Hydraulic Equivalent Load, Hydraulic Power, Overall Efficiency, Wind Speed, Windpump System
    @article{key:article,
    author = {G. Y. Pam ,I. B. Mansir , M. I. Borok ,Y. B. Kolo},
    title = {Efficiency And Hydraulic Power Of Poldaw Windpump Systems At Some Locations In Northern Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {80-85},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 28003
    Paper Title :: Assessment of Nitrogen in Municipal Household Bio-Waste Using Kjeldahl-Nesslerization
    Author Name :: Ahmad Syauqi|| Zainal Kusuma ||Kliwon Hidayat
    Page Number :: 86-94
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0281086094
    Quantification of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen determination is done with various methodes such as titimetry, photometry, spectrophotometry and it depend the form of solid or liquid sample. The nitrogen determination of EPA 350.2 model according to colour complex substance of NH2Hg2IO is used for the sample that liquid form with Kjeldahl method-Nesslerization. Aim of research is first, transformation of EPA 350.2 quantitative model for solid sample with evaluation through verification of the unit. Second, percentage determination of bio waste nitrogen is compare with the precision of measurement with prior research. Using action research method in laboratory was done with two variables: first, modification of Kjeldahl digestion of Janssen and Koopman and second, Nesslerization-spectrophometry technique. EPA 350.2 quantitative model transformation to determination % N has three parameters i.e. N concentration in mgL-1 unit, total volume of N-organic digestion result in litre (L) unit, and sample weight in mg unit. The third of those parameters gave procedure more efficient. Differences of accurate value of research measurement and reference were – 0.08 until – 0.02. Using comparator with photometry and titimetry method were – 0.13 until + 0.14. Accurate value of measurement in this research and comparator was not different.
    Keywords: Bio-wastes, Kjeldahl-Nesslerization method
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ahmad Syauqi , Zainal Kusuma , Kliwon Hidayat},
    title = {Assessment of Nitrogen in Municipal Household Bio-Waste Using Kjeldahl-Nesslerization},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {86-94},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 26133
    Paper Title :: Comparative Analysis of Water Quality in Hand Dug Well and Borehole in Calabar South Local Government Area in Nigeria
    Author Name :: Ukpong, E. C.||Ogarekpe, N. M.|| Bejor, E. S.
    Page Number :: 95-101
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02810950101
    The shortage of water supply in Calabar South by the State Water Company has forced private individuals to drill boreholes and hand dug wells for private and commercial purposes. Some individuals, whose financial status is low, take the objection of digging a hand dug well which serves as a source of water supply to them, hence the need to ascertain the wholesomeness status of this source of water supply. Two boreholes and two hand dug well were selected from the study areas for the study. Two boreholes and two hand dug wells were randomly selected from the study area for the purpose of the study. Two samples were taken from boreholes at different street within the study area and vis-visa. The samples were analyzed based on the standard method of analysis. The result shows that the total coliform count of the boreholes samples met the WHO recommended standard, while the total coliform of hand dug well did not meet the WHO standard. Turbidity, Nitrate all met the WHO standard for both boreholes and hand dug wells. The result shows that the borehole samples contain zero coliform count as compared to the hand dug wells with numerous bacterio-logical count of 50 to 60 and 2 numbers of total coliform count (TCC) each respectively. Only the borehole samples met the World Health Organization (WHO) standard as shown in Table 2. Turbidity, nitrate, DO, BODs, COD, TDS all met the WHO standard, except the pH value which gives values ranging from 4.95 to 5.30 indicating acidity and require treatment with lime to raise the pH value to values close to 7.
    Keywords: Boreholes, dug wells, water samples, source of water and coliform bacteria.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ukpong, E. C., Ogarekpe, N. M. Bejor, E. S.},
    title = {Comparative Analysis of Water Quality in Hand Dug Well and Borehole in Calabar South Local Government Area in Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {95-101},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 27131
    Paper Title :: Analysis of Skills and Training Needs of Metalwork Engineering Enterprises in Ghana
    Author Name :: Obeng,G.Y ||Adjaloo, M.K ||Amrago, D.K
    Page Number :: 102-112
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/028101020112
    This paper analysed skills and training needs of metalwork engineering enterprises in Ghana. Using primary data from cross-sectional survey, empirical analysis was carried out. The data was developed into a database on metalwork engineering enterprises in Kumasi of Ghana. 500 metalwork engineering enterprises were analysed for trends and proportions to provide knowledge and understanding. To determine training priorities, skills gap analysis was used. Pareto chart was also used to analyse priority areas for training, tools for training, best time and duration. The study results showed that although the metalwork engineering enterprises possessed diverse skills, they were limited in knowledge-based skills and training, which adversely impact on productivity and competitiveness. It was revealed that about 86% of the respondents acquired their existing skills through apprenticeship training from master craftsmen over an average period of 4.9 years. From the results, the widest gap in skills was in ICT and Computer Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Basic skills upgrading is needed in welding and fabrication, agricultural and agro processing equipment manufacture, technical drawing and metalwork fabrication. The results suggested that priority training methods and tools should focus on hands-on and use of basic engineering tools. Majority of metalwork engineering enterprises prefer training duration of 1-3 months and late afternoon (4-7 pm) since the mornings are peak periods for business and income generation. The need for skills upgrading, awareness creation in design processes, well-timed training etc are recommended..
    Keywords: Metalwork enterprises; skills development; training needs; gap analysis; Ghana.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Obeng,G.Y, Adjaloo, M.K, Amrago, D.K},
    title = {Analysis of Skills and Training Needs of Metalwork Engineering Enterprises in Ghana},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {102-112},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 28015
    Paper Title :: Approximate Elastic Model for Determination of Critical Loads and Effective Lengths for Simple Sway Frames
    Author Name :: Solomon Teminusi Orumu
    Page Number :: 113-120
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/028101130120
    This paper is aimed at providing a simple model for determination of critical loads, for simple sway frames. It is a mathematical model, which is derived systematically from a simplified elastic linear analysis, combined with moment equilibrium at the base of frame at the onset of a mechanism. The deflection due to direct axial compression and the deflection due to shear deformation are neglected to obtain the overall stiffness. Results obtained from the proposed model are striking.
    Keywords: Critical Loads, Effective Length, Linear Elastic Analysis, Sway Frames
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Solomon Teminusi Orumu.},
    title = {Approximate Elastic Model for Determination of Critical Loads and Effective Lengths for Simple Sway Frames},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {113-120},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 27071
    Paper Title :: Effect of Alternative Scouring Agents on Mechanical Properties of Cotton/Polyester Blend Fabric
    Author Name :: Boryo, D.E.A|| Bello K.A.|| Ibrahim A.Q.|| A.I Ezeribe A.I || Omizegba F.I|| Offodile P.U
    Page Number :: 121-132
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/028101210132
    This research comprises of six alternative agents at various concentrations of 1-5% used as scouring agents with NaOH as control on cotton/polyester blend fabric. The scoured samples were bleached, and mercerized. The suitability and reliability of the agents were evaluated for some mechanical properties of the treated fabric. Safety and cost analysis of the alternative agents were investigated. The experimental results showed that 3% liquid NH3, 5% NH4OH and 3% (COOH)2 improved the breaking load (12.35-13.11kgf) more than the control (12.06kgf). The other agents competed with the control. 2% NH4OH revealed a better breaking extension (14.14%) than the control (13.28%) and the other alternatives were favourably ranking with the control. The dry crease recovery property displayed all the alternative agents in the following order: 3% liquid NH3, 5% CH3CH2OH and 5% (COOH) 2, 2% (NH4)2C2O4, 5% CH3COOH and 5% NH4OH with far higher values (106-82%) than the control (730). The linear densities of the alternative agents were higher than the control. The alkalinity and acidity (pH) of the alternative agents after the scouring process were environmentally friendly in comparison with the highly alkaline NaOH (control), thus unfriendly. The cost analysis revealed some of the alternative agents far cheaper than NaOH. This implies that the alternative agents are suitable and reliable as impurity-removing (scouring) agents. The alternative agents improved the mechanical properties of the pretreated fabric far better than the control. Therefore the alternative agents could be employed in the textile industry and commercially as scouring agents so that the world could be a better and safe place for everybody.
    Keywords: alternative scouring agents, cheap, mechanical properties, reliable, safe, suitable.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Boryo, D.E.A , Bello K.A.; Ibrahim A.Q. ; A.I Ezeribe A.I ; Omizegba F.I Offodile P.U},
    title = {Effect of Alternative Scouring Agents on Mechanical Properties of Cotton/Polyester Blend Fabric},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {121-132},
    month = {August}
    }
    Volume 2 || Issue 8 || versions 2 || August 2013
    Paper Id :: 28010
    Paper Title :: Production of V-Belt Pulley Using Segmented Pattern
    Author Name :: Dauda, M. || Okechukwu, C
    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02820107
    Towards reduction of machining steps and improvising V-belt pulleys where there is no lathe machine for turning blanks, a V-belt pulley has been developed using segmented pattern and three flask mould. This project is aimed at reducing the machining time, energy and cost by providing an already grooved blank for turning of pulleys and improvising same in remote areas where there is no lathe machine. Also, large diameter pulleys can be produced via this method. The chamfered top and bottom segments of the pattern have dowels, while the centre disc segment has holes for positioning of the dowels. Sand moulding was achieved by moulding the wooden pattern segments in the cheek, followed by the drag and lastly, the cope, when the drag-cheek subassembly is turned upside down. Cores made of dry sand and sodium silicate were moulded in plastic pipes, dried and positioned in the core print cavities to form holes and reduce weight after casting. Aluminium scraps were melted in a charcoal furnace to achieve the casting. Visual inspection of the pulley groove with a B64 V-belt after fettling, showed good fitting.
    Keywords: V-belt pulley, Segmented pattern, Machining, Sand casting, Three flask mould
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dauda, M. ,Okechukwu, C},
    title = {Production of V-Belt Pulley Using Segmented Pattern},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {01-07},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 28016
    Paper Title :: Comparative Analysis of K-Ε and Spalart-Allmaras Turbulence Models for Compressible Flow Through a Convergent-Divergent Nozzle
    Author Name :: Nadeem Akbar Najar|| D Dandotiya||Farooq Ahmad Najar
    Page Number :: 08-17
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/028208017
    Owing to its peculiar flow characteristics, a convergent-divergent nozzle finds its application in various aerospace technologies and non aerospace technologies as well. Therefore, it is necessary to understand flow fields associated with these nozzles to explore their capabilities to their fullest. In this paper, 2D, axisymetric flow analysis of compressible flow through a convergent-divergent nozzle is carried out with the help of CFD tools (Gambit 2.2.30 for modeling and Fluent 6.3.26 for analysis). First the problem is solved by employing K-ε turbulence model and afterwards by employing Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model, a comparative analysis is carried out between the models on the basis pressure, velocity, temperature contours and vectors to ascertain the efficient design conditions for convergent-divergent nozzles, suitability of models for a particular application and interaction between various flow field characteristics resulting in the flow separation and shock waves.
    Keywords: Convergent-divergent nozzle, axisymetric flow, K-ε turbulence model, Spalart- Allmaras model, CFD, flow separation, shock waves.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nadeem Akbar Najar, D Dandotiya, Farooq Ahmad Najar},
    title = {Comparative Analysis of K-Ε and Spalart-Allmaras Turbulence Models for Compressible Flow Through a Convergent-Divergent Nozzle},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {08-17},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 28014
    Paper Title :: RAFTA2011, The Innovation Of The Manufactured Floating House Model: A New Concept Of Waterfront Settlements For Flood Risk Reduction In Indonesia
    Author Name :: Karyadi Kusliansjah || Yasmin Suriansyah
    Page Number :: 18-29
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0282018029
    The influence of global warming appears to worry to the world and Indonesia, especially the effects of floods happening at the riverside that potentially cause losses. Indonesia is an archipelagic country threatened by such a risk because its geographical zone is spread across a very active tectonic area, beside it the longest beach having some waterfront settlements in 300 cities located near rivers or coasts. Most of the dwelling houses in the areas are kampongs, stilted houses, and marginalized traditional floating houses.This study is intended to contribute to risk reduction of floods, through manufactured innovation in RAFTA2011's floating house model, and develops a new setting of waterfront settlements that are healthy, safe, ecological and relatively inexpensive. The research outcome supports integrated design development and opportunity for growth in new related industries. RAFTA2011 based with qualitative-quantitative design research methods at Martapura riverside in Banjarmasin, supported by The Higher Education-Kopertis-4-DP2M, Competitive Research Grants Programme.
    Keywords: Floods, RAFTA2011, Riverside, Banjarmasin.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Karyadi Kusliansjah, Yasmin Suriansyah},
    title = {RAFTA2011, The Innovation Of The Manufactured Floating House Model: A New Concept Of Waterfront Settlements For Flood Risk Reduction In Indonesia},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {18-29},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 27128
    Paper Title :: Development of Waste Polystyrene as a binder for emulsion paint formulation I: Effect of polystyrene Concentration
    Author Name :: Osemeahon, S.A||Barminas, J.T ||Jang, A.L
    Page Number :: 30-35
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0282030035
    In our continuous desire to find suitable methods of recycling waste, expanded polystyrene waste was converted into a paint binder using gasoline as a solvent. Some properties of the binder at different concentrations (5% - 30%) were investigated. The melting point, refractive index, density, viscosity, turbidity and elongation at break were found to increase with increase in binder concentration. The solubility of the binder was however, found to decrease with increase in binder concentration. At a concentration of 20% w/v, the binder was found to be insoluble in water. Thus, the processing of waste polystyrene binder for emulsion paint formulation should therefore be carried out below this concentration level. This study provides polystyrene waste as a potential binder for emulsion paint formulation.
    Keywords: waste expanded polystyrene, gasoline, physical properties, emulsion paint.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Osemeahon, S.A; Barminas, J.T; Jang, A.L},
    title = {Development of Waste Polystyrene as a binder for emulsion paint formulation I: Effect of polystyrene Concentration},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {30-35},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 28004
    Paper Title :: Social Events and Alcohol Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption in Makurdi Metropolis of Benue State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Judith A. Mase ||Anyalewa Alan -Ajonye
    Page Number :: 36-43
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0282036043
    The purpose of this research is to assess empirical information concerning social events and alcohol self-efficacy as predictors of alcohol consumption in Makurdi metropolis of Benue State. A cross –sectional survey design was adopted for the study. A total of 279 participants comprising of 189(67.7%) males and 77(28.0%) females (12 participants did not specify gender) were randomly selected using simple random sampling method. Data were collected through two instruments namely alcohol consumption scale and alcohol self-efficacy questionnaire. Two hypotheses were tested using simple linear regression analysis.---
    Keywords: social events, alcohol self-efficacy, alcohol consumption
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Judith A. Mase , Anyalewa Alan -Ajonye},
    title = {Social Events and Alcohol Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption in Makurdi Metropolis of Benue State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {36-43},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 28033
    Paper Title :: Array Indexing Technique: Answering The Iceberg Queries Efficiently
    Author Name :: Ankam Praveen, Vuppu Shankar
    Page Number :: 44-52
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0282044052
    The effectiveness of a data retrieving method depends upon the data specific queries for retrieving the data from the database. Fundamentally, iceberg queries are unique class of aggregation queries that compute aggregate values upon user interested threshold. The basic bitmap index technique is used to process an iceberg query by conducting a bitwise-AND operation between every pair of bitmap vectors that consumes a large amount of execution time to answer an iceberg query. Furthermore, this execution time increases when the cardinality of an attributes are increases. The major part taken into the consideration about the bitwise-AND operations in the iceberg queries. The reduced number of AND operation increases the effectiveness of the iceberg query. In this work, an efficient iceberg query evaluation process is proposed by removing the unnecessary fruitless bitwise-AND operations needed to find the item pairs. The proposed scheme is index-based technique. In this scheme, the index positions of bitmaps vectors whose 1's are retrieved. Then retrieved index positions will be further processed to turn out in to iceberg result upon user provided threshold. The extensive experimental results on the real and synthetic data sets are showing better execution time of an iceberg query evaluation
    Keywords: Bitmap index, Bitwise-AND operation, Bitmap vectors, Database, Information retrieval system
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ankam Praveen, Vuppu Shankar},
    title = {Array Indexing Technique: Answering The Iceberg Queries Efficiently},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {44-52},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 28035
    Paper Title :: Analytical Model to Predict Pore Pressure in Planning High
    Pressure, High Temperature (Hpht) Wells in Niger Delta
    Author Name :: Nweke || I. Francis || Prof. Adewale Dosunmu
    Page Number :: 53-63
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0282053063
    Predicting the pore pressure is the premise of achieving excellent, efficient and safe drilling operation and it is also the key part of protecting oil & gas layer. Agbada basin in the Niger Delta of Nigeria usually has very difficult deep geological structure and multivariate underground pressure system, so it is very significant to efficiently predict its pore pressure in the process of exploration and development of the deep reservoirs in the area. The thesis also analyzes the principle and defect of current prediction methods and finds the proper pore pressure prediction method by modifying Ben Eaton's model, using D-exponent method of pore pressure prediction. The methodology for pore pressure prediction known as D exponent is a function of an exponent of adjustment that was originally defined for the Gulf of Mexico (Jorden & Shirley, 1966; Eaton, 1972). Drilling, Petrophysical and measured pressure data for various wells previously drilled in the area were examined and reviewed. This approach consisted of calculating the ratio between effective stress and the D exponent at each well, in order to find a robust NCT for the entire field, thus reducing subjectivity in the traditional D exponent methodology. Pore pressure determinations from Measured Direct Tests (MDT) at various well in Niger Delta confirm the predictive capability of this approach. This produces a new thought and method for pore pressure prediction of deep formation in Niger Delta and for HPHT wells, this method is impacted by the number of study samples, it should be used in where the measured formation pressure data is rich.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nweke, I. Francis , Prof. Adewale Dosunmu},
    title = {Analytical Model to Predict Pore Pressure in Planning High Pressure, High Temperature (Hpht) Wells in Niger Delta},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {53-63},
    month = {August}
    }
    Volume 2 || Issue 8 || versions 3 || August 2013 
    Paper Id :: 28040
    Paper Title :: Effect of Moisture Content on some Quality Parameters of Mechanically Expressed Neem Seed Kernel Oil
    Author Name :: Orhevba, B.A||Chukwu, O.|| Oguagwu, V.||Osunde, Z.D
    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0283001007
    The effect of moisture content on some quality parameters of mechanically expressed neem seed kernel oil was investigated. The quality parameters include saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid, acid value and colour. They were determined according to standard methods and were determined in three replicates. Matured neem seed kernels were obtained and the initial moisture content determined. The neem seed kernels were then preconditioned to the following moisture content values: 6.3, 8.1, 13.2 and 16.6 % (wet basis), based on reported values for oil seeds meant for oil extraction; the seed kernels were then subjected to oil extraction using an oil expeller. The oil obtained at the different moisture contents was then subjected to standard tests to determine the effect of these moisture contents on the quality parameters of the oil. New Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to determine the differences in the mean treatment effect of moisture content on the different quality parameters. From the results obtained, highest saponification value of 262.46 was obtained with Moisture content at 8.1%, thereafter the saponification value decreased as the moisture content was increased. Iodine values increased as the moisture content increased from 6.1% to 8.1%, decreased sharply at 13.2% and then increased sharply at 16.6%. Moisture content seems to have increasing, decreasing, and then increasing effect on the values of the free fatty acid. Moisture content has an upward and downward effect on acid value. It was observed that moisture contents at higher levels affected the colour of the oil, which changed from brown to dark brown. From the foregoing, it can therefore be deduced that moisture content has an effect on the quality parameters of neem seed kernel oil.
    Keywords: Colour, free fatty acid, Moisture content, Neem seed kernel, Quality
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Orhevba, B.A, Chukwu, O., Oguagwu, V.,Osunde, Z.D},
    title = {Effect of Moisture Content on some Quality Parameters of Mechanically Expressed Neem Seed Kernel Oil},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {01-07},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 28043
    Paper Title :: Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of A Mixed- Mode Solar Dryer
    Author Name :: D. Lawrence, ||C. O. Folayan, ||G. Y. Pam
    Page Number :: 08-16
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0283008016
    This paper presents the design, construction and performance evaluation of a 100 kg capacity cassava mixed-mode solar dryer, incorporating a black painted conical chimney to serve as an additional absorber. The constructed dryer was tested with 10%, 25% and 50% load dryer capacity for drying of cassava chips. The peak and minimum solar collector outlet air temperatures as observed during the period of the experiment were 81oC and 14oC respectively. The average dryer temperature was found to be 40.9 oC. The average weight loss were 0.52 kg, 1.01 kg and 1.56 kg per hour for initial total load capacities of 10%, 25% and 50% respectively. The average drying efficiencies of the various load capacities were found to be 15.3%, 26% and 40% respectively. The solar radiation received through the glass, used for the covering of the drying chamber sides contributed about 25% of the total energy used for the drying process.
    Keywords: Cassava, mixed-mode, loss, wind speed, conical chimney
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D. Lawrence, C. O. Folayan, G. Y. Pam},
    title = {Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of A Mixed- Mode Solar Dryer},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {08-16},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 28029
    Paper Title :: Coexistence of Superconductivity and Ferromagnetism in a Magnetic Superconductor
    Author Name :: Haftu Brhane||Amarendra Rajput|| Getachew Abebe
    Page Number :: 17-23
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0283017023
    A model is presented utilizing a Hamiltonian with equal spin singlet and triplet pairings based on quantum field theory and green function formalism, to show the correlation between the superconducting and ferromagnetic order parameters. The model exhibits a distinct possibility of the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism, which are two usually incompatible cooperative phenomena. The work is motivated by the recent experimental evidences of a long-range magnetic order below the superconducting phase temperature in a number of ternary or pseudo-ternary compounds of the lanthanides. The theoretical results are then applied to show the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in the lanthanide compound HoMo6S8.
    Keywords: Spin singlet and triplet state,Superconducting and ferromagnetic order parameters, Green function
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Haftu Brhane, Amarendra Rajput, Getachew Abebe},
    title = {Coexistence of Superconductivity and Ferromagnetism in a Magnetic Superconductor},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {17-23},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 28007
    Paper Title :: Using Tensiometry to Establish Point of Optimal Interaction of PMMA/PVC in a Blend
    Author Name :: Arinze, R. U.,|| Eboatu A. N.|| Okoye, N. H.||, Ojiako, N. E.|| Odinma, S.C
    Page Number :: 24-25
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0283024025
    Polymers have, in the last few decades, been replacing traditional materials such as metals, wood, ceramics, cement and glass in their applications. However, it is observed that most polymerics of commerce these days are not usually homopolymers but blends or alloys of two or more polymers. This is because it has been seen that blending often results in materials that synergistically incorporate desirable properties of the individual components. In this work, PVC and PMMA were blended by the liquid-liquid technique and the resultant films characterized by tensiometry. The results obtained show optimal interaction at 0.28 PVC base mole fraction for tensile strength and 0.07 PVC base mole fraction for elongation. This point indicates most facile blend composition as well as utility
    Keywords: Polymer blend, PVC, PMMA, tensiometry and optimal interaction
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Arinze, R. U., Eboatu A. N., Okoye, N. H., Ojiako, N. E. and Odinma, S.C},
    title = {Using Tensiometry to Establish Point of Optimal Interaction of PMMA/PVC in a Blend.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {24-25},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 12092
    Paper Title :: Dimensions of the Contributions of Agricultural Development Programme to Rural Development in Nigeria
    Author Name :: Amadi,|| Dennis C.A; ||Eluwa, Desmond;|| Agu Innocent||Achu Anthony
    Page Number :: 26-30
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0283026030
    Among the several approaches by Nigerian Government to address rural development in recent years was the introduction of State wide Agricultural Development Programme (ADPs) in 1980s. The program was among other things designed to raise productivity, income and standard of living of rural farmers in Nigeria. This study investigated the dimensions of the contributions of ADP to rural development in Nigeria. The study sourced data on ADP inputs (Infrastructural Development and Input Supplies) to rural agriculture, and rural farmers outputs in terms of total crop output, total annual farm income, property ownership, farm size, access to credit facilities, use of farm technology, and farmers' training before and after the ADP inception. The instrument for data collection were two sets of questionnaires administered to ADP staff and management on one hand and a sample of farmers in all the four ADP agricultural zones of Adamawa State of Nigeria on the other hand. The dimensions of the contribution of ADP to rural development were determined using factor analysis. The results revealed that the ADP had positive and significant influence on rural farmers' welfare in dimensions of farm output, farm asset / technology, farmer resources/ capacity and access to credit facility. The implication is that the ADP structure, if judiciously managed and funded could accelerate rural development in Nigeria. The program should then concentrate her efforts in improving farm output, farm assets and technology, building farmer resources and capacity and improving access to credit facilities
    Keywords: Agricultural Development Program, Rural Farmers, Rural Development.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Amadi, Dennis C.A; Eluwa, Desmond; Agu Innocent and Achu Anthony},
    title = {ADimensions of the Contributions of Agricultural Development Programme to Rural Development in Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {26-30},
    month = {August}
    }
    Paper Id :: 26160
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of Corn Water for Corrosion Inhibitors Extract
    Author Name :: T.A Yusuf|| D.T Gundu|| M.I Oseni|| B.O Bolaji|| S.O Ismaila
    Page Number :: 31-35
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0283031035
    Corrosion Inhibitors are used as concentrates in water-based engine coolants to prevent corrosion. However, researches are still progressive on the new sources of these inhibitors as they are majorly inorganic and expensive. Meanwhile, corn water is cheaply available and organic. It is mostly decanted off fermented corn paste, Ogi as waste products. This study investigated whether corn water contains organic corrosion inhibitors which when extracted makes it an alternative source of corrosion inhibitors. Two samples of corn water were produced from fermented white and yellow corn. The samples were subjected to standard analytical test for related physicochemical properties. Organic corrosion inhibitors such as Phosphates, Nitrites and Silicates were determined
    Keywords: Corn Water, Corrosion Inhibitors, Engine Coolants, Fermentation, Physicochemical Properties.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {T.A Yusuf, D.T Gundu, M.I Oseni, B.O Bolaji, S.O Ismaila},
    title = {Evaluation of Corn Water for Corrosion Inhibitors Extract},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {31-35},
    month = {August}
    Paper Id :: 28042
    Paper Title :: Enhancing Educational Effectiveness in Physics through Cognitive Development Model: An Investigation in Formal Operational Stage
    Author Name :: Dr. Divya C.Senan
    Page Number :: 36-41
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0283036041
    A retrospective of objectives of Physics teaching during various decades reveal that they have undergone immense change. The goal of education is not to increase the amount of knowledge but to create the possibilities of a child to invest and discover.The present study is envisaged to find out the effectiveness of Cognitive Development Model on achievement in Physics at secondary level. It is expected that the findings of the study will help curriculum planners and those who are connected necessity of the application of these new techniques in the teaching of Physics. It also helps to provide a broad developmental perspective to the educator for building a curriculum for the secondary school students.It will help teachers to understand the effectiveness and necessity of the application of model approach in the teaching of Physics
    Keywords: Cognitive Development Model; Formal Operational Stage; Piagetian notion of stage.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Divya C.Senan},
    title = {Enhancing Educational Effectiveness in Physics through Cognitive Development Model: An Investigation in Formal Operational Stage},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {36-41},
    month = {August}
    Paper Id :: 28058
    Paper Title :: Implementation of Unified Power Quality Conditioner in 3-φ 4-wire distribution system by using instantaneous power theory
    Author Name :: K. Venkata Ravindra|| V Madhu Sudhan Reddy
    Page Number :: 42-49
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0283042049
    This paper presents the design of Unified power quality conditioner connected to three phase four wire system by using p-q theory to improve the power quality . The UPQC is the integration of series and shunt active filters. The pq theory is applied to the control algorithm for series and shunt active filters .The p-q theory consists of an algebraic transformation (Clarke transformation) of the three-phase voltages and currents in the a-b-c coordinates to the α-β-0 coordinates, followed by the calculation of the p-q theory instantaneous power components The implementation of active filters based on the p-q theory are cost-effective solutions, allowing the use of a large number of low-power active filters in the same facility, close to each problematic load (or group of loads),avoiding the circulation of current harmonics, reactive currents and neutral currents through the facility power lines. The 3p4W distribution system is realized from a three phase three wire system where the neutral of series transformer used in the fourth wire for the 3P4W system. The neutral current that may flow toward transformer neutral point. This neutral current can be compensated by using a four leg voltage source inverter . . The simulation results based on MATLAB/SIMULINK are also presented
    Keywords: Active power filter (APF), four-leg voltage-source inverter (VSI) structure, three-phase four-wire (3P4W) system, unified power quality conditioner (UPQC).
    @article{key:article,
    author = {K. Venkata Ravindra, V Madhu Sudhan Reddy},
    title = {Implementation of Unified Power Quality Conditioner in 3-φ 4-wire distribution system by using instantaneous power theory},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {42-49},
    month = {August}
    Paper Id :: 28048
    Paper Title :: The application of Variable Frequency Drive as an efficient control element in cement industry
    Author Name :: Amresh Kumar Ray||Kaushal Prasad ||Nitish Kumar
    Page Number :: 50-56
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0283050056
    Variable Frequency Drives have been available to the cement industry for a number of years. Each step of the way from the quarry to the finished cement product, variable frequency drives are used to smoothly start large motors and continuously adjust the speed as required by the process. In cement industry many application machines such as excavators, induced draft fan, mills, conveyors, crushers and kilns which are driven by induction and synchronous motor are controlled by variable frequency drive. The control process through variable frequency drives leads to efficient speed control, low power losses, energy savings, low pollution and significant saving in economy. This paper reviews how variable frequency drive has emerged as a reliable control solution for the cement industry.
    Keywords: variable frequency drive (VFD), induction motor, control, cement industry, power, energy and variable speed drive (VSD)
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Amresh Kumar Ray, Kaushal Prasad and Nitish Kumar},
    title = {The application of Variable Frequency Drive as an efficient control element in cement industry},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {50-56},
    month = {August}
    Paper Id :: 28025
    Paper Title :: Development and Performance Evaluation of Dry Cell Battery Powered Ultra Low Volume Sprayer
    Author Name :: D.A.Mada|| G.Y.Jamala|| S. Ibrahim
    Page Number :: 57-61
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0283057061
    The acceptance of sprayer and agricultural chemicals as an optimum tool for quality and quantity crop production had lead to development of many sprayers. Other sprayers had remained in effective, expensive, un economical and obsolesces to farmers. This sprayer was developed using local available materials to minimize manufacturing cost. The sprayer consists of the following key part: back pack tank, strap, battery case, nozzle and 7.5 volts dry cell battery. Laboratory and field test was conducted to determined flow rate and application rate. It was found workable and satisfactory to suit the current trend of pest control operations for direct formulation and water based application. The maximum swath width recorded was 1.5m and capable to spray 0.4ha/hr at one meter per second walking speed .The droplet size and uniformity of coverage is effective with even distribution of spray. Effective spray decreases with decrease of liquid head, battery weakness and forward speed.
    Keywords: Agrochemicals, Back pack tank, development, evaluation, sprayer.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D.A.Mada, G.Y.Jamala, S. Ibrahim},
    title = {Development and Performance Evaluation of Dry Cell Battery Powered Ultra Low Volume Sprayer},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {57-61},
    month = {August}
    Paper Id :: 26104
    Paper Title :: Expected traffic load, pavement thickness, fatigue and rutting strain relationship for low volume asphalt pavement
    Author Name :: E. O. Ekwulo||D. B. Eme
    Page Number :: 62-77
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0283062077
    The major causes of failure in asphalt pavement is fatigue cracking caused by excessive horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of asphalt layer due to repeated traffic loading and rutting deformation, caused by densification and shear deformation of subgrade. In the design of asphalt pavements, it is necessary to determine the minimum required pavement thickness to withstand the expected traffic such that fatigue and rutting strains are within the allowable minimum. This study was conducted to develop a simple relationship between expected traffic, pavement thickness, fatigue and rutting strain for cement-stabilized lateritic base, low-volume asphalt pavement. Analysis were performed for hypothetical asphalt pavement using the layered elastic analysis program EVERSTRESS. Regression equations were developed to establish a relationship between expected traffic, pavement thickness, fatigue rutting strain in cement-stabilized lateritic base, low-volume asphalt pavement. The result was validated using measured fatigue and strain data from the Kansa Accelerated Testing Laboratory (K-ATL). The calculated and measured fatigue and rutting strain were calibrated and compared using linear regression analysis. The calibration of calculated and measured fatigue and rutting strains resulted in R2 of 0.999 and 0.994 respectively for subgrade modulus of 31MPa, 0.997 and 0.997 respectively for subgrade modulus of 41MPa, 0.996 and 0.999 respectively for subgrade modulus of 62MPa, 0.992 and 0.995 respectively for subgrade modulus of 72MPa, 0.999 and 0.998 respectively for subgrade modulus of 93MPa, and 0.999 and 0.999 respectively for subgrade modulus of 103MPa indicating that the coefficients of determination were found to be very good.
    Keywords: Expected traffic, Pavement Thickness, Fatigue and Rutting Strain, Low volume Roads.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {E. O. Ekwulo, D. B. Eme},
    title = {Expected traffic load, pavement thickness, fatigue and rutting strain relationship for low volume asphalt pavement},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {8},
    pages = {62-77},
    month = {August}