• Volume 2 || Issue 2 || February 2013
    Paper Id :: 21074
    Paper Title :: Effects of Particle Sizes, Filler Contents and Compatibilization On The Properties Of Linear Low Density Polyethylene Filled Periwinkle Shell Powder
    Author Name :: S. C. Nwanonenyi||M.U Obidiegwu||G.C Onuegbu
    Page Number :: 01-8
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0220108
    Thermoplastic composite was prepared from linear low density polyethylene and periwinkle shell powder (psp) of varying particle sizes (75μm, 125μm and 150μm) using injection moulding machine with and without compatibilizing agent and some its mechanical properties were studied. Maleic anhydride was used as compatibilizer, which act as interfacial agents between LLDPE and organic filler phases. The mechanical properties of filled linear low density polyethylene investigated were at filler loadings of 0 to 30 wt %. Also, the effects of particle sizes and compatibilizer contents (0.5 to 2.5 wt %) on some mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The mechanical parameters investigated on the prepared composite samples include; tensile strength, elongation at break, tensile modulus, flexural strength, impact strength, and hardness. Experimental results showed that outstanding mechanical performance, especially elongation at break (lower values), and tensile strength, modulus, hardness, flexural strength, impact strength, (higher values) were obtained with increase in filler content and compatibilizer content at lower particle size.
    Keywords: linear low density polyethylene, periwinkle shell, maleic anhydride, compatibilizer, and mechanical properties.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. C. Nwanonenyi and M.U Obidiegwu and G.C Onuegbu},
    title = {Effects of Particle Sizes, Filler Contents and Compatibilization On The Properties Of Linear Low Density Polyethylene Filled Periwinkle Shell Powder},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {01-8},
    month = {February}
    }
    Paper Id :: 21059
    Paper Title :: Finite Element Analysis of Drillstring and Its Application on Torque and Drag Calculation
    Author Name :: Geir Hareland||Andrew Wu||Mohammad Fazaelizadeh
    Page Number :: 09-16
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02209016
    The correct calculation and analysis of torque and drag is important for well design and drilling optimization. The real-time calculated friction factor between drillstring and wellbore can be used to identify possible hole cleaning problems, stuck pipe, differential sticking, formation change and mud lubrication problems. There are a number of programs or software that calculate torque and drag both analytically or numerically. This paper introduces a practical finite element analysis (FEA) model and corresponding program, which can simulate the working behavior of drillstring during the drilling operation. The program developed in this paper can be used for torque and drag analysis in vertical, directional, horizontal, and even any other complicated wells under different drilling operational modes. In addition, given the hookload and other drilling parameters and wellbore data, the FEA program can automatically back-calculate the friction factor or coefficient between drillstring and casing or rocks. The FEA program developed in this paper was verified by analyzing hookload and torque in three wells. It has been shown the calculation of hook load is accurate, and the torque calculated by the program is acceptable. All the results from the FEA program match those from the field well. The back-calculation of friction coefficient for a well is also carried out. The FEA program will benefit in real-time simulation of drillstring, and give warning prematurely on some possible drilling operational problems.
    Keywords: Torque and drag, Application, Finite element analysis, Drilling, Drillstring, Wellbore
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Geir Hareland and Andrew Wu and Mohammad Fazaelizadeh},
    title = {Finite Element Analysis of Drillstring and Its Application on Torque and Drag Calculation},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {09-16},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21048
    Paper Title :: Lifetime Maximization Using Modified Leach Protocol for Energy Efficient Routing In Wireless Sensor Networks
    Author Name :: Nandakishor Sirdeshpande|| Vishwanath Udupi
    Page Number :: 17-23
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/C022017023
    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are networks of typically small, battery-powered, wireless devices, equipped with on-board processing, communication, and sensing capabilities. Especially wireless sensor network suffers from excessive packet loss, over hearing, retransmission of the packets due to node mobility and constant energy dissipation. A current technique for routing and data transmission does not take into account of optimizing the transmission through Energy Balancing. There are several power and energy aware algorithms that claim to compensate for the energy losses. The main fundamental of most of the techniques is to route the packets through the highest energy nodes which lead to quick battery drainage of those node. Therefore the network lifetime decreases. In this project we have proposed a unique protocol for Network lifetime improvement by modifying the Leach protocol. The fundamental of the protocol is to develop a cluster based routing where cluster heads should be selected based on maximum coverage and should have sufficient energy to prolong the communication. Clusters are dynamically formed and changed with transmission. The technique is compared with conventional LEACH. Result shows that the proposed system achieves high data delivery with extended lifetime.
    Keywords: Modified Leach, Lifetime Maximization, Energy Efficiency
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Nandakishor Sirdeshpande andVishwanath Udupi},
    title = {Lifetime Maximization Using Modified Leach Protocol for Energy Efficient Routing In Wireless Sensor Networks},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {17-23},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21034
    Paper Title :: Simulation Methodology for Facility Layout Problems
    Author Name :: C.N.Kulkarni||Dr.M.I.Talib||Dr.R.S.Jahagirdar
    Page Number :: 24-30
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/022024030
    In this paper an attempt is made to present a state-of the- art review of papers on simulation methodology for facility layout problems. This paper aims to deal with the current and future trends of research on simulation methodology for facility layout problems based on previous research including exact, heuristic, meta-heuristic and development of various Intelligent Hybrid Systems approach. New developments of various techniques provide a perspective of the future research in facility layout problems. Facility layout problem is one of the truly difficult ill-structured, multicritria and optimization problems. To cope with this type of problems, intelligent techniques such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms and neural networks have been used. The weakness of some techniques can be offset by the strengths of other techniques for that intelligent hybrid systems are promising solver tools for intelligent systems
    Keywords: Facility planning, intelligent techniques, intelligent Hybrid Systems.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {C.N.Kulkarni and Dr.M.I.Talib Dr.R.S.Jahagirdar},
    title = {Simulation Methodology for Facility Layout Problems},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {24-30},
    month = {February }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21022
    Paper Title :: Sequential Studies On Electrochemical and Biosorption Treatment on Effluent Containing Nitrobenzene and Optimization Using Rsm
    Author Name :: Mr. P.Sivakumar|| Mr. S.Karthikeyan|| Dr.D.Prabhakaran||Dr. T .Kannadasan
    Page Number :: 31-39
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/022031039
    Different processes were studied to abate the COD levels in nitrobenzene. The process electrochemical oxidation following Biosorption turned to be a novel one. Electrochemical oxidation was carried out in an electrolytic cell, with nitrobenzene in water as electrolyte and lead, copper as anode and cathode respectively. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions, in which a maximum (76.4%) of COD abated. Biosorption treatment in the presence of biosorbents such as maize and rice stems was followed. Finally 97.7% COD in nitrobenzene was abated after the biosorption treatment.
    Keywords: Biosorption, COD Abatement, Electrochemical Oxidation, Maize Rice Stem, RSM.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mr. P.Sivakumar and Mr. S.Karthikeyan and Dr.D.Prabhakaran andDr. T .Kannadasan},
    title = {Sequential Studies On Electrochemical and Biosorption Treatment on Effluent Containing Nitrobenzene and Optimization Using Rsm},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {31-39},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21089
    Paper Title :: Stokes/Anti Stokes Modes in Co/Copt Magnetic Recording Media
    Author Name :: Hadi Arabshahi||Ali Bakhshayeshi||Atefeh Shaabani||Mina Mirzaee ||Sara Nobakht
    Page Number :: 40-47
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/022040047
    Here in this paper frequency dependence of Exchange spring Co/CoPt to the external field is being calculated by suggesting a random exchange approach to the exchange bias problem. The film is modeled as a finite series of layers. Each layer has infinite array of dipoles of spin S arranged on a square lattice. The FM/AFM interface is suggested not to be completely perfect due to chemical intermixing and surface disorder at the interface. So, a magnetically disordered interface between F and AF layer is assumed to behave like spin glass system. So spin glass behavior is assumed to occur which incorporates the effect of interface roughness. This model will help us to estimate the strength of the interface exchange field. According to this model, the external magnetic field can influence on the reorientation of the CoPt/Co interface and bulk magnetization and thus the interface energy between the CoPt and Co layer varies with external field. The experimental evidence is recently being observed in anisotropic magneto resistance measurements, lending support to our proposal. The results of calculated spectra for scattering found in exchange-coupled CoPt/Co bilayers compared with the experimental data. Stokes/anti-Stokes frequencies difference and also Stokes/anti-Stokes peak intensity ratio and asymmetry in peak frequency between the Stokes and anti-Stokes spectra is described. There is a reasonable agreement between the theory presented and experimental data.
    Keywords: spin glass, magnetic media, perpendicular magnetic recording
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Hadi Arabshahi and Ali Bakhshayeshi and Atefeh Shaabani, 3Mina Mirzaee and 3Sara Nobakht},
    title = {Stokes/Anti Stokes Modes in Co/Copt Magnetic Recording Media},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {40-47},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13045
    Paper Title :: Matrix Representation of Soft Sets and Its Application To Decision Making Problem
    Author Name :: Professor D. Singh||Onyeozili, I.A. (Mrs)
    Page Number :: 48-56
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/022048056
    In this paper, we present soft matrices which are representations of soft sets. We also present soft matrix operations and their basic properties. Finally, we demonstrate application of soft matrices to a decision making problem.
    Keywords: Soft sets, soft matrices, soft matrix operations, soft max-min decision making method.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Professor D. Singh andOnyeozili, I.A. (Mrs)},
    title = {Matrix Representation of Soft Sets and Its Application To Decision Making Problem},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {48-56},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21045
    Paper Title :: A New Stiffness Matrix for Analysis Of Flexural Line Continuum
    Author Name :: O. M. Ibearugbulem||L. O. Ettu||J. C. Ezeh
    Page Number :: 57-62
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/022057062
    The analysis of line continuum by equilibrium approach to obtain exact results requires direct integration of the governing equations and satisfying the boundary conditions. This procedure is cumbersome and 4x4 stiffness matrix system with 4x1 load vector has been used as practical simplification for a long time. The problem with this system is that it is inefficient and does not give exact results, especially for classical studies that analyse only one element as a whole. This paper presents 5x5 stiffness matrix system as a new stiffness system to generate exact results. The stiffness matrix was developed using energy variational principle. The approach differs from the 4x4 stiffness matrix approach by considering a deformable node at the centre of the continuum which brings the number of deformable nodes to five. By carrying out direct integration of the governing differential equation of the line continuum, a five-term shape function was obtained. This was substituted into the strain energy equation and the resulting functional was minimized, resulting in a 5x5 stiffness matrix used herein. The five term shape function was also substituted into load-work equation and minimized to obtain load vector for uniformly distributed load on the continuum. Classical studies of beams of four different boundary conditions under uniformly distributed load and point load were performed using the new 5x5 stiffness matrix with 5x1 load vector for one element analysis. Numerical studies were also done for two elements. The process was repeated using the conventional 4x4 stiffness matrix and 4x1 load vector. It was found that unlike the conventional 4x4 stiffness system, the new 5x5 stiffness system is efficient for both classical and numerical analysis of beams as its results agree with exact results. It is therefore recommended that the new 5x5 stiffness system should be used for both classical and numerical analysis of line continuum.
    Keywords: 5x5 stiffness system; line continuum; variational principle; deformable node; shape function; load vector; classical; numerical; analysis; beam
    @article{key:article,
    author = {O. M. Ibearugbulem and L. O. Ettu and J. C. Ezeh},
    title = {A New Stiffness Matrix for Analysis Of Flexural Line Continuum},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {57-62},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31002
    Paper Title :: Static and Modal Analysis of Chassis by Using Fea
    Author Name :: Dr.R.Rajappan|| M.Vivekanandhan
    Page Number :: 63-73
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/022063073
    Truck chassis is a major component in a vehicle. In truck chassis different type of failures are occur due to static and dynamic loading condition. In this present work static and dynamic load characteristics are analysed using FE models from this work. It is found that indtifying location of high stress area, analyzing vibration, natural frequency and mode shape by using finite element method. Modal updating of truck chassis model will be done by adjusting the selective properties such as mass density and Poisson’s ratio. Predicted natural frequency and mode shape will be validated against previously published result. Finally, the modifications of the updated FE truck chassis model will be proposed to reduce the vibration, improve the strength, and optimize the weight of the truck chassis.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr.R.Rajappan and M.Vivekanandhan},
    title = {Static and Modal Analysis of Chassis by Using Fea},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {63-73},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31003
    Paper Title :: Finite Element Analysis of Aircraft Wing Using Composite Structure
    Author Name :: Dr.R.Rajappan|| V.Pugazhenthi
    Page Number :: 74-80
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/022074080
    The thesis deals with bending Finite Element Analysis of monocoque laminated composite aircraft (subsonic and supersonic) wing using commercial software ANSYS. Theoretical background, mathematical formulation and finite element solution for a laminated composite shell structure are presented in this study. A monocoque aircraft wing is made of laminated composite with fiber angles in each ply aligned in different direction. Various airfoil thickness and ply angles were considered to study the effect of bending-torsion decoupling.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr.R.Rajappan and V.Pugazhenthi},
    title = {Finite Element Analysis of Aircraft Wing Using Composite Structure},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {74-80},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31008
    Paper Title :: The Role of Rural Women In Agriculture Sector Of Sagar Island, West Bengal, India
    Author Name :: Manas Mondal
    Page Number :: 81-86
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/022081086
    Agriculture can be an important engine for growth and poverty reduction. But the sector is underperforming in many countries in part because women, who are often a crucial resource in agriculture and the rural economy, face constrain that reduce their productivity. This study analyzed women participation in agricultural production of Sagar Island, West Bengal, India. In this paper I have tried to discuss the actual role of rural women in agricultural sector. Here I have shown how number of rural agricultural labor changed from 1971 to 2011.Therefore I have discussed the major role of rural women in another fields, their real problems, barriers and actual position of the society. From the contribution of women to agricultural and food production is significant, but it is impossible to verify empirically the share produced by women. It investigated the women access to economic resources and examined the influence of selected socio-economic characteristics of women and access to economic resources on their participation in agricultural production. In this study area maximum no of women laborers are illiterate with no formal educational status which directly informed their participation in agricultural production. Women participation in rural labor markets varies considerably across regions, but invariably women are over represented in unpaid, seasonal and part-time work, and the available evidence suggests that women are often paid less than men for the same work. This paper re-affirms that women make essential contributions to agriculture and rural enterprises across the study area as well as developing world.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Manas Mondal},
    title = {The Role of Rural Women In Agriculture Sector Of Sagar Island, West Bengal, India},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {81-86},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31023
    Paper Title :: Reactive Ion Etching of 4H-SiC Using SF6/O2 for MEMS Application
    Author Name :: Y. Hezarjaribi|| M. N. Hamidon
    Page Number :: 87-92
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/022087092
    Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of 4H-SiC performed using SF6/O2 plasma. The etching rates investigated as a function of the ratio of the O2 flow rate to total gas flow rate under different etching conditions such as the effect of power density, temperature, and the combination of chemistries on etching. The investigation was proven that the contribution and effect of the direct role of Oxygen to deep etching of SiC. An optimum value of O2 fraction of 60% to 40% Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) used to give high etching rate of 1.2μm/min. for maximum etching.
    Keywords: Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE), Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6), 4H-SiC, plasma
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Y. Hezarjaribi and M. N. Hamidon},
    title = {Reactive Ion Etching of 4H-SiC Using SF6/O2 for MEMS Application},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {87-92},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 13219
    Paper Title :: Reduction of Subthershold Leakage Current by Technology Scaling
    Author Name :: Ms. Sunita Beniwal||Ms. Sudha Rani
    Page Number :: 93-96
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/022093096
    The driving force for the semiconductor industry growth has been the elegant scaling nature of CMOS technology. In future CMOS technology generations, supply and threshold voltages will have to continually scale to sustain performance increase, limit energy consumption, control power dissipation, and maintain reliability. These continual scaling requirements on supply and threshold voltages pose several technology and circuit design challenges. One such challenge is the expected increase in threshold voltage variation due to worsening short channel effect,supply voltage scaling, control of die-to-die threshold voltage variation becomes critical for maintaining high yield. An analytical model will be developed for existing circuit technique that adaptively biases the body terminal of MOSFET devices to control this threshold voltage variation. Based on this model, recommendations on how to effectively use the technique in future technologies will be presented. in future CMOS systems. Therefore, it becomes imperative to accurately predict and minimize leakage power of such systems, especially with increasing within-die threshold voltage variation. Finally, due to different processing steps and short channel effects, threshold voltage of devices of same or different polarities in the same neighborhood may not be matched. This will introduce mismatch in the device drive currents that will not be acceptable in some high performance circuits.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ms. Sunita Beniwal and Ms. Sudha Rani},
    title = {Reduction of Subthershold Leakage Current by Technology Scaling},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {93-96},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21020
    Paper Title :: Restoring the Power Quality by Combined Shunt and Series Compensation in Power Transmission Lines
    Author Name :: S.Subha||K.C.Sasi
    Page Number :: 97-110
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0220970110
    The main objective of this paper is to develop a novel reference signal generation method for the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) adopted to compensate current and voltage-quality problems of sensitive loads. The UPQC consists of a shunt and series converter having a common dc link. The shunt converter eliminates current harmonics originating from the nonlinear load side and the series converter mitigates voltage sag/swell originating from the supply side. The developed controllers for shunt and series converters are based on an enhanced phase-locked loop and nonlinear adaptive filter. The dc link control strategy is based on the fuzzy-logic controller. A fast sag/swell detection method is also presented. The efficacy of the proposed system is tested through simulation studies using the Power System Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients dc analysis program. The proposed UPQC achieves superior capability of mitigating the effects of voltage sag/swell and suppressing the load current harmonics under distorted supply conditions.
    Keywords: Active filter, custom power, fuzzy-logic controller, reference signal generation, unified power-quality conditioner (UPQC)
    @article{key:article,
    author = {1S.Subha and K.C.Sasi},
    title = {Restoring the Power Quality by Combined Shunt and Series Compensation in Power Transmission Lines},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {97-110},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21073
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of Performance and Emissions Characteristics for Compression Ignition Engine Operated with Disposal Yellow Grease
    Author Name :: Miqdam Tariq Chaichan|| Prof. Dr. Sabah Tarik Ahmed
    Page Number :: 111-122
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02201110122
    Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable alternative fuel that can be used with little or no engine modifications. Biodiesel production is currently expensive but would be more cost effective if it could be produced from low-cost oils (restaurant waste, frying oils, and animal fats). These low-cost feedstocks are more challenging to process because they contain high levels of free fatty acids. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the biodiesel produced from restaurant waste feedstocks on engine performance and emissions. Two different biodiesel blends were prepared from restaurants waste yellow grease of different vegetable oils. The neat fuels and their 20% blends with diesel fuel were studied at steady-state engine operating conditions in a four-cylinder direct injection Fiat diesel engine. Although both biodiesel fuels provided significant reductions in carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and particulate matters, oxides of nitrogen increased by 7 and 11% for the yellow grease B20 and B100 respectively.
    Keywords: Alternative fuel, biodiesel, diesel engine, engine emissions, engine performance, yellow grease.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Miqdam Tariq Chaichan and prof. Dr. Sabah Tarik Ahmed},
    title = {Evaluation of Performance and Emissions Characteristics for Compression Ignition Engine Operated with Disposal Yellow Grease},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {111-122},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21090
    Paper Title :: Determination of Heavy Metal Contents from Dumpsites within Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: S. D. Umoh||E. E. Etim2
    Page Number :: 123-129
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02201230129
    The elemental composition of lead, iron, cadmium, zinc and copper in the top soil samples (0-15cm) from some selected dumpsites and 100m away from the dumpsites within Ikot Ekpene town in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, have been measured and determined using Atmic Absorption Spectrophotometer. At dumpsites, the concentrations of lead, iron, cadmium, zinc and copper ranged from 9.466 to 18.83 mg/kg, 18.06 to 23.47 mg/kg, 0.10 to 0.42 mg/kg, 13.82 to 17.26 mg/kg and 6.68 to 11.04 mg/kg respectively, while at control sites (100m away from dumpsites) the concentrations ranged from 5.21-7.53 mg/kg, 8.24-11.72 mg/kg, 0.04-0.08 mg/kg, 6.32-8.15 mg/kg and 2.06-5.61 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of metals in soils at the decomposed biodegradable wastes dumpsites were higher than those at the control sites. It was observed that the concentrations of these metals in some sampling points were below accepted limit while others were within the accepted limit. Thus, no marked deleterious effect on the soil resulting from excess amount of these metals was detected. Highlights on good maintenance and improvement in the quality of soil in this area have been suggested.
    Keywords: Dumpsites, Ikot Ekpene, Heavy metals, pollution,
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S. D. Umoh and E. E. Etim},
    title = {Determination of Heavy Metal Contents from Dumpsites within Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {123-129},
    month = {February}
    }
    Paper Id :: 31035
    Paper Title :: Space Vector Modulation based Speed Control of Induction Motor Fed by Z-Source Inverter using PI controller
    Author Name :: P.Elangovan||Dr.C.Kumar||V.Suresh
    Page Number :: 130-137
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02201300137
    This paper presents a speed control system of Induction motor fed by Z-source Inverter with implementation of Proportional plus Integral (PI) controller in the feedback path. The Z-source inverter system uses a unique LC network in the dc link and a small capacitor on the ac side of the diode front end. The Z-source inverter will produce output voltage greater than the line voltage which shows the advantage over the conventional Voltage source Inverter. The comparison analysis is made between space vector modulation and sinusoidal pulse width modulation (PWM) Z-source Inverter fed Induction motor with the implementation of PI controller. From the analysis of Total harmonic distortion (THD) in the inverter current, Space Vector Modulation (SVM) technique was found to be better than Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) technique. Instead of using any artificial intelligence technique in the speed control system, the PI controller is used which avoids system complication. Analysis and simulation results will demonstrate the features of the system.
    Keywords: PI controller, Sinusoidal PWM technique, Space vector modulation technique, Total Harmonic Distortion, Z-source Inverter.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {P.Elangovan and Dr.C.Kumar and V.Suresh},
    title = {Space Vector Modulation based Speed Control of Induction Motor Fed by Z-Source Inverter using PI controller},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {130-137},
    month = {February}
    }
    Paper Id :: 31043
    Paper Title :: Role of agriculture to mitigate poverty of rural area: a case study of Sagar Island, West Bengal, India
    Author Name :: Manas Mondal
    Page Number :: 138-145
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02201380145
    This paper explores the linkages between increases in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction. The evidence suggests that there are multiple pathways through which increases in agricultural productivity can reduce poverty, including real income, employment generation, rural non-agricultural multiplier effects and food prices effects. This study area has been considered as Remote Island. Here intensive subsistent agriculture system is present still now. Traditional agriculture system does not help adequate production in this sector. So food crisis as well as poverty is attached with most of the rural people. More than 40 % peoples are living in below poverty line. They do not have fixed income. They are engaging as marginal farmers and small agricultural labors also. To discuss role of agriculture in reduced poverty, I have taken 50 years census population data (1971-2011), and 10 years agricultural data (2002-2011). Data reveals that total populations in this Island are increasing at certain ratio. But agricultural productions are not increasing in satisfactory. However total agricultural lands are not increased. For the growing of new settlements total agricultural lands are decreasing day by day. Only Modern agricultural system should be reduced poverty in this study area.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Manas Mondal},
    title = {Role of agriculture to mitigate poverty of rural area: a case study of Sagar Island, West Bengal, India},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {138-145},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31055
    Paper Title :: Investigation on Mode Splitting and Degeneracy in the L3 Photonic Crystal Nanocavity via Unsymmetrical Displacement of Air-Holes
    Author Name :: Ahmadreza Daraei||Foroogh Khozeymeh
    Page Number :: 146-150
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02201460150
    In this paper, the L3 nanocavities have been simulated in a two dimensional (2D) Photonic Crystal (PhC) choosing a hexagonal lattice arrangement of air-holes in a GaAs slab (effective refractive index neff = 3.09), with lattice constant a=270 nm and constant ratio, r/a = 0.29, where r is radius of air holes. An internal source is embedded in the center of the nanocavity, and excited with pulses to investigate the modes. Using a detector, resonance modes of the cavity (con-fined in the nanostructure), are computationally realized. With unsymmetrical displacement of some air-holes around the nanocavity, mode splitting phenomenon was investigated to the aim of improving quality factor and modes distribution, especially fundamental confined photonic mode. The two degenerate modes under study have the same wavelength (about 1032.7 nm), but by increasing air-holes displacements, wavelength difference between the two modes became more obvious and the degeneracy has been vanished. All the simulations in this article are carried out by BandSOLVE and FullWAVE software of the RSoft Photonics CAD Suite package, and Origin Pro. software as well.

    Keywords: L3 Nanocavity, Unsymmetrical Displacement, Mode Splitting, RSoft’s BandSOLVE and FullWAVE.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ahmadreza Daraei and Foroogh Khozeymeh},
    title = {Investigation on Mode Splitting and Degeneracy in the L3 Photonic Crystal Nanocavity via Unsymmetrical Displacement of Air-Holes},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {146-150},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31065
    Paper Title :: Paper on Universal Mean Time (UMT) For the International Journal of Engineering and Science
    Author Name :: Subramanya Krishnarao
    Page Number :: 151-152
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02201510152
    At Present Whole World Is Following Time Zone System To Measure Time. Earth Is Divided Into Longitude Of 15 Degrees Amounting To One Hour Separation. Zone Starts With Standard At One Place Being 12 Noon Corresponding To Sun Crossing The Meridian. Countries In Each Zone Will Have Their Time Fixed Based In Respective Longitudes Passing Through Or Near Them. Degree Of Error With Respect To Each Place Is Acceptable. But What I Propose Is Why We Need To Keep The Time Related To Sun Crossing The Meridian. We Need A System Which Has Same Time In Whole Globe Eliminating All These Complications.

    Keywords : Earth, Longitude, Sun, Time Zone, UTC
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Subramanya Krishnarao},
    title = {Paper on Universal Mean Time (UMT) For the International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {151-152},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31029
    Paper Title :: The Effects of Molecular Weight of Polyester Based De-Emulsifiers on the De- Emulsification Process of Crude Oil Emulsions.
    Author Name :: Efeovbokhan Vincent, Hymore||Fredrick Kofi ||Ayoola Ayodeji||Adesanya Olarewaju
    Page Number :: 153-159
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02201530159
    The effect of molecular weight of polyester based de-emulsifiers on the de-elmulsification of Nigerian crude has been carried out. It was observed that initially, as the molecular weight of the polyesters (de-emulsifiers) increased, there was a corresponding fourth order polynomial increase in its performance when they were used to screen the Nigerian Crude Oil Emulsion (NCOE). It was further observed that beyond a molecular weight value of 7500g/mol it tended towards an asymptote at 30.6% performance. Beyond this point, further increase in the molecular weight of the de-emulsifier did not produce any significant increase in performance on the de-emulsification process of the NCOE. The performance of the de-emulsifiers also increases as the time of de-emulsification increases. For all the de-emulsifier samples, performance was highest after 10 minutes.

    Key Words: De-emulsifiers, Molecular weight, de-emulsification, performance and Nigerian crude.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Efeovbokhan Vincent Hymore and Fredrick Kofi and Ayoola Ayodeji and Adesanya Olarewaju},
    title = {The Effects of Molecular Weight of Polyester Based De-Emulsifiers on the De- Emulsification Process of Crude Oil Emulsions.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {153-159},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31004
    Paper Title :: Geotechnical Evaluation of Opa Dam, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
    Author Name :: G.O. Adunoye || O.A. Agbede
    Page Number :: 160-165
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02201600165
    Geotechnical evaluation of Opa Dam situated at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, was carried out. Soil samples were collected from both the upstream and downstream sections of the dam; laboratory soil tests and analysis were carried out. The soils were found to be highly active, thus suggesting that excessive shrinkage during dry season may be a challenge.

    Keywords : compaction, dam, geotechnical properties, lateritic soil, shrinkage.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {G.O. Adunoye and O.A. Agbede},
    title = {Geotechnical Evaluation of Opa Dam, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {160-165},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31061
    Paper Title :: Microwave Assisted Synthesis Spectral and Antibacterial Investigations on Co (II) Complexes With Amide Ligands
    Author Name :: Neha Yadav||N. Bhojak
    Page Number :: 166-168
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02201660168
    The Present research work describes the synthesis, spectral and antibacterial studies on the complexes of few complexes of Cobalt (II) with amide group containing ligands. Synthesis of complexes has been carried out by conventional method as well as by microwave method. The complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, infrared, electronic spectra and magnetic susceptibility studies.. The microwave method of synthesis of complexes have been found easier, convenient and ecofriendly.

    Keywords : Cobalt (II), microwave, amide ligands
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Neha Yadav and N. Bhojak},
    title = {Microwave Assisted Synthesis Spectral and Antibacterial Investigations on Co (II) Complexes With Amide Ligands},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {166-168},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31069
    Paper Title :: Mesurement of Soil Parameters By New Apparatus
    Author Name :: Mahmoud M. Abu Zeid1||Amr M. Radwan||Emad A. Osman||Ahmed M.Abu-Bakr||Ahmed M. Hassan
    Page Number :: 169-178
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/2201690178
    This study provides a method of estimating the parameters of sandy soil by using handle penetrometer needles apparatus and new penetrometer apparatus is also developed by research student and used to assess soil parameters. Classical soil mechanics experiments such as relative density, grain size analysis, specific gravity, maximum dry density and direct shear test. The penetration experiment is then carried out on samples of different densities. A field study was then performed using the developed motorized penetrometer. In situ density and water content were first determined using the sand cone method. The motorized penetration test was the carried out on the same spot, and the results were used to assess different soil parameters. Finally, the commercial finite element program Midas GTS is used for the finite element simulation and finite sliding is modeled using a frictional contact interface.

    Keywords : New Apparatus, Sand, Soil parameters, penetrometer, Midas program. , normal stress,
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mahmoud M. Abu Zeid1 and Amr M. Radwan and Emad A. Osman and Ahmed M.Abu-Bakr And Ahmed M. Hassan},
    title = {Mesurement of Soil Parameters By New Apparatus},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {169-178},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 21080
    Paper Title :: Iga Response To 38 Kda And 27 Kda Antigen Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In Genitourinary Tuberculosis
    Author Name :: Mangayarkarasi. V||Shantha.S||Alameluraja||Muthuveeramani
    Page Number :: 179-184
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02201790184
    Objective :To evaluate the isotype IgA and IgG response in genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) to mycobacterial purified cell wall antigens of 38KDa, 16KDa, antigen 85 complex and recombinant antigen 27 KDa by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Study Population And Methods: The study done in the department of Urology and Microbiology, Government Stanley Medical College collaborated with Tuberculosis Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research (TRC-ICMR), Chennai, Tamilnadu, India in one year period. In a total of 135 study population, 55 clinically diagnosed GUTB patients, 43 disease control patients and 37 healthy control study groups were included. Morphological and cultural identification in pulmonary and extra pulmonary samples were done. The blood samples collected from all patients, theseparated serum samples were analyzed for the antibody response of isotype IgA and IgG to the mycobacterial cell wall purified antigens of 38KDa, 16KDa, antigen 85 complex (30KDa) and recombinant antigen 27 KDa by ELISA method. Results: The IgA antibody response for antigen 85 complex (12%), 38KDa (94%), 16KDa (20%), recombinant antigen 27 KDa (38%) showed significant sensitivity compared to IgG antibody response. CONCLUSION: This study clearly showed significant sensitivity (94.54%) and specificity (98.75%) of IgA antibody response to the species specific antigen 38KDa.

    Keywords : Nontuberculous mycobacteria, cell wall antigens, antibody response, ELISA
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mangayarkarasi. V and Shantha.S and Alameluraja and Muthuveeramani},
    title = {Iga Response To 38 Kda And 27 Kda Antigen Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In Genitourinary Tuberculosis},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {179-184},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31058
    Paper Title :: Analysis Of Mechanical Properties Of Chopped Strand Mat E-Glass Fiber Epoxy Resin Nanoclay Composites Dr.P.K.Palani
    Author Name :: M.Nanda kumar
    Page Number :: 185-189
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02201850189
    Composite materials play a vital role in many industrial applications. Researchers are working on fabrication of new composite materials worldwide to enhance the applicability of these materials. In view of this, the objective of the present work is to analyse the effect of nanoclay content on the mechanical behaviour of chopped strand mat E-glass fiber, reinforced in epoxy matrix with nanoclay filler. Three different types of composites are fabricated using 1wt% nanoclay, 5wt% nanoclay and 7wt% nanoclay with 30% wt fiber, epoxy resin and hardener. The epoxy resin and hardener are mixed in 10:1 weight ratio. The results of the study show that the incorporation of nanoclay has a significant effect on the mechanical behaviour of composites.

    Keywords : chopped strand mat E-glass fiber, Nanoclay, Epoxy resin
    @article{key:article,
    author = {M.Nanda kumar},
    title = {Analysis Of Mechanical Properties Of Chopped Strand Mat E-Glass Fiber Epoxy Resin Nanoclay Composites Dr.P.K.Palani},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {185-189},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31079
    Paper Title :: State Estimation for Multi-Area Power System
    Author Name :: M.L.Charan||Ms. V.Subbu Chithira Kala
    Page Number :: 190-195
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0220190195
    This paper gives a two level estimator for interconnected power system also says the system is stable or not. The information is interchanged among the border buses. In this paper we propose a decentralized algorithm which requires local buses information and also border buses information. The procedure is tested by using IEEE 14 bus system

    Keywords : State Estimation, Multi-area State Estimation, WLS Method, Decentralized decomposition
    @article{key:article,
    author = {M.L.Charan and Ms. V.Subbu Chithira Kala},
    title = {State Estimation for Multi-Area Power System},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {190-195},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31082
    Paper Title :: Optimization of Divergent Angle of a Rocket Engine Nozzle Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
    Author Name :: Biju Kuttan P||M Sajesh
    Page Number :: 196-207
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02201960207
    The CFD analysis of a rocket engine nozzle has been conducted to understand the phenomena of supersonic flow through it at various divergent angles. A two-dimensional axi-symmetric model is used for the analysis and the governing equations were solved using the finite-volume method in ANSYS FLUENT® software. The inlet boundary conditions were specified according to the available experimental information. The variations in the parameters like the Mach number, static pressure, turbulent intensity are being analyzed. The phenomena of oblique shock are visualized and the travel of shock with divergence angle is visualized and it was found that at 15° the shock is completely eliminated from the nozzle. Also the Mach number is found have an increasing trend with increase in divergent angle thereby obtaining an optimal divergent angle which would eliminate the instabilities due to the shock and satisfy the thrust requirements for the rocket.

    Keywords : Mach number, oblique shock, finite-volume, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent dissipation
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Biju Kuttan P and M Sajesh},
    title = {Optimization of Divergent Angle of a Rocket Engine Nozzle Using Computational Fluid Dynamics},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {196-207},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31098
    Paper Title :: Delimiting Malicious Users in Pseudo Networks
    Author Name :: Mahesh Uddandam||T.V.Sai Krishna
    Page Number :: 208-2013
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02202080213
    The main aim of this Project is to reduce Malicious Users, which can ingress the blocked WebPages via Pseudo Networks. Now a day’s lot of people misuses the attractive sites like Face book, Twitter, Orkut. etc by using client’s IP address. So the site owner can block the client’s IP address from the server, but it segmenting IP address is not an easier way, because the fake routes through an pseudo networks, as a sequel admin congest all familiar nodes of pseudo networks, refuse access to all there by unknown users whether misbehaving or not. So to acquire a solution, we introduce a new technique called Nymble, where servers delimit malicious users able to restricting users, without affecting their ambiguity & this system accurately finding malicious users in nameless network and also maintained restricting user’s details in server.

    Keywords : Malicious Users, Pseudo Network, Unlinkability.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mahesh Uddandam and T.V.Sai Krishna},
    title = {Delimiting Malicious Users in Pseudo Networks},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {208-2013},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31099
    Paper Title :: Anticipation Measures for Protecting P2p Networks From Malware Spread
    Author Name :: Tella Ramesh||T.Sunitha
    Page Number :: 214-219
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02202140219
    Malware is the software developed wit-h malicious intentions. The detection of such malware can be done by writing program which can understand the dynamics of malware. Towards end this paper presents an analytical model which can effectively characterize the true nature of malware and how it spreads in peer-to-peer networks such as Gnutella. The proposed model is compartmental model which involves derivation of network conditions and system parameters in such a way that under those parameters and conditions the underlying P2P network reaches a malware free equilibrium. The proposed model can also perform evaluation of strategies such as quarantine used to control malware spread. Afterwards the model has been enhanced and tested with networks of smart cell phones.

    Keywords : Malware, peer-to-peer networks, compartmental model.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Tella Ramesh andT.Sunitha},
    title = {Anticipation Measures for Protecting P2p Networks From Malware Spread},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {214-219},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31122
    Paper Title :: Generalised Separable Solution of Counter-Current Imbibition Phenomenon In Homogeneous Porous Medium In Horizontal Direction
    Author Name :: A.K. PARIKH||M.N. MEHTA ||V.H. PRADHAN
    Page Number :: 220-226
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0220220226
    The phenomenon of counter-current imbibition in double phase immiscible (oil and water) flow through homogeneous porous medium in horizontal direction is discussed. The mathematical formulation of this problem yields a non linear partial differential equation and the generalised separable solution is given in the form of quadratic polynomial. Numerical results are presented graphically using MAT LAB.

    Keywords : Imbibition phenomenon, Immiscible, Homogeneous porous medium, Capillary pressure.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {A.K. PARIKH and M.N. MEHTA and V.H. PRADHAN},
    title = {Generalised Separable Solution of Counter-Current Imbibition Phenomenon In Homogeneous Porous Medium In Horizontal Direction},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {220-226},
    month = {February}
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 31125
    Paper Title :: Water Quality Status Near Kalindi Vihar Colony, Tedi Bagiya, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Author Name :: Dr. Sohail Ayub||Aditya Kumar Agarwal
    Page Number :: 227-232
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02202270232
    A study was carried out in Agra of UP (India). The water quality status of Kalindi Vihar colony was assessed under the influence of urbanization. Physic- chemical and biological analysis of water reflected values of water supplied to the resident of the colony. The values of sulphate, TDS was very high. Water was very hard needs to be treated. The values of fluoride, iron, arsenic and heavy metals are within desirable limit for most of the samples. In general, water in the area is acceptable to a certain limit only and needs to be further treated before being supplied to houses especially for drinking purposes.

    Keywords :Water, Surface Water, Ground Water, Water Quality.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Sohail Ayub and Aditya Kumar Agarwal},
    title = {Water Quality Status Near Kalindi Vihar Colony, Tedi Bagiya, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {2},
    pages = {227-232},
    month = {February}
    }