• Volume 2 || Issue 4 || versions 1 || April 2013
    Paper Id :: 13204
    Paper Title :: Analysis and Restrengthening Of Rcc Elevated Storage Reservoir
    Author Name :: Prof. A. A. Yadav ||Prof. (Dr.) A. M. Pande || Prof. A. A. Adekar
    Page Number :: 01-05
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02410105
    Many of the existing reinforced concrete structures throughout the world are in urgent need of strengthening, repair or reconstruction because of damages of structural members due to various reasons. Direct observation of these damaged structures has shown that damage occurs usually to beams, columns and the failure is mainly due to increase in stress levels of the members. [1]The Rehabilitation of the existing damaged Elevated storage reservoir with pile foundation of capacity 68m3 is used in this work to evaluate the effectiveness of retrofitting techniques, called Concrete Jacketing. One of the column support settles down by 130mm out four columns .The analysis of the structure are carried out and the root cause of the settlement of the support are investigated. The RC braces and columns are strengthened by reducing the stress using 1.25 factor. It is seen that the strengthened member exhibit significant reduction in the stresses. It appears that the proposed Retrofitting technique will have a significant impact in engineering practice in the near future.
    Keywords: analysis, roots cause, retrofitting, support displacement, concrete jacketing
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prof. A. A. Yadav and Prof. (Dr.) A. M. Pande and Prof. A. A. Adekar},
    title = {Analysis and Restrengthening Of Rcc Elevated Storage Reservoir},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {01-05},
    month = {April}
    }
    Paper Id :: 23171
    Paper Title :: Importance Of English Literature Teaching In 21st Century In Students Of Higher Secondaries And Colleges of Anantnag District Of Jammu And Kashmir
    Author Name :: Tawhida Akhter
    Page Number :: 06-08
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02410608
    A survey was undertaken to collect information from students in various higher secondaries and colleges of district Anantnag of Jammu and Kashmir to check the importance of English Literature Teaching in 21st century. The information was collected by using questionnaire technique. The information was made by using various visits to local colleges and higher secondaries and there interacting with students. The questionnaires were distributed among students of both rural and urban areas. The rural students showed less interest as compared to the urban students. This survey would help us in knowing what is the importance of English Literature Teaching in the present technological world where competition is at its peak. This survey gives us clear cut information regarding the importance of literature in 21st century in students of district Anantnag of Jammu and Kashmir. The study also shows that how many students among the selected population, like to study English Literature Learning and want to know more about the literature in this highly technological world. The district having literary rate 66.32% as per the census 2011 but we have seen from the past experiences and by this survey that literature does not enjoy its appropriate place or position. The 21st century saw the rise of many fiction and non-fiction books among younger generation. Many books like Harry Potter series and the Twilight series were converted into movies. The works of old writers were translated in easy language for the today's generation to understand. Our survey shows that when we compared it with other subjects, what is its actual position in present scenario of technological world or what treatment is given to the subject.
    Keywords: MHD, English Literature, English Literature Teaching, Jammu and Kashmir, Anantnag.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Tawhida Akhter},
    title = {Importance Of English Literature Teaching In 21st Century In Students Of Higher Secondaries And Colleges of Anantnag District Of Jammu And Kashmir},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {06-08},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23055
    Paper Title :: Electronic Path Guidance for Visually Impaired People
    Author Name :: Harshad Girish Lele || Viten Vilas Lonkar ||Varun Vasant Marathe || Mrunmayi Mohan Modak
    Page Number :: 09-12
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/024109012
    Vision, a God gifted sense to human being is an important aspect of life. With the help of our eyes, we are able to see the beauty of nature, things which happen in day-to-day life. But; there are some unfortunate people who lack this ability of experiencing these things. They face many problems in their daily chores. The problem gets worse when they are in an unfamiliar place. Hence to minimize their difficulties and that too with maximum ease, a concept has been thought of, which will guide Visually Impaired people to reach their destination(s). The Electronic Path Guidance will help them to move in an unfamiliar place independently and with the same simplicity as they are in familiar surroundings. For this we are using the RF (Radio Frequency) communication.
    Keywords: Electronic Path Guidance, Visually Impaired, RF module, Handheld Device, Magnetometer, Altimeter, Matrix keypad.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Harshad Girish Lele and Viten Vilas Lonkar and Varun Vasant Marathe andMrunmayi Mohan Modak},
    title = {Electronic Path Guidance for Visually Impaired People},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {09-12},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31060
    Paper Title :: Effect of Physico-Chemical Parameters on Zooplankton Species and Density of a Tropical Rainforest River in Niger Delta, Nigeria Using Canonical Cluster Analysis
    Author Name :: Imaobong Ekpo
    Page Number :: 13-21
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0241013021
    Investigations on physico-chemical features and zooplankton species were conducted forthnightly using standard methods in three sampling stations in Ikpa River between March 2009 and February 2010. Among others, the data were subjected to Canonical Cluster Analysis (CCA) to determine the effect of the environmental factors on the zooplankton species. The results of zooplankton revealed that all the sampling stations were significantly different (CV=17.72; F=46.09; p=<0.0001). The total number of classes, genera and species of zooplankton sampled were 4, 41 and 53 respectively. Zooplankton species composition was highest in station 3 (37 species; 69.81%) and lowest in station 2 (24 species; 45.28%), station 1 had 29 species (54.72%). Zooplankton classes in their descending order made the following contributions: rotifers (20 species; 37.74%), cladocera (14 species; 26.42%), protozoa (10 species; 18.87%) and copepods (9 species; 16.98%). Clean water species were observed to cluster in upper course where the most important environmental factor was transparency while pollution-tolerant species clustered in the downstream station which had nutrients, water level, total dissolved solids and biochemical oxygen demand as determinant environmental vectors. Middle course had fewer species clustered with the vectors of dissolved oxygen and total hardness. The observed trends which deviate remarkably from normal could be attributed to anthropogenic perturbations in STN 2 which alter the ecosystem stability and cause a shift in the longitudinal pattern downstream.
    Keywords: species composition, rainforest, zooplankton, Copepoda, Ikpa River
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Imaobong Ekpo},
    title = {Effect of Physico-Chemical Parameters on Zooplankton Species and Density of a Tropical Rainforest River in Niger Delta, Nigeria Using Canonical Cluster Analysis},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {13-21},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31052
    Paper Title :: FFT Algorithms: A Survey
    Author Name :: Pavan Kumar K M || Priya Jain ||Ravi Kiran S ||Rohith N ||Ramamani K
    Page Number :: 22-26
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0241022026
    FFT is an efficient tool in the field of signal processing in linear system analysis. It is widely used in OFDM and wireless communication system in today's world. Complex arithmetic modules like multiplier and powering units are now being extensively used in design. The parallel pipelined technology is introduced to increase the throughput of the circuit at low frequency. Based on low power technology of 16-pt. FFT up to 45% of power saving is achieved. The radix-2 is the fastest method for calculating FFT. A FFT is an efficient algorithm to compute the DFT and its inverse. The Fourier transform is the method of changing time representation to frequency representation.
    Keywords: Butterfly architecture, radix-2, FFT, OFDM, Xilinx, FPGA.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Pavan Kumar K M and Priya Jain andRavi Kiran S and Rohith N and Ramamani K},
    title = {FFT Algorithms: A Survey},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {22-26},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23105
    Paper Title :: FLAMMABILITY PROPERTIES OF CHEESE WOOD STEMBARK (Alstonia Boonei) FILLED-LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE
    Author Name :: O. Onuoha, F.N. || Engr. Dr. Obasi, H.C. ||Uzoma, P.C || Ugbaja, M.I.
    Page Number :: 27-31
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0241027031
    Polymer composites were prepared from Cheese wood stem bark (alstonia boonei) filled-Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) using the process of injection moulding and then compressed into a dumb-bell shape. It was found that the filler reduced the flammability of the composites. The mechanism of the flame-retardant effect of cheese wood stem barks is the oxidative degradation of the polymer to produce non-combustible products (carbon IV oxide and nitrogen oxides) at a rate sufficient to interfere with the normal combustion process in spite of the exothermicity of the oxidation degradation. The formation of non-combustible products was as a result of phosphorus and nitrogen contents of the filler. When the phosphorus burns, it produces char (carbon). The fillers used in blend proportion in the order: 100/0%, 99/1%, 98/2%, 97/3% and 96/4% LDPE-filler ratios. The 100% LDPE (unfilled) had glow time, burning time and flame propagation rate of 18 s, 50 s and 0.117 cm/s respectively. Hence, the glow time, burning time and flame propagation rate of the samples were all increased by cheese wood stem bark flame retardant.
    Keywords: Fillers, Reinforcement, Low Density Polyethylene, Flammability.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Onuoha, F.N. and Engr. Dr. Obasi, H.C. and Uzoma, P.C and Ugbaja, M.I.},
    title = {FLAMMABILITY PROPERTIES OF CHEESE WOOD STEMBARK (Alstonia Boonei) FILLED-LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {27-31},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23163
    Paper Title :: Multicast Arti-Q System In Vanet
    Author Name :: S.Sujatha || P.Sukanya
    Page Number :: 32-37
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0241032037
    The emerging needs of the wireless communication increase the researches in the wireless communication area. Ad hoc network is used for the wireless communication. MANET is one of the self-organizing, self-healing networks in the Ad hoc network. VANET is a subclass of the MANET which provides comfort and safety to the users of VANET. VANET is a collection of vehicular mobile nodes which forms the vehicular Ad hoc networks. In VANET there are many challenges wanted to solved, in order to provide efficient and stable services. This paper represents the Artigence techniques which will solve the challenges in the VANET and improve the efficiency. Artigence uses Arti-Q techniques, which is one type of efficient queuing technique. The VANET and Artigence are using in the call taxi management systems in order to provide efficient service to the customers.
    Keywords: Wireless communication, MANET, VANET, Artigence, Arti-Q, Queuing techniques, Call Taxi
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S.Sujatha, and P.Sukanya},
    title = {Multicast Arti-Q System In Vanet},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {32-37},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23099
    Paper Title :: An Improved Architecture for Lung Cancer Cell Identification Using Gabor Filter and Intelligence System
    Author Name :: K.Sankar ||Dr.M.Prabhakaran
    Page Number :: 38-43
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0241038043
    In recent times, image processing procedures are commonly used in a number of medical areas for image enlargement in preceding identification and managing periods, where the instant aspect is extremely important to determine the irregularity problems in objective figures, particularly in a variety of malignancy tumors such as lung cancer, breast cancer, etc. Image superiority and precision is the interior aspects of this investigation, picture superiority dimension as well as growth are depending on the improvement phase where small pre-processing methods are used based on Gabor filter within a Gaussian policies. Following the segmentation values, an improved section of the object of attention that is used as an essential establishment of characteristic extraction is achieved. Relying on wide-ranging skin texture, a routine comparison is made. In this investigation, the major discovered characteristics for accurate images comparison are pixels proportion and cover-classification.
    Keywords: Cancer Identification, Feature extraction, Enhancement, Watershed, Masking.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {K.Sankar andDr.M.Prabhakaran},
    title = {An Improved Architecture for Lung Cancer Cell Identification Using Gabor Filter and Intelligence System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {38-43},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23118
    Paper Title :: Cordial Labelling Of 3-Regular Bipartite Graphs
    Author Name :: Pranali Sapre
    Page Number :: 44 -50
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0241044050
    In the labelling of graphs one of the types of labelling is cordial labelling. In this we label the vertices 0 or 1 and then every edge gets a label 0 or 1 according to the labels of its end vertices. If the end vertices of an edge have same labelling then the edge gets the labelling 0 and if the end vertices have different labelling then the edge gets the labelling 1. After labelling the given graph in this way, if | number of vertices labelled '0' – number of vertices labelled '1' | = 0 Or 1 and also| number of edges labelled '0' – number of edges labelled '1' | = 0 Or 1 then this kind of labelling is called a cordial labelling and the graph is said to be cordial. Here we are going to prove a 3-regular bipartite graph is cordial.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Pranali Sapre},
    title = {Cordial Labelling Of 3-Regular Bipartite Graphs},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {44 -50},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24004
    Paper Title :: Computation of Very Fast Transient over Voltages in ransformer by Wavelet Transform in 800KV GIS
    Author Name :: K.Prakasam||D.Prabhavathi||Dr.M.Suryakalavathi||Dr.B.Ravindranath Reddy
    Page Number :: 51-58
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/241051058
    In a GIS, Very Fast Transient Over voltages (VFTO) are generated mainly due to switching operations. The switching operation may be of a disconnect or switch or a circuit breaker or an earthing switch. These switching overvoltage levels are possible up to 3.0 p.u, depending on switching configuration .This paper deals with analysis of vftos in transformer, transformer model is considered and the vftos generated are analyzed by Wavelet.
    Keywords: VFTO,,GIS,Transformer,Wavelet,Transients,DWT,
    @article{key:article,
    author = {K.Prakasam and D.Prabhavathi and Dr.M.Suryakalavathi and Dr.B.Ravindranath Reddy},
    title = {Computation of Very Fast Transient over Voltages in ransformer by Wavelet Transform in 800KV GIS},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {51-58},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 4 || versions 2 || April 2013
    Paper Id :: 21035
    Paper Title :: Experimental Study on Kinetics, Modeling and Optimisation of Osmotic Dehydration of Mango (Mangifera Indica L)
    Author Name :: Duduyemi Oladejo ||Ade-Omowaye B. I. O.|| Abioye Adekanmi. O
    Page Number :: 01-08
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02420108
    Osmotic dehydration is a widely accepted pre-treatment method with diverse huddle effects in fruits and vegetable preservation but has not enjoyed amiable application in food processing industry. The objective of this work is to study the mass transfer mechanism during osmotic dehydration, the process modelling and osmotic dehydration optimisation. Factors affecting mass transfer during osmotic dehydration especially concentrations of osmotic agent, processing temperatures, and time were investigated using mango fruit (Mangifera indica L) as a case study. The combined effects of temperature, sucrose concentration, and process time were modelled and while water loss and solute gain as response variables were optimised using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Central Composite Rotable Design (CCRD). Optimised conditions of 53.50Bx sucrose concentration 30.00C temperatrure and immersion time of 160.0min removed about 42.6 % water content with minimum solute gain of 6.3% of the sample solid content. At the predicted optimum points, the observed water loss and solute gain were found to be 41.87 and 10.65% of the initial sample content respectively. These results are impressive for future design of versatile equipment for osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables for the food industries.
    Keywords: optimization, osmotic dehydration, transfer mechanism, water loss and solute gain.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Duduyemi Oladejo and Ade-Omowaye B. I. O. and Abioye Adekanmi. O},
    title = {Experimental Study on Kinetics, Modeling and Optimisation of Osmotic Dehydration of Mango (Mangifera Indica L)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {01-08},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23096
    Paper Title :: A Modified Fast Accessing Security Mechanism Using Merkle Hash Torrent Extention for Cloud Computing Environment
    Author Name :: R.Ushadevi || V. Rajamani
    Page Number :: 09-17
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/024209017
    A modified fast accessing security mechanism using Merkle torrent extention for cloud computing environment is presented in this paper. Cloud computing mechanism transfers the data to third party auditor using private key and public key. It cannot transfer the large size data cloud and it using the security service provides the user to transfer the data from the third party auditor. In this problem overcome using the Merkle Hash and TPA data coloring and watermarking Techniques used to transfer the data cloud. The load image from the server provides the security and stored files from the particular cloud server. TPA sends to the public key from the client and connects to the server. They data provide secret key and those data to be stored in the cloud server, and connect TPA and accept private key and request the user viewing the information from authentication persons, as well as them to be changed or modify in the data cloud server. TPA cannot change data cloud computing mechanism, as well as those data should be stored in the private cloud. The Merkle hash function using the large size data to be transferred in the cloud server mechanism.
    Keywords: TPA, Data Coloring, Merkle Hash, Public key, Private Key, Cloud computing mechanism
    @article{key:article,
    author = {R.Ushadevi and V. Rajamani},
    title = {A Modified Fast Accessing Security Mechanism Using Merkle Hash Torrent Extention for Cloud Computing Environment},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {09-17},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23115
    Paper Title :: Multi-Threaded User Space Network Stack For Intrusion Prevention System
    Author Name :: Amar More ||Narender Singh Chaudhary ||Nayan Shah ||Vivek Jadon || Satish Goswami
    Page Number :: 18-21
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0242018021
    Nowadays, internet attacks have increased manifold. As the propagation speed of attacks has increased significantly, waiting for the attacks to happen and look for the diagnosis later on is of no use. Thus a proactive technique for countering attacks called NIPS comes into play. These prevention system can be implemented in both kernel and user space. The performance of kernel space implementations are always better as compared to user space implementations as it comes to processing the packets at higher rate because in user space these systems cannot keep up with speed of the network and starts dropping the packets. On the other hand the effects of system fault in kernel space are much more serious than in user space and thus user space implementation is much more robust. The performance of user space NIPS can be improved by providing a network stack in the user space itself which can overcome the factors responsible for reduced performance of these systems.
    Keywords: Internet attacks, NIPS, kernel space, user space, system fault, robust, Network Stack.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Amar More and Narender Singh Chaudhary and Nayan Shah and Vivek Jadon and Satish Goswami},
    title = {Multi-Threaded User Space Network Stack For Intrusion Prevention System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {18-21},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23140
    Paper Title :: Liquid Waste Minimization in the Production of 4-Amino Di Phenylamine 2-Sulfonic Acid
    Author Name :: Haren R Patel||Prof. Hiral N Pandya
    Page Number :: 22-27
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/D0242022027
    minimizing waste is a sustainable and environment efficient process for any company to produce any product. In dyes and dye intermediates company production of liquid waste is a major issue. In production of 4-amino diphenyl amine 2-sulfonic acid liquid waste generated in large quantity is reduced by recycle of mother liquor which is generated during reduction process of R-NO2 to R-NH2. The inprocess recycle of acidic effluent will reduce the quantity of acidic effluent and reduce the load of ETP plant. Recycle process is associated during pH reducing after reduction process. This cleaner production process leads to the economic efficient product.
    Keywords: pH maintaining, waste minimizing, recycle, reduction
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Haren R Patel and Prof. Hiral N Pandya},
    title = {Liquid Waste Minimization in the Production of 4-Amino Di Phenylamine 2-Sulfonic Acid},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {22-27},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23150
    Paper Title :: Code Reuse & Reusability of the Software
    Author Name :: Ms.Kirandeep Kaur|| Ms.Rekha Rani|| Ms.Jagdeep kaur
    Page Number :: 28-30
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0242028030
    Code Reuse is currently one of the most active and creative research areas in Computer Science. Code reuse is the use of existing software to build new software. Reuse and reusability are the two important factors in the software development. Reusability implies some explicit management of build, packaging, distribution, installation, configuration, deployment, and maintenance and upgrade issues. The paper identifies the scope, recent trends and future scope of software reuse.
    Keywords: Software Reuse & Reusability, Types, Process.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ms.Kirandeep Kaur and Ms.Rekha Rani and Ms.Jagdeep kaur},
    title = {Code Reuse & Reusability of the Software},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {28-30},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23155
    Paper Title :: Caste And Class Conflict In Mulk Raj Anand's: Coolie
    Author Name :: B. Balaji Reddy || M.M. Gopi ||C. Raghavendra Reddy
    Page Number :: 31-33
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0242031033
    From the time immemorial Class Conflict has been one of the major themes of literature. Class conflict is a term long-used mostly by socialists, communists, and many anarchists, who define a class by its relationship to the means of production--such as factories, land, and machinery. Mulk Raj Anand's stories depicted a realistic and sympathetic portrait of the poor in India. He is known as India's Charles Dickens. Anand highlights the class-conflict between upper caste people and lower caste people in his novels. Mulk raj Anand's 'Coolie' gives a chilling picture of a down trodden boy munno who at his early stage gets into oblivion of his own existence. He could feel the itch of an orphan and Anand could rightly give a heart throbbing description of his mental state and his all activities in a unique way. Anand continued his exploration of the Indian society in the form of class and caste conflict. This paper presents the Class conflict between the downtrodden and high class Hindus that was beautifully portrayed by Mulk Raj Anand in his novel Coolie.
    Keywords: Class Conflict, Upper caste people, Lower caste people, Mulk Raj Anand
    @article{key:article,
    author = {B. Balaji Reddy and M.M. Gopi and C. Raghavendra Reddy},
    title = {Caste And Class Conflict In Mulk Raj Anand's: Coolie},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {31-33},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23173
    Paper Title :: Benefits and Risks of E-Banking: Case of Commercial Banking In Zimbabwe
    Author Name :: Ian Ndlovu ||Mlungisi Sigola
    Page Number :: 34-40
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0242034040
    This research paper sought to analyse the benefits and risks of electronic banking for commercial banks in Zimbabwe. A cross sectional survey was used to address the objectives and hypothesis of the study. The results revealed that e-banking in Zimbabwe has five critical success factors which are the use of e-banking for cutting costs, to enhance customer loyalty, to offer convenience, to improve profitability and competitive marketing. The study showed that the major benefits of e-banking are improved convenience to customers, cost reduction and an improvement in customer loyalty. The perceived risks of e-banking were revealed to be low levels of computer literacy, low security levels, lack of access to the internet for the majority of the population and operational problems associated with computer systems for most banks. The findings of the study imply that banks should invest more in improving customer awareness of e-banking products and reduce perceive risks of e-banking. The government and monetary authorities must improve legislation and infrastructure to encourage faster adoption of e-banking technologies.
    Keywords: Electronic banking, risks, commercial banks, Zimbabwe
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ian Ndlovu and Mlungisi Sigola},
    title = {Benefits and Risks of E-Banking: Case of Commercial Banking In Zimbabwe},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {34-40},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24020
    Paper Title :: Localization of Faults in High Voltage Underground Cables by Wavelet Transform
    Author Name :: D.Prabhavathi ||K.Prakasam || Dr.M.Suryakalavathi || Dr.B.Ravindranath Reddy
    Page Number :: 41-48
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0242041048
    In this paper, a technique for identifying the phase with fault appearance in high voltage underground cable is presented. The Wavelet transform has been employed to extract high frequency components superimposed on fault signals simulated using MATLAB. It is found that the proposed method can indicate the fault types with satisfactory accuracy.
    Keywords: ug cable, wavelet, faults, high voltage
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D.Prabhavathi and K.Prakasam and Dr.M.Suryakalavathi and Dr.B.Ravindranath Reddy},
    title = {Localization of Faults in High Voltage Underground Cables by Wavelet Transform},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {41-48},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23092
    Paper Title :: Football and Aggressiveness According To the Gender
    Author Name :: Fairouz Azaiez|| Nasr Chalghaf ||Kaïs Ghattassi||Karim Achour ||Abdelhakim Cherif
    Page Number :: 49-52
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0242049052
    Aggressiveness has a close connection with the sport. It is an essential element of the success and correct operation of the play (the performance increases, makes it possible to the player to be respected).Football is generally aggregate with values of integration and socialization (Gasparini & Vieille- Marchiset, 2008). However, from the actions of violence and aggressiveness come to deteriorate this image.The demonstrations of aggressiveness and their effects on the violence of contact do not leave unconscious the players or of their frustration of Ego They subject to the features internal logic which is related to space interactional of the activity (violence of confrontation, distance from load and against communication).The purpose of this study is to measure the influence of the kind on the aggressive behavior (verbal aggressiveness, physical aggressiveness, anger and hostility) in football. A psychometric measure of aggressiveness (the Aggression Questionnaire of Buss and Perry, 1992) was proposed on 244 subjects. Our assumption is that the men footballers present aggressive provisions significantly higher than those of the football women in the field of physical aggressiveness, verbal aggressiveness, anger and the hostility.The results of the study reveal significant differences between the football men and the football women ones on the level of total aggressiveness.
    Keywords: Aggressiveness, gender, football
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Fairouz Azaiez and Nasr Chalghaf and Kaïs Ghattassi and Karim Achour and Abdelhakim Cherif},
    title = {Football and Aggressiveness According To the Gender},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {49-52},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23141
    Paper Title :: Privacy Preservation Using Randomized Attribute Selection Based On Knowledge Hiding
    Author Name :: P.Vijayakumar ||Dr. R.Manicka chezian
    Page Number :: 53-57
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0242053057
    Privacy preservation of user transactions has highly important while publishing the transactional data sets for further usage. There have been various methods to generate synthetic data sets which maintain the originality of the data set and hide the personal information's. In order to preserve personal information's in multi-dimensional transactional data sets we propose a data hiding technique which identifies the item to be hidden and generates the synthetic publishing data where the sensitive pattern is unknown. Among the proposed technique sensitive patterns are identified using IP-Search in the data set. At the second stage the proposed method generate the dot-matrix which is the publishing data to the external world. The proposed system takes the raw transactional data set as input and we identify the frequent patterns of purchase from the original data set based on the frequency of purchase pattern, we identify the interested patterns for a specific user and those identified interested patterns are sanitized using dot matrix operation. Randomized selection is applied to select the attribute to be sanitized in the dot matrix operation.
    Keywords: privacy preservation, knowledge hiding, frequent pattern.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {P.Vijayakumar and Dr. R.Manicka chezian},
    title = {Privacy Preservation Using Randomized Attribute Selection Based On Knowledge Hiding},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {53-57},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24002
    Paper Title :: Reliable Data Uploading and Distribution in the Cyber Space
    Author Name :: Aruna A || Kiruthika P ||Suganya N
    Page Number :: 58-63
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0242058063
    The Distributed considerations are the major acquiring epitome. The domain abbreviates monetary value related on computation. The service provided on scattered location to its users on demand across the cyberspace. The data and other resources used by the user are stored in the open environment. The circumstance issues more on data security and user fear on missing bound on their data. To enrich security on data, the security mechanisms are implemented, though the data integrity is unnoticed to user. To overcome the problem and achieve data integrity the method of auditing is established through Third Party Auditing (TPA). In addition to auditing the sensitive data in uploading over the dispersed area are protected by DES encryption algorithm.
    Keywords: Data Audit, Data Integrity, Data Security, Encryption Algorithm, Third Party Auditing
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Aruna A and Kiruthika P and Suganya N},
    title = {Reliable Data Uploading and Distribution in the Cyber Space},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {58-63},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24006
    Paper Title :: Design of Wireless Operated (On RFID) Forklift in Warehouse
    Author Name :: Aashishkumar L Sharnangat|| M. S. Tufail
    Page Number :: 64-67
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0242064067
    We describe the development of robotic forklift intended to operate alongside human personnel, handling palletized materials within existing, busy, semi-structured outdoor storage facilities. The robot operates in minimally-prepared, semi structured environments, in which the forklift handles variable palletized cargo using only local sensing, and transports it while interacting with other moving vehicles. The robot operates in close proximity to people, including its human supervisor, other pedestrians who may cross or block its path, and forklift operators who may climb inside the robot and operate it manually. This is made possible by novel interaction mechanisms that facilitate safe, effective operation around people.Using radio frequency identification (RFID) antennas with forklift trucks to identify goods and stock shelves automatically will help to increase efficiency of logistic processes. This paper discusses different approaches to integrate RFID antennas into a forklift truck. The different influences to RFID systems are discussed by consideration of logistic environments. Different antenna concepts are introduced and benchmarked by using simulation and measurement of electric field strength as well as functional tests.
    Keywords: RFID antennas, forklift trucks, warehouse management
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Aashishkumar L Sharnangat and M. S. Tufai},
    title = {Design of Wireless Operated (On RFID) Forklift in Warehouse},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {64-67},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23166
    Paper Title :: Notes on Russellian Cosmogony - Part 1: Absolute Atomic Mass
    Author Name :: O. P. Obande
    Page Number :: 68-77
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0242068077
    Absolute atomic mass was evaluated from frequency values provided long ago by Russell using Planck's and Einstein's energy equations. An empirical model successfully reproduced from absolute values relative atomic mass values that agree remarkably well with established values. Analyses of the results produced tenable evidence suggesting that reality consists of three universes orthogonally positioned relative to one another. Two of these universes are invisible and constitute the microcosm while our visible universe constitutes the macrocosm. The procedure facilitated empirical verification of Einstein's mass-energy equation the results of which provided additional evidence in support of existence of the three universe system. It was also revealed that each universe is defined by its inherent electro-magnetic radiation the transverse speed of which is identified with its unique speed of light and this determines values of atomic mass of its constituent chemical elements. Inherent e-m radiation of our visible universe and its invisible analogue were positively identified with the cosmic microwave background (CMB).
    Keywords: Russell's Cosmogony, Absolute Atomic Mass Evaluation
    @article{key:article,
    author = {O. P. Obande},
    title = {Notes on Russellian Cosmogony - Part 1: Absolute Atomic Mass},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {68-77},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23169
    Paper Title :: Mitigation of Co-Channel Interference in Long Term Evolution
    Author Name :: Vishnupriya.P
    Page Number :: 78-81
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0242078081
    Co-channel interference in Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular network is caused due to usage of same frequencies between the cells (cross-tier) at the same region. Here the term co-channel interference is otherwise known as inter-cell interference. It is important to mitigate this cross-tier co-channel interference between macrocells and femtocells in-order to improve the communication performance of the cellular network. In this paper, we describe the various approaches that exist to mitigate the co-channel interference by improving the user's throughput, coverage, capacity, SINR.
    Keywords: co-channel interference, long term evolution, cross-tier, macrocells, femtocells
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Vishnupriya.P},
    title = {Mitigation of Co-Channel Interference in Long Term Evolution},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {78-81},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Volume 2 || Issue 4 || versions 3 || April 2013
    Paper Id :: 21077
    Paper Title :: Estimation of Strength Properties of Shale from Some of Its Physical Properties Using Developed Mathematical Models
    Author Name :: Anikoh G.A.||Olaleye B.M.
    Page Number :: 01-05
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02430105
    Estimation of strength properties (uniaxial compressive and point load) from physical properties (density, porosity and rebound hardness) of shale rock type from Kogi State, Nigeria was investigated. The shale rock types were sampled and tested for their properties through in-situ and laboratory tests conducted. Schmidt hammer was used to carry out the in-situ testing of the rock on the field while rock samples were collected for laboratory test. Four samples of each rock type were prepared for the determination of density and porosity. The results obtained from the Schmidt hammer test and those of density determined from laboratory test were used to estimate the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock. The average density and porosity of the shale are 2.39 g/cm3 and 38.4%. The average uniaxial compressive strength and point load index values are 34.20 MPa and 1.60 MPa respectively. From the results, the strength parameters indicated high strength classification. The determined physical and strength parameters were analyzed statistically. Mathematical models were derived from the relationships between the parameters for the estimation of strength properties of the rock and the coefficient of their correlation (R2) indicated strong relationship. The results obtained would be useful tools for the prediction of the strength properties of rocks having similar physical properties as the investigated rock type.
    Keywords: Physical properties, strength properties, correlation, relationship, modeling.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anikoh G.A. and Olaleye B.M.},
    title = {Estimation of Strength Properties of Shale from Some of Its Physical Properties Using Developed Mathematical Models},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {01-05},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23101
    Paper Title :: Creating Business Intelligence and Operational Excellence with the Challenges of Vulnerability Assessments
    Author Name :: S. Senthil Kumar ||Dr.M.Prabhakaran
    Page Number :: 06-10
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/024306010
    As the Log files in the organization has become a more strategic asset, the need for higher availability, security, and reliability has increased. Delivering what companies require to achieve a converged, complex data takes specialized knowledge and skills in a growing list of advanced technologies that includes security, and store the data. Equally important to a consistent, proven methodology is the ability of that methodology to be applied to different types of companies with various sizes, locations, geographic reaches, and overall technology requirements. Therefore, this work also emphasizes the criticality of selecting the data must be strong, diverse, broad-reaching ecosystem of partners that can understand unique business requirements and application needs as well as they understand the issues occurred in the log data. The application needs as well as understand the problems occurred for business intelligence and challenging of vulnerability assessments to find the result.
    Keywords: Business intelligence, Vulnerability, Testing, Result analysis, Availability
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. Senthil Kumar andDr.M.Prabhakaran},
    title = {Creating Business Intelligence and Operational Excellence with the Challenges of Vulnerability Assessments},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {06-10},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23176
    Paper Title :: Attacks and Mitigations over Wireless Networks -Insecure Wireless World
    Author Name :: Popuri Manoj Kumar
    Page Number :: 11-21
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0243011021
    Wireless Technology is increasingly being used by organizations to mediate social/business relationships and social/business transactions. Almost 70% of people are using the Wireless Networks for their online transactions or online shopping, But the problem was any one can easily compromise a wireless network and monitor the data that was transferring over that network. Here in this paper I would like to explain in detail about what are the different ways that the attacker use for compromising the wireless Networks and the Mitigations steps to take care by the user for not affected by the Attacker. This was the most Sevier problem because this wireless Networks are becoming as a part of our day to day life, So We have to Secure our Wireless World.
    Keywords: Aircrack-ng, Airmon-ng, Sniffing, WEP,WPA,WPA2, Wireshark, Web Scarab, WPA_Supplicant, Airbase-ng, EAP, PEAP.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Popuri Manoj Kumar},
    title = {Attacks and Mitigations over Wireless Networks -Insecure Wireless World},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {11-21},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24071
    Paper Title :: Behaviour of Cold-Formed Steel Beams Under Cyclic Load Reversal
    Author Name :: Anbuchezian .A||Dr. Baskar.G
    Page Number :: 22-30
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0243022030
    The Cyclic load deformation of inelastic structural members is an important factor in investigating the dynamic response of the members against repeated loading ex. Earthquake and wave motion frequently; it is directly related to the collapse of overall structures under major dynamic motions. Totally 6 No's of cold-formed plain angle beams and 6 No's of cold-formed lipped angle beams are tested under cyclic loading. The hysteresis loops for the tested beams are obtained and the moment carrying capacity, local buckling behaviors are studied. The deformation ductility factors and stiffness factor are calculated. It is observed that the hysteresis behavior depends on the geometry of section. Provision of lips increases moment carrying capacity but reduces the ductility factor. Cold-formed steel structural elements good ductility behaviors and may be effectively used to resist seismic forces.
    Keywords: Hysteresis behavior, Moment carrying capacity, Cold-formed steel, Ductility,
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anbuchezian .A and Dr. Baskar.G},
    title = {Behaviour of Cold-Formed Steel Beams Under Cyclic Load Reversal},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {22-30},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13048
    Paper Title :: Characterization of Alkaline Phosphatase (E.C 3.1.3.1) From The Seeds of Dacryodes Edulis (African Pear) A Likely Industrial Source For Enzyme Production
    Author Name :: Fajana Olusegun .O. ||Adu Oluwatosin .B.||Ogunrinola Oluwafunmilayo. O.||Olaitain Samuel .N.||Raimi Olawale .G.|| Ebenezer Olubukola .A.||Elemo Babajide. O,
    Page Number :: 31-36
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0243031036
    Alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of phosphate ester bonds in extracellular organic molecules, enabling the availability of inorganic phosphate (Pi) for cellular metabolism. This study was therefore aimed at determining the activities of alkaline phosphatases (ALP) in producing and supplying inorganic phosphate for the various biochemical processes that require it during ripening in seeds of D. edulis (African Pear). The purification and characterization of these phosphohydrolytic enzymes in the seed was also carried out. The study revealed that the protein concentration ranged from 11.18± 0.053 mg/ml to 2.235 ± 0.015mg/ml and ALP activity was highest on the seventh day when the fruit is fully ripe. Enzyme activity ranged from 1577.80 ± 108.10U/I to 5480.440 ± 10.61U/I. The activities of alkaline phosphatase was activated by Mg2+, Mn2+, Ca2+ and inhibited by EDTA and fluoro oxalate in a concentration dependent manner. Dacryodes edulis seeds alkaline phosphatase had a Km and Vmax of 1. 80mM, and 1.52μmol/min/ml respectively, with an optimum pH of 10 and optimum temperature of 40oC. This seeds could serve as a source of alkaline Phosphate (ALP) enzyme production.
    Keywords: Alkaline phosphatase, characterization, Dacryodes edulis, enzyme, extracellular
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Fajana Olusegun .O. and Adu Oluwatosin .B. andOgunrinola Oluwafunmilayo. O. andOlaitain Samuel .N. and Raimi Olawale .G. and Ebenezer Olubukola .A., and Elemo Babajide. O},
    title = {Characterization of Alkaline Phosphatase (E.C 3.1.3.1) From The Seeds of Dacryodes Edulis (African Pear) A Likely Industrial Source For Enzyme Production},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {31-36},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24017
    Paper Title :: Hybrid Circuit Breaker – A Case Study
    Author Name :: Harshita Sethi ||Shivani Ashra ||Sukriti Lal
    Page Number :: 37-40
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0243037040
    High Voltage Circuit Breaker (CB) is important electrical equipment used in the power system network to isolate the faulty section from the healthy network and thus ensure safe operation of the electrical system. Vacuum Circuit Breakers and SF6 Circuit Breakers are widely used depending upon the power rating of the transmission line. The merits and demerits of the two are reviewed and the need for hybrid model is analyzed.
    Keywords: Vacuum Circuit Breaker, SF6 Circuit Breaker, Hybrid model
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Harshita Sethi and Shivani Ashra and Sukriti Lal},
    title = {Hybrid Circuit Breaker – A Case Study},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {37-40},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24054
    Paper Title :: Application of Big Bang Big Crunch Algorithm for Optimal Power Flow Problems
    Author Name :: S. Sakthivel ||S. Arun Pandiyan ||S. Marikani ||S. Kurinji Selvi
    Page Number :: 41-47
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0243041047
    Optimal power flow (OPF) is the major task in power system economics and operation. Real power outputs from the generators of a power system are so adjusted that the total production cost is minimum. Real power output from generators, generator bus voltages and transformer tap settings are controlled for optimizing the total fuel cost in this OPF problem. This work considers the Big Bang-Big Crunch (BB-BC) algorithm for optimally selecting the values for control variables. The proposed algorithm is simple, with less number of parameters and easy to implement. The performance this algorithm in OPF is tested on IEEE-30 bus test system. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other recently developed algorithms. The results obtained are quite encouraging and the algorithm is found to be suitable for power system operation optimizations.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. Sakthivel and S. Arun Pandiyan and S. Marikani and S. Kurinji Selvi},
    title = {Application of Big Bang Big Crunch Algorithm for Optimal Power Flow Problems},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {41-47},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24061
    Paper Title :: Implementation of PS2 Keyboard Controller IP Core for On Chip Embedded System Applications
    Author Name :: Medempudi Poornima ||Kavuri Vijaya Chandra
    Page Number :: 48-50
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0243048050
    In many case on chip systems are used to reduce the development cycles. Mostly IP (Intellectual property) cores are used for system development. In this paper, the IP core is designed with ALTERA NIOSII soft-core processors as the core and Cyclone III FPGA series as the digital platform, the SOPC technology is used to make the I/O interface controller soft-core such as microprocessors and PS2 keyboard on a chip of FPGA. NIOSII IDE is used to accomplish the software testing of system and the hardware test is completed by ALTERA Cyclone III EP3C16F484C6 FPGA chip experimental platform. The result shows that the functions of this IP core are correct, furthermore it can be reused conveniently in the SOPC system.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Medempudi Poornima and Kavuri Vijaya Chandra},
    title = {Implementation of PS2 Keyboard Controller IP Core for On Chip Embedded System Applications},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {48-50},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24066
    Paper Title :: Strength of Binary Blended Cement Composites Containing Saw Dust Ash
    Author Name :: L. O. Ettu ||O. M. Ibearugbulem ||U. C. Anya ||C. T. G. Awodiji ||F. C. Njoku
    Page Number :: 51-56
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0243051056
    This work investigated the strength characteristics of binary blended cement composites made with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Saw Dust Ash (SDA). 105 concrete cubes and 105 sandcrete cubes of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm were produced at percentage OPC replacement with SDAof 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% and crushed to obtain their compressive strengths at 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 50, and 90 days of curing. The 3-21 day compressive strength values of OPC-SDAbinary blended cement concrete were found to be much lower than the control values; the 28-50 day strengths were comparable to the control values; while the 50-90 day strengths were higher than the control values especially at 5-10% replacements of OPC with SDA, ranging from 25.00N/mm2 for 10% replacement of OPC to 26.60N/mm2 for 5% replacement of OPC compared with the control value of 23.60N/mm2. This same trend was observed for OPC-SDAbinary blended cement sandcrete. The variation in density was not significant. Mathematical models were developed for predicting compressive strengths of OPC-SDAbinary blended cement composites using polynomial regression analysis. The model values of compressive strengths obtained from the various model equations were found to be either exactly the same as those of the equivalent laboratory values or very close to them, especially at ages 28-90 days, with percentage differences ranging from 0 to 0.06. Thus, OPC-SDAbinary blended cement composites would be good for civil engineering works and the developed model equations can be easily used to estimate their strengths for various curing ages and percentage OPC replacement with SDA.
    Keywords: Blended cement, binary, composites, compressive strength, concrete, curing method, mix ratio, pozzolan, sandcrete.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {L. O. Ettu and O. M. Ibearugbulem and U. C. Anya and C. T. G. Awodiji and F. C. Njoku},
    title = {Strength of Binary Blended Cement Composites Containing Saw Dust Ash},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {51-56},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31078
    Paper Title :: A Study of Information Needs of Engineers in Nigerian Institute of Transport Technology, Zaria
    Author Name :: Lucky Tijani Abdulsalami
    Page Number :: 57-65
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0243057065
    The work was a survey to examine the study of information needs of engineers in Nigerian Institute of Transport Technology (NITT), Zaria. The extend was to determine the way and manner in which engineers go about seeking information and how important this information add to their work, the purpose of information to engineers. The problems of engineers in finding information, various ways of dealing with such situations, the study includes statement of problems, objective of the study and methodology of the research work employed. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire, seventy two (72) questionnaires was administered to the engineers, which forms the sample population was filled and returned. The findings of the study among others are long daily working hours, the hours in which engineers use for work hinders them from visiting the information center and the distance between work place and the information center. The problems they faced while seeking information are incomplete information .lack of relevant information and time, while lack of time is as prominent as ever. The researcher suggestions and recommendations was offered to help engineers through the Librarians and staff to help examine criteria of information services, designing new information services, intervening in the operation of existing systems or planning in services programs. Library staff or reference librarians should help users to improve their skills in information seeking behaviour and needs and to find out the types of information they need. The role of Librarians to assisting users in teaching the use of OPAC, search engine, e-mail and CD - ROM techniques.etc
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Lucky Tijani Abdulsalami},
    title = {A Study of Information Needs of Engineers in Nigerian Institute of Transport Technology, Zaria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {57-65},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31132
    Paper Title :: Thermal Aspect of Machining: Evaluation of Tool and Chip Temperature during Machining Process Using Numerical Method
    Author Name :: Uzorh Augustine .C ||Nwufo Olisaemeka .C
    Page Number :: 66-79
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0243066079
    Elevated temperatures generated in machining operations significantly influence the chip formation mechanics, the process efficiency and the surface quality of the machine parts. The temperature fields generated in the cutting process are subject of extensive research. The studies of these thermal fields in machining are very important for the development of new technologies aiming to increase the tool lives and to reduce production costs. Particular attention is given to modeling of the tool-chip, chip-work piece and tool-work piece interfaces. Since the direct temperature measurement at the chip-tool interface are very complex, this work proposes the estimation of the temperature and the heat flux at the chip-tool interface using the inverse heat conduction problem technique. The shear energy created in the primary zone, the friction energy produced at the rake face-chip contact zone and the heat balance between the moving chip and the stationary tool are considered. The temperature distribution is solved using finite difference method. The temperature and flux fields for various machining conditions along with their sensitivities and the situations of progressive flank and crater wear of the tool with continued machining are also considered. The mathematical models and simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental temperature measurements reported in the literature.
    Keywords: Machining; Temperature; Chip-Tool Interface; Heat; Finite Difference
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Uzorh Augustine .C and Nwufo Olisaemeka .C},
    title = {Thermal Aspect of Machining: Evaluation of Tool and Chip Temperature during Machining Process Using Numerical Method},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {66-79},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31169
    Paper Title :: Effect Of Speed And Contact Pressure On The Wear Rate Of Automotive Brake Pad
    Author Name :: O. C. Nwufo ||K. M. D. Ezeji ||C. F. Nwaiwu ||C. A. Okoronkwo
    Page Number :: 72-76
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/024308088
    An Experimental Brake Pad Test Rig was designed and constructed using readily available materials. The equipment was designed to test automobile disc brake pad wear and effectiveness at various speeds and braking forces. To determine its functionality a wear test was conducted on a commercial brake pad at various speeds and brake forces. This prototype test rig can be used in testing the brake pad of different vehicle such as Toyota, Mitsubishi, Volvo, Peugeot, and other brands of interest. With little modification, this product can be commercialized.
    Keywords: Automobile, Brake Pad, Wear, Test Rig.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {O. C. Nwufo and K. M. D. Ezeji andC. F. Nwaiwu and C. A. Okoronkwo},
    title = {Effect Of Speed And Contact Pressure On The Wear Rate Of Automotive Brake Pad},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {72-76},
    month = {April}
    }
     

    Volume 2 || Issue 4 || versions 4 || April 2013
     
    Paper Id :: 24010
    Paper Title :: Linear Prediction Analysis
    Author Name :: Sai Bharadwaj B || U.Vagdevi || Yadav Bineetha
    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02440107
    Most signals that we encounter in nature are random. A random signal has a predictable component and an unpredictable component. The aim of linear prediction is to use a linear model to model the mechanism that generates correlation among signal samples. In this project, we will use linear prediction to analyze the sound files(A bird chirping, A dog barking, The Girl speaking in English, Male speaking in Chinese) and to compare the predictability of sounds from animals and different languages . Levinson-Durbin algorithm also be applied as to implement the Linear Prediction. This project aims at Implementation of the Levinson-Durbin algorithm to analyze the four sound files, use a frame size of 20 msec to obtain the required result.
    Keywords: Random signal, Linear prediction, Levinson-Durbin Algorithm
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sai Bharadwaj B and U.Vagdevi and Yadav Bineetha},
    title = {Linear Prediction Analysis},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {01-07},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24012
    Paper Title :: A Study of Universal Bond Testers
    Author Name :: Raviteja Surapaneni ||E.K.V.Rajesh
    Page Number :: 08-11
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/024408011
    Universal bond testers are the devices that aid the operators in testing the die to withstand a force on its wire and ball bonds. Advanced bond test systems today are high precision universal systems that can perform pull and shear type tests. Royce -550,552 and 580 are being used by SPEL Semiconductor Ltd. for carrying out wire pull and ball shear tests. Of these, Royce-580 is the most advanced version which updates the test logs instantly into the computer. This decreases the need of man power to enter the test values. Several new features of the more advanced universal bond testers have been discussed. The paper also contains a brief analysis on different universal bond testers present till date and the new versions being upgraded.
    Keywords: CAR, ERP, ED, QC, Statistical process.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Raviteja Surapaneni and E.K.V.Rajesh},
    title = {A Study of Universal Bond Testers},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {08-11},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24130
    Paper Title :: Consumerism in the Globalized World
    Author Name :: Shubhendu S Shukla
    Page Number :: 12-16
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0244012016
    It would be in fitness of the fact to recall the greatest of Arab historians, Ibn- Khaldun saying: "That in civilization there is a limit that cannot be overstepped. When prosperity and luxury come to a people, they are followed by excessive consumption and extravagance, with which the human soul itself is undermined, both in its worldly well-being and in its spiritual life", particularly in context of globalization, liberalization and consumerism in India. This is what happening in India under the auspices of MNCs and trade policies of developed countries which are supposedly formulated to devour the third world consumer kingdom. Indians have a particular tendency to imitate what western nation states do but in context of consumer rights and responsibility we turned out as losers even in this art of ours. It was in1900 AD that the American consumer league was found in the USA, but we could not enact consumer protection law even after 40 years (1947-1986) of independence, though, in kautilya's Arthashastra, there are references to the concept of consumer protection against exploitation by the trade and industry, short weighment and measures, adulteration, and punishment for these offences. Consumers are now participants in a global market, and possibly in a cyber market. Law can only protect them (or us-we are all consumers) through rules which are essentially national, and which can only be enforced within national frameworks. Most of those rules have been enacted through a democratic political process. If the rules are useless in practice, people may question the usefulness of democracy and nation states. Consumer protection laws enable the correction of market failures and the redress of inequalities of information and power. Recent cases indicate that consumer protection laws, for a number of reasons, will be of little practical use to protect consumers in the global economy and in cyberspace. That raises the question of whether democratic politics can ever be used to bring countervailing force against those who abuse their position in the global market or the cyber market. If so, what other national laws will be rendered useless: labor laws, environmental laws, other laws that result from an often vigorous political process? What functions remain for democratic politics?
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Shubhendu S Shukla},
    title = {Consumerism in the Globalized World},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {12-16},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24098
    Paper Title :: Turbidity Study of Siphon Sediment Basin
    Author Name :: Moayyad M. Al-Nasra
    Page Number :: 17-22
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0244017022
    Erosion and sedimentation best management practice, BMP, did not address the turbidity issues effectively. Several measures were proposed, and in many cases erosion and sedimentation measures are enforceable. In this study, an effective turbidity contol sediment basin called siphon sediment basin will be introduced. Turbidy will be investigated using the siphon sediment basin. Several experimental readings will be presented. New design of the siphon basin will also be covered in this study. Because pollutant-removal efficiency depends on the detention time, sediment basin efficiency becomes critical issue. Comparison with existing sedimentation measures will be discussed in terms of effectiveness and cost. Site maintenance is also a major issue when it comes to turbidity control. Effective and simple erosion and sedimentation measure addressing the turbidy in water will be presented.
    Keywords: sediment basin, turbidity, siphon, erosion, pollutant, detention
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Moayyad M. Al-Nasra},
    title = {Turbidity Study of Siphon Sediment Basin},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {17-22},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31050
    Paper Title :: Design of a Biomass Power Plant for a Major Commercial Cluster in Ibadan, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Diji, C.J. ||Ekpo, D.D ||Adadu C.A
    Page Number :: 23-29
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0244023029
    The Nigerian electricity supply industry is currently under reforms, due to inadequate power supply to meet basic needs. Current government policy favours the development of alternative and renewable energy options to meet the shortfalls in electricity supply. The paper presents a proposal for the establishment of a biomass power plant at the Sango plank market, a major commercial cluster in Ibadan. Field studies showed that the plank market generates a biomass feed of sawdust and wood chips of 25,000tonnes/year.The paper proposesthe establishment of a 10MW direct combustion conversion process, biomass power plant at a capital investment of $1.77 million. Based on standard accounting practices, the generating cost of the plant was estimated at $0.56/kWh.Based on the Annual cost and present worth method the study also found the biomass plant more economical viable than using equivalentdiesel generating plants. The study concludes by showing the economical and environmental benefits of setting up the biomass to the Sango community.
    Keywords: Electricity, Biomass, Sawdust, Design
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Diji, C.J. and Ekpo, D.D and Adadu C.A},
    title = {Design of a Biomass Power Plant for a Major Commercial Cluster in Ibadan, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {23-29},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24070
    Paper Title :: Applying Data Mining to Analyze Travel Pattern in Searching Travel Destination Choices
    Author Name :: Pairaya Juwattanasamran || Sarawut Supattranuwong ||Sukree Sinthupinyo
    Page Number :: 38-44
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0244038044
    The purpose of this research is to find a traveler's interest extracted from search behavior when the traveler searches for tourism destination. This research focuses on the travelers who use mobile devices as a tool to search for travel destination choices such as accommodation, tourist attraction, things to do, restaurant and souvenir shop. We applied data mining method and association rules technique to analyze the relationship between travelers' profile and their transactions. Knowledge discovered from database can be used as a rule set which provides travel information for travelers via mobile. Our framework is designed as a knowledge incremental learning. The paper demonstrates that applying data mining with tourism sector can increase opportunity for the competitive operations of tourism firm to respond the travelers' demand effectively.
    Keywords: Data Mining, Association Rule, Travel Information Searching, Destination Choices.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Pairaya Juwattanasamran and Sarawut Supattranuwong and Sukree Sinthupinyo},
    title = {Applying Data Mining to Analyze Travel Pattern in Searching Travel Destination Choices},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {38-44},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24047
    Paper Title :: Impact of Cyber Crimes on Nigerian Economy
    Author Name :: MaitanmiOlusola ||Ogunlere Samson ||AyindeSemiu ||AdekunleYinka
    Page Number :: 45-51
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0244045051
    A lot of people in the world, mostly Nigerian have a limited knowledge of the crime occurring in cyberspace, known as cybercrime. Cybercrime happens in the world of computer and the Internet. This kind of crime has a severe impact on our economy, lives and society, because our society is becoming an information society, full of information exchange that is happening in cyberspace. Our research work is aimed at knowing the level of awareness of individuals on the existing phenomenon in Nigeria, and their impacts on Nigerian economy. A survey was carried out with the aims of getting these results using questionnaire as an instrument, the responses were quantitatively analysed using some statistical techniques. The results show that cracking, software piracy, and pornography among others are prevalent crimes in Nigeria. While the impacts of these crimes on Nigerian economy cannot be over emphasized. Recommendations were proposed on how these crimes can be minimized if not totally eradicated.
    Keywords: Cybercrimes, Cyber laws, Crimes
    @article{key:article,
    author = {MaitanmiOlusola andOgunlere Samson andAyindeSemiu andAdekunleYinka},
    title = {Impact of Cyber Crimes on Nigerian Economy},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {45-51},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24025
    Paper Title :: Classifying Populated IP Addresses Using Horizontal Partition ID3 Classification and K-Means Clustering Algorithm
    Author Name :: Rajesh Kumar ||Sharma ||Anurag Jain ||Shubha Dubey
    Page Number :: 52-59
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0244052059
    The work implemented here is useful for the detection of IP addresses that creates congestion in the network. These IP addresses are usually detected at the server side to check whether it can attack in the network on the basis of the use of a particular IP address. The existing technique [1] provides an efficient way of classifying IP address using the concept of PIP miner. The existing technique proposes PIPMiner, a fully automated method to classify PIPs with a high accuracy. Although PIP lists are derived from service logs and thus may be application specific, but they can be applied across datasets to detect new attacks But the technique implemented here provides less accuracy and having more error rate the technique is not feasible for network attacks and for classification of the populated IP addresses.The work that we are proposed here is based on the combinatorial method of using Clustering and then classifies to detect the most populated IP address in the network. The proposed work first divide the network traffic into a number of clusters and then on the basis of clusters these traffic is classified using a new method of horizontal partition id3 decision tree having less error rate and less computational time as compared to the existing technique.
    Keywords: K-Mean, Horizontal PartitionId3, Classification
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rajesh Kumar Sharma and Anurag Jain and Shubha Dubey},
    title = {Classifying Populated IP Addresses Using Horizontal Partition ID3 Classification and K-Means Clustering Algorithm},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {52-59},
    month = {April}
    }
     

    Volume 2 || Issue 4 || versions5 || April 2013
     
    Paper Id :: 24183
    Paper Title :: Sectoral Transformation of Working Population and Status of Employment- A Case Study of Chanditala C.D Block – I, Hugli District, West Bengal
    Author Name :: Sourav Das
    Page Number :: 01-07
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/02450107
    In every progressive economy there has been a steady shift of employment and investment from the essential primary activities…… to secondary activities to all kinds and to a still greater extent into tertiary production. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the changes in the structure of economy and sectoral transformation of occupational structure during last three decades in Chanditala C.D block – I of Hugli district of West Bengal. Emphasis also given to examine the nature of employment status and enumerate the pattern of employment among different social groups by religion, education and economic status. Present study reveals that though Chanditala I C.D block is a rural block but its economy is changing in nature. As time progresses occupational structure shifts primary to secondary and tertiary sectors.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sourav Das},
    title = {Sectoral Transformation of Working Population and Status of Employment- A Case Study of Chanditala C.D Block – I, Hugli District, West Bengal},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {01-07},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23104
    Paper Title :: Single Layer Winding Of Three Phase Induction Motor
    Author Name :: Enesi Asizehi Yahaya
    Page Number :: 08-13
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/024508013
    The winding layout and diagrams of single or three phase induction motors of single layer windings have been a problem to Engineers and Technicians because of the different types of windings and lack of basic knowledge on the rewinding techniques. This paper presents the basic knowledge, simplified analytical methods and winding layout and diagrams of single layer windings.
    Keywords: Winding layout, single layer winding, induction motors, rewinding technique, three phase motor
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Enesi Asizehi Yahaya},
    title = {Single Layer Winding Of Three Phase Induction Motor Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna. Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {08-13},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23153
    Paper Title :: Effects of Chemical Reaction on Stagnation Point MHD Flow over a Vertical Plane with Convective Boundary Conditions In The Presence of a Transverse Uniform Magnetic Field
    Author Name :: Adeniyan, A. || Adigun, J. A
    Page Number :: 14-18
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0245014018
    A numerical investigation has been conducted on the convective plane stagnation point flow with convective boundary conditions. The mathematical model is presented for a two-dimensional steady, incompressible, electrically conducting and laminar free convection boundary layer flow over a vertical plate in a chemically reacting medium with an applied transverse magnetic field to the direction of flow. The basic partial differential equations are transformed and reduced to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations by the use of the similarity transformation. The problem is addressed numerically, using fourth-order Runge-Kutta iterative scheme together with a shooting technique. It is observed that the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are appreciably influenced by the presence of the transverse magnetic fields. We also discussed, graphically, the effects of the various hydromagnetic, heat and mass transfer parameters involved in the governing equations on the Skin-Friction coefficient, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers.
    Keywords: convective boundary conditions, magnetic field, hydromagnetics, chemical reaction
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adeniyan, A. and Adigun, J. A},
    title = {Effects of Chemical Reaction on Stagnation Point MHD Flow over a Vertical Plane with Convective Boundary Conditions In The Presence of a Transverse Uniform Magnetic Field},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {14-18},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24048
    Paper Title :: Cyber Crimes and Cyber Laws in Nigeria
    Author Name :: Maitanmi Olusola ||Ogunlere Samson ||Ayinde Semiu ||Adekunle Yinka
    Page Number :: 19-25
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0245019025
    Cyber crime is a kind of crime that happens in cyberspace, that is, happens in the world of computer and the Internet. Cyber crime has become a global phenomenon; this kind of crime has the serious potential for severe impact on our lives, society, and economy because our society is becoming an information society where communication takes place in cyberspace. While there are several textbooks talking about cyber crime, but only few literatures focus on the relevant laws to combat these seemingly uncontrollable phenomenon. In other words, most materials talk about the crime of cyber crime, but this paper will talk more about cyber law. The discourse will start from origins, types, classifications, laws and propose recommendations to possibly reduce the growing problems in our society.
    Keywords: Cyber crime, Cyber, Computer crime, cyber laws.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Maitanmi Olusola and Ogunlere Samson and Ayinde Semiu andAdekunle Yinka},
    title = {Cyber Crimes and Cyber Laws in Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {19-25},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24075
    Paper Title :: AN INVISIBLE WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE FOR DIGITAL VIDEOS
    Author Name :: J. Suganya Shesathri ||G.S Raman
    Page Number :: 26-30
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0245026030
    Digital Watermarking is the processes of embedding hidden information into digital media such as images, audio and video in such way that is difficult to remove. This work mainly focuses on invisible and imperceptible watermark schemes for video sequences. A major issue of digital media that is being over the internet some third person easily downloads it and sells it without the owner knowledge. Here the requirement for the video watermarking schemes is essential for establishing ownership rights and possibility of invisible watermarking. Here, we propose an algorithm to ensuring authorized access, preventing illegal reapplication facilitating content authentication of Digital Video using invisible watermarking techniques. This involves selection of key frames from the given Digital Video based on rgb values. Finally, Spread Transform-Scalar Costa Scheme in applied over the order pair of key frames to embedded the watermark signal.
    Keywords: watermarking, Spread Transform, Scalar Costa Scheme
    @article{key:article,
    author = {J. Suganya Shesathri and G.S Raman},
    title = {AN INVISIBLE WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE FOR DIGITAL VIDEOS},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {26-30},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24158
    Paper Title :: FPGA Implementation of Desensitized Half Band Filters
    Author Name :: G P Kadam ||Mahesh Sasanur
    Page Number :: 31-35
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0245031035
    Half band filters are often used for decimation, interpolation and multirate systems. Hence it is a common component in digital circuitry for communication systems. In this paper we have described the efficient design of the low pass finite impulse response (FIR) half band filter using matlab and implemented on Field Programmable Gate Array ( FGPA). And also the filter is built using basic filter building blocks in simulink and simulink simulation results are compared with Xilinx simulation results .The design has been prototyped on an xc6vcx240t-1ff1156 in vertex-6 platform using Integrated Synthesis Environment(ISE) 14.2 tool.
    Keywords: FIR, FPGA, matlab, SDR, simulink.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {G P Kadam and Mahesh Sasanur},
    title = {FPGA Implementation of Desensitized Half Band Filters},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {31-35},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24163
    Paper Title :: Knowledge Based Approach for Word Sense Disambiguation using Hindi Wordnet
    Author Name :: Prity Bala
    Page Number :: 36-41
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0245036041
    Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is an open research area in natural language processing and artificial intelligence. and it is also based on computational linguistics. It is of considerable theoretical and practical interest. WSD is to analyze word tokens in context and specify exactly,which sense of several word is being used.It can be declare as theortically motivated,one or more methods and techniques.WSD is a big problem of natural language processing (NLP) and artificial intelligence. But here, the problem is to search the sense for a word in given a context and lexicon relation. It is a technique of natural language processing in which requires queries and documents in NLP or texts from Machine Translation (MT). MT is an automatic translation. It is involving some languages such as Marathi, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Hindi, and English etc. Most of the work has been completed in English, and now the point of convergence has shifted to others languages. The applications of WSD are disambiguation of content in information retrieval (IR), machine translation (MT), speech processing, lexicography, and text processing. In our paper, we are using knowledge based approach to WSD with Hindi language. A knowledge based approach use of external lexical resources suach as dictionary and thesauri. It involve incorporation of word knowledge to disambiguate words.We have developed a WSD tool using knowledge based approach with Hindi wordnet. Wordnet is built from co-occurrence and collocation and it includes synset or synonyms which belong to either noun, verb, adjective, or adverb, these are called as part-of-speech (POS) tagger. In this paper we shall introduce the implementation of our tool and its evaluation.
    Keywords: Word sense disambiguation, knowledge-based-approach, Hindi wordnet, etc.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Prity Bala},
    title = {Knowledge Based Approach for Word Sense Disambiguation using Hindi Wordnet},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {36-41},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24176
    Paper Title :: Preparation Of Aluminum Foil-Supported ZnO Nanocoral Reef Films
    Author Name :: L.S. Chuah ||H. I. Abdulgafour, ||Z. Hassan
    Page Number :: 42-45
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0245042045
    In this work, an aluminum (Al) foil was strongly adapted as substrate to provide vertically ZnO nano-sized coral reef structures. Coral reef-like nanostructured ZnO are synthesized instantly onto unoxided aluminum foil via metallic zinc powder evaporation by non-catalytic vacuum thermal evaporation technique at high temperatures. The surface morphology and crystal structure of the as-synthesized coral reef-like nanostructured of the ZnO films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD analyses showed that the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO coral reef-like nanostructures were of polycrystalline structure. The optical characteristics of the ZnO nanocoral reefs were characterized via excitation spectra photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature (RT). The PL spectrum peak position in ZnO nanocoral reef film is blue-shifted with respect to that in unstrained ZnO bulk. This can be clarified by the approximately smaller statistical area spreading of the nanostructures.
    Keywords: ZnO, nanocoral reefs, thermal evaporation, Al foil
    @article{key:article,
    author = {L.S. Chuah and H. I. Abdulgafour and Z. Hassan},
    title = {Preparation Of Aluminum Foil-Supported ZnO Nanocoral Reef Films},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {42-45},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23049
    Paper Title :: On Osci l lation And Asymptotic Behaviour Of A Higher Order Functional Difference Equation Of Neutral Type-II
    Author Name :: Radhanath Rath ||Ajit Kumar Bhuyan ||Subhendu Kumar Rath
    Page Number :: 46-53
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0245046053
    Suffcient conditions are obtained for the oscillation of all the solutions of the neutral functional difference equation (n) (n) . ( p y ) (y ) f m n n n n y q G       Different ranges of {pn} are considered. In particular, we extend the results of [1] Karpuz etal (2009) to the case when G is sublinear.
    Keywords: Oscillatory solution, nonoscillatory solution, asymptotic behaviour, difference equations. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 39A10, 39A12.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Radhanath Rath and Ajit Kumar Bhuyan and Subhendu Kumar Rath},
    title = {On Osci l lation And Asymptotic Behaviour Of A Higher Order Functional Difference Equation Of Neutral Type-II},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {46-53},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24184
    Paper Title :: Performance of Coir fiber Reinforced Clayey Soil
    Author Name :: Parag M. Chaple,||A I. Dhatrak
    Page Number :: 54-64
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0245054064
    The Soil reinforcement is an effective and reliable technique for improving strength and stability of soils. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of randomly oriented discrete inclusions (fibers, mesh elements, waste material e.g. plastic strips, tire chips, etc.) on the highly compressible clayey soils. Coir is a natural biodegradable material abundantly available in some parts of south and coastal regions of India. Most of these studies were conducted on small size samples in triaxial, C.B.R., unconfined compression and direct shear tests. The present work focused on effect of coir on bearing capacity and settlement of footing with parameters such as thickness of reinforced layer (B, B/2, B/4) with 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% & 1.0% of coir using the laboratory model tests on square footings supported on highly compressible clayey soil reinforced with randomly distributed coir fiber. Provision of coir reinforced layer increases bearing capacity ratio up to 1.5 to 2.66. There is significant increase in bearing capacity of clayey soil with the inclusion coir fibers. At 25 mm depth of fiber reinforced soil (B/4) and 0.50% fiber content the SBC is maximum. There is no need to place the fiber reinforced soil throughout the depth as the soil is affected to a significant depth of 2 to 2.5 times the width of footing. Only one fourth width of footing (B/4) is sufficient for increasing the SBC. In general, the results shows that the provision of coir reinforced layer, reduces the settlement and improves the bearing capacity , which found to be economical techniques among various types of bearing capacity improvement techniques.
    Keywords: Fiber reinforced clayey soil, model footing test, ultimate bearing capacity.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Parag M. Chaple and A I. Dhatrak},
    title = {Performance of Coir fiber Reinforced Clayey Soil},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {54-64},
    month = {April}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 24179
    Paper Title :: Wireless Sensor Network for Border Monitoring
    Author Name :: Gundu Siva Sankar, ||Suresh Angadi
    Page Number :: 65-68
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0245065068
    From the day of inception of wireless technology it has been used in various fields of work. In this paper we study about the applying of wireless sensor network in monitoring the border of a country. Here we study about the difficulties in the setup of hardware design of the nodes in those unsuitable areas, about the mode of power supply to the hardware equipment used, the characteristics of the sensors network used in this operation, the network architecture used for remote data access and the implementation strategies. This paper concludes with the discussion of identify important areas of further work in communications and network re-tasking.
    Keywords: Design, Performance, Experimentation, military, border.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Gundu Siva Sankar, and Suresh Angadi},
    title = {Wireless Sensor Network for Border Monitoring},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {4},
    pages = {65-68},
    month = {April}
    }