• Volume 2 || Issue 11 || versions 1 || November 2013
    Paper Id :: 23058
    Paper Title :: Implication of Poor Energy Supply on the Productivity of Nigerian Manufacturing Industry
    Author Name :: UZORH AUSTIN C
    Page Number :: 01-04
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0211010104
    A comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness and delay contribution due to power outages and fluctuations is presented. The purpose of this study is to reveal the implications of poor energy supply on the effective utilization of the input resources in a typical Nigerian Manufacturing Industry. Delta steel company .Delata state Nigeria was used as a casestudy. Data on power outages were collected from the energy distribution unit, steel melting shop and the rolling mill. Additionally, the total delays, standard or planned production and actual production were determined from the records, from which the power delay contributions and effectiveness were evaluated. Results from this study revealed that power delay contributed more than 6% and the monthly effectiveness was more than unity throughout year 2010. Analysis of data collected for 2010 production period showed that the energy distribution unit experienced 54 outages with a total duration of 11472 mins, while a total of 44947 mins was lost in the steel melting shops due to power outages and under-voltage. More so, 25 billets worth 44tonnes were scrapped and 20811 mins were lost as a result of power failure and fluctuations. The implications clearly showed that poor power supply lowers the productivity of the company.
    Keywords: Energy, Manufacturing, Productivity
    @article{key:article,
    author = {UZORH AUSTIN C},
    title = {Implication of Poor Energy Supply on the Productivity of Nigerian Manufacturing Industry},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {01-04},
    month = {November}
    }
    Paper Id :: 210075
    Paper Title :: On the Rate of Convergence of Newton-Raphson Method
    Author Name :: Ranbir Soram|| Sudipta Roy|| Soram Rakesh Singh|| Memeta Khomdram|| Swavana Yaikhom|| Sonamani Takhellambam
    Page Number :: 05-12
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02110105012
    A computer program in Java has been coded to evaluate the cube roots of numbers from 1 to 25 using Newton- Raphson method in the interval [1, 3]. The relative rate of convergence has been found out in each calculation. The lowest rate of convergence has been observed in the evaluation of cube root of 16 and highest in the evaluation of cube root of 3. The average rate of convergence of Newton-Raphson method has been found to be 0.217920
    Keywords: Computer Program, Cube Root, Java, Newton-Raphson Method, Rate of Convergence
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ranbir Soram, Sudipta Roy, Soram Rakesh Singh, Memeta Khomdram, Swavana Yaikhom , Sonamani Takhellambam},
    title = {On the Rate of Convergence of Newton-Raphson Method},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {05-12},
    month = {Novenber}
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 29059
    Paper Title :: Marketing of Some Selected Vegetables: In Yola- North and South Local Government Areas of Adamawa State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Usman, J. ||Bakari, U.M
    Page Number :: 13-17
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021101013017
    This study was carried out to examine the marketing of sweet pepper, spinach and tomato in Yola – North and South Local Government Areas of Adamawa State. One hundred and twenty, (120) vegetable sellers were randomly selected within six wards, namely: Jambutu, Damilu, Luggere, Namtari, Ngurore and Yolde- pate. Data were collected from primary and secondary sources, with the aid of structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, marketing margin as well as gross margin analysis were employed in the analysis of the data. The study shows that majority of the respondents (53.33%) were female. The middle aged people constituted (46.67%) while the constituted 53.33 percent were illiterates. Results of the total gross and marketing margin analysis revealed the total amount of N17,289.84 and N2,259.84 respectively. The total net income of all the vegetable sellers was found to be N17,019.84 indicating profit. The study however, revealed that storage, transportation and inadequate capital were the major problems facing vegetable marketing in the study area. The study observed the need for the marketers to have adequate transportation network, good storage facilities and loan from the government. Farmers were encouraged to take part in the trade as a means of employment and should aim towards improving the efficiency and economic viability of the sector.
    Keywords: Marketing, Margin, Respondents, Transportation, Vegetables
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Usman, J. and Bakari, U.M},
    title = {Marketing of Some Selected Vegetables: In Yola- North and South Local Government Areas of Adamawa State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {13-17},
    month = {November
    }
    }
     
    Paper Id :: 23061
    Paper Title :: Corrosion Properties of Plain Carbon Steels
    Author Name :: Engr Dr A.C Uzorh
    Page Number :: 18-24
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021101018024
    This paper looks at the corrosion characteristics of two grades of plain carbon steels of Ajaokuta steel company limited, namely, DIN 35-2 (Ribbed rod) and DIN 37-2 (plain rod). In three environments: Salt solution, Tap water and Moist soil. The company is located in Northern Nigeria. The corrosion characteristics of these two grades of plain carbon steel were studied under cold work condition and as rolled or untreated condition in the aforementioned media for a period of 22 days. Result obtained show that corrosion rates increases with increasing degree of cold work. In addition, it was found that corrosion rates of these products vary in the different corroding media with moist soil having the highest corrosive ability, followed by tap water and then 3% by weight of sodium chloride salt solution. Also the rib rod samples essentially corroded more than the plain rod samples in these various environments.
    Keywords: Corrosion, Plain Carbon Steels, Cold work,
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Engr Dr A.C Uzorh},
    title = {Corrosion Properties of Plain Carbon Steels},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {18-24},
    month = {November}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 210113
    Paper Title :: Electricity Generation from Speed Breakers
    Author Name :: Aniket Mishra||Pratik Kale||Atul Kamble
    Page Number :: 25-27
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021101025027
    Energy is the primary need for survival of all organisms in the universe. Everything what happens in the surrounding is the expression of flow of energy in one of the forms. But in this fast moving world, population is increasing day by day and the conventional energy sources are lessening. The extensive usage of energy has resulted in an energy crisis over the few years. Therefore to overcome this problem we need to implement the techniques of optimal utilization of conventional sources for conservation of energy. My paper includes how to utilize the energy which is wasted when the vehicles passes over a speed breaker. Lots of energy is generated when vehicle passes over it. We can tap the energy generated and produce power by using the speed breaker as power generating unit. The kinetic energy of the moving vehicles can be converted into mechanical energy of the shaft through rack and pinion mechanism. Then, this mechanical energy will be converted to electrical energy using generator which will be saved with the use of a battery. The energy we save during the day light can be used in the night time for lighting street lights. Therefore, by using this arrangement we can save lot of energy which can be used for the fulfillment of future demands
    Keywords:Electromotive force, Generator, Non-conventional energy, Speed breaker
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Aniket Mishra, Pratik Kale,Atul Kamble},
    title = {Electricity Generation from Speed Breakers},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {25-27},
    month = {November}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 210082
    Paper Title :: Detection bodily expressions by using kinect
    Author Name :: Rodolfo Romero Herrera||José Manuel Mejía Perales||Remy Milla
    Page Number :: 28-36
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021101028036
    Create a program to analyze a person's emotions through his body language is the purpose of this research. This has given answers on the efficiency of the physical appearance and the estimation of the degree to which the gestures and movements of a person influence the understanding of emotions compared to other sources of emotional expressions as voice or facial expression. It elaborates on emotions and their operations, for the great importance in this project. In one-second part talks smart system, which uses a detection algorithm, and model OSCeleton emotions. Finally, it presents an application developed for detecting emotions from the body and shows the results of monitoring for "Detecting emotions". This paper presents the results of location and prediction of movement made by a body. This probability by calculating a matrix made of 5 x5 with the use of Markov processes. Increasing the size of the matrix is possible, but requires more calculations
    Keywords: Kinect, Osceleton, transition matrix, facial expression, detecting emotions
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rodolfo Romero Herrera, José Manuel Mejía Perales, Remy Milla},
    title = {Detection bodily expressions by using kinect},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {28-36},
    month = {November}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 210079
    Paper Title :: Phytoextraction of Total Petroluem Hydrocarbon In Polluted Environment Using An Aquatic Macrophyte Heteranthera callifolia Rchb. Ex Kunth
    Author Name :: Denise E.M|| Akhere M.A|| Udoh Elsie || Okpo Ruth.
    Page Number :: 37-41
    Paper Index :: :09.1913/021101037041
    Laboratory study on phytoextraction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in polluted Environment using Heteranthera callifolia was carried out. The sea weed was grown in the laboratory in 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% concentrations of water saturated fraction (WSF) of Hexane for 4 weeks. The various concentrations of TPH bioaccumulated in roots, petioles and leaves were estimated using standard laboratory procedures. The leaves had the highest concentration of TPH (0.434 ± 0.170) mg/L followed by the petioles (0.202l ± 0.116) mg/L while the roots had the least uptake of TPH (0.096 ± 0.080) mg/L. The result of this study shows that the experimental plant exhibit high level of uptake of TPH. This could be useful in setting up a list of aquatic macrophyte that could be used as bio-indicator of TPH pollution in aquatic ecosystem and could be added to the list of aquatic plants with TPH uptake potential and can also be implicated in bioremediation protocol.
    Keywords: Sea weeds, Bioenergy, Phytoextraction, uptake potential, bioremediation protocol, Petroleum hydrocarbons, pollution, bioindicator
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Denise E.M, Akhere M.A, Udoh Elsie and Okpo Ruth},
    title = {Phytoextraction of Total Petroluem Hydrocarbon In Polluted Environment Using An Aquatic Macrophyte Heteranthera callifolia Rchb. Ex Kunth},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {37-41},
    month = {November}

    }
     
     
    Paper Id :: 210078
    Paper Title :: Comparative Study of Uptake of Heavy Metals in Three Wetland Plants in Banks of two flowing Rivers and a Stream in Southern Nigeria
    Author Name :: Denise, EM || Akhere, M.A.
    Page Number :: 42-47
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021101042047
    Comparative study of uptake of heavy metals in three wetland plant growing in banks of two flowing rivers and a stream in Akwa Ibom State was carried out in the month of August, 2012 to access the pollution status of these wetlands and to evaluate the uptake potential of these plants. Heavy metals in plants leaves were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) method. Iron and Nickel were the most abundant of all the heavy metals in the leaves of the three wetland plant. The concentration of Iron (Fe) ranged between (23.18 + 0.93) mg/kg to (78.79 + 71.80) mg/kg, Nickel ranges between (1.65 + 0.53) mg/kg to (1.86 + 0.20) mg/kg, Lead (Pb) ranges between (1.23 + 0.27) mg/kg to (1.48 + 0.31) mg/kg, Chromium (Cr) ranges between (0.60 + 0.43) mg/kg to (0.80 + 0.32) mg/kg and Mercury (Hg) ranges between (0.20 + 0.15)mg/kg to (0.81 + 011)mg/k. Acroceros zizanoides had the highest uptake potential for iron and mercury while Tristemna spp has the least uptake potential for these heavy metal but the highest for chromium, nickel and lead with Acroceros spp and Cyclosporium having the least for these. The results shows high uptake potential of heavy metals by the three wetland plants and hence could be used in heavy metal mop up in environmental management of heavy metal pollution.
    Keywords: uptake potential, heavy metals,, wetland, environmental pollution, anthropogenic
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Denise, EM and Akhere, M.A},
    title = {Comparative Study of Uptake of Heavy Metals in Three Wetland Plants in Banks of two flowing Rivers and a Stream in Southern Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {42-47},
    month = {November}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 210077
    Paper Title :: The Effect of Relative Humidity on the Hygroscopic Growth Factor and Bulk Hygroscopicity of water Soluble Aerosols
    Author Name :: D.O. Akpootu ||N. N. Gana
    Page Number :: 48-57
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021101048057
    In this paper, the hygroscopicity properties of water soluble aerosols component based on microphysical properties of urban aerosols using data extracted from Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) incorporated with FORTRAN program were modeled to determine the effect of relative humidity on hygroscopic growth factor and bulk hygroscopicity at spectral range of 0.25-1.00 m for eight relative humidities (RHs) (0, 50, 70, 80, 90, 95, 98 and 99%). The extracted microphysical properties are number mix ratio and volume mix ratio as a function of RH. The hygroscopic growth was observed to increase with RH from 0-99% RHs while the bulk hygroscopicity decreases with increase in RH from 0-99% RHs. We observed that the different models adopted excellently fits the data in terms of their coefficient of determination. The analysis further obtain the varying particles hygroscopicity from the proposed one-parameter equation.
    Keywords: Relative humidity, hygroscopic growth factor, bulk hygroscopicity, aerosols, water soluble
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D.O. Akpootu and N. N. Gana},
    title = {The Effect of Relative Humidity on the Hygroscopic Growth Factor and Bulk Hygroscopicity of water Soluble Aerosols},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {48-57},
    month = {November}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 210065
    Paper Title :: Angstrom Type Empirical Correlation for Estimating Global Solar Radiation in North-Eastern Nigeria
    Author Name :: N. N. Gana || D.O. Akpootu
    Page Number :: 58-78
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021101058078
    An accurate knowledge of solar radiation distribution at a particular geographical location is of vital importance for the development of many solar energy devices. In this study, global solar radiation received on horizontal surfaces and sunshine duration for Bauchi, Dutse, Ibitaraba, Maiduguri, Nguru and Yola for the period of fifteen years were analyzed and tabulated. A set of constants for Angstrom-type correlation were obtained to establish the linear regression model capable of generating solar radiation at any given location in North-Eastern, Nigeria. The study resulted in the development of respective Angstrom linear regression models for each of the six meteorological locations, which culminated in the development of the Angstrom model for North-Eastern, Nigeria. Moreover, three sunshine-based models of first, second and third order to estimate annual average global solar radiation has also been obtained employing sunshine hour's data (1990-2005). In general, the three sunshine-based models performed well in terms of their coefficient of determination with R2 = 99.74% given by the linear Angstrom-Prescott (1940) model, for Ogelman et al., (1984) model, R2 =99.89% while the Samuel (1991) model proved to be the best estimator with R2 = 99.93% in North-Eastern, Nigeria. The calculated global solar radiation is in good agreement with the three sunshine based models. This study shows that more than one sunshine-based model can be used to predict solar radiation across the North-Eastern, Nigeria. In order to test for the performance of statistical significance of the models, mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean percentage error (MPE) and t-test values were adopted, the results shows that despite overestimation and underestimation of the models, there are fairly good level of significance at both confidence level of 95% and 99%. The results of the coefficient of determination indicate that the calculated clearness index and relative sunshine duration shows excellent data
    Keywords: Global Solar Radiation, Sunshine Hours, Regression Constants, North-East, Sunshine-based Models, Nigeria
    @article{key:article,
    author = {N. N. Gana and D.O. Akpootu},
    title = {Angstrom Type Empirical Correlation for Estimating Global Solar Radiation in North-Eastern Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {58-78},
    month = {November}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 210064
    Paper Title :: Sedimentary Facies Analysis of Conglomerate Deposits in Northeastern Part of Akwa Ibom State, Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Udo, I. G.|| Mode, A. W
    Page Number :: 79-90
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021101079090
    Conglomerates abound in northeastern part of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria along a belt of about 550 kilometers square. The conglomerate deposits consist of six sedimentary facies: paraconglomerate (Cm) consisting of matrix supported massive conglomerates with a matrix of clayey sand , orthoconglomerate (Cc) comprising clast-supported normally graded conglomerates with poorly sorted fine to very coarse sand forming the matrix, massive sandstone (Sm) that is made up of fine to coarse grained massive and poorly sorted pebbly sandstones, crossbedded sandstone (Sc) consisting of medium to coarse grained crossbedded sandstones, parallel laminated sandstone (Sp) comprising fine to coarse grained poorly sorted sandstones with parallel laminations, mudstone (M) consisting of massive claystones and siltstones that lack any observable sedimentary structure and also include bioturbated mudstone. The gravelly, sandy and mudstone facies are stacked in ascending order and it is interpreted as a succession of channel-bar-overbank deposits of a braided fluvial system
    Keywords: Conglomerate, facies, braided stream, model, environment and sandstone.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Udo, I. G. and Mode, A. W.},
    title = {Sedimentary Facies Analysis of Conglomerate Deposits in Northeastern Part of Akwa Ibom State, Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {79-90},
    month = {November}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 210059
    Paper Title :: The Role of Agricultural Mechanization in the Economic Development for Small Scale Farms In Adamawa State
    Author Name :: D.A. Mada|| Sunday Mahai
    Page Number :: 91-96
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021101091096
    The economic situation at agricultural industry has been change rapidly in Adamawa state from 1999-2013, the population in farming areas decreased sharply and the labor demand increased. The farm size and farm rural wage have been increased. These were the driving force of agriculture mechanization industry. It had made off -farm employment opportunity and improves socio economic status of rural farmers. To sustain income status of small scale farmers and Welfare of rural farming communities, the manual power in Adamawa state is gradually replaced by single axle multipurpose machines from land preparation to post- harvest. They should be plan for joint utilization system of agricultural machinery, to improve quality and quantity production of agricultural products. Also the market status of agricultural production should be opened to other foreign countries to boast small scale farmer's income
    Keywords: Agriculture, Econmics, Development, small-scale farm
    @article{key:article,
    author = {D.A. Mada and Sunday Mahai},
    title = {The Role of Agricultural Mechanization in the Economic Development for Small Scale Farms In Adamawa State},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {91-96},
    month = {november}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 210027
    Paper Title :: Development and Evaluation of Straw Chopping System for Fluidized Bed Gasifiers
    Author Name :: A. E. Ghaly|| A. Ergudenler|| S. Al Suhaibani||V. V. Ramakrishnan
    Page Number :: 97-112
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0211010970112
    A straw chopping system, designed to provide continuous flow of straw to a fluidized bed gasifier, was constructed and evaluated. The system consists of a frame, a revolving chute, a cutting drum, a depth of cut controlling mechanism, a concave, an output hopper and a power unit. The performance characteristics (rotational speed, feed rate, depth of cut, length of cut and the energy required for chopping of straw) were determined. The chopping of straw was achieved with low energy consumption due to the proper design of the input hopper in that provided a uniform cutting of straw from the bale, the design of the input cutting mechanism with adjustable depth of cut and the correct sizing of the output hoper to provide an efficient removal of uniformly chopped straw. Both the depth of cut and the cutting speed significantly affected the length of straw, the straw feed rate and the power required for cutting the straw. Decreasing the depth of cut and/or increasing the cutting speed increased the straw feed rate while increasing the depth of cut and/or increasing the cutting speed increased the power consumption and decreased the straw length. The feed rate for chopping straw ranged from 1.48 to 10.52 kg/min, the power consumption ranged from 1.76 to 7.76 hp and straw length ranged from 14.49 to 18.85 mm, depending upon the depth of cut and cutting speed used. The unit power (hp.h/t) improved with increases in the cutting speed due to increases in the feed rate. The energy of cut was less than 0.2% of the energy content of the straw. The sieve analysis of the sample indicated that 85-90% of the samples were collected in the sieves 2 (2.38 mm). The remaining 10-15% had a straw length of 0.59-2.38 mm.
    Keywords: Biomass, cereal straw, chopping, feeding, continuous flow, fluidized bed, gasification
    @article{key:article,
    author = {A. E. Ghaly, A. Ergudenler, S. Al Suhaibani and V. V. Ramakrishnan},
    title = {Development and Evaluation of Straw Chopping System for Fluidized Bed Gasifiers},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {97-112},
    month = {November}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 29058
    Paper Title :: Profitability of Dry Season Tomato Production in fufore Local Government areao Adamawa State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Usman, J.|| Bakari, U.M.
    Page Number :: 113-117
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02110101130117
    The study analyzed the profitability of dry season tomato production in fufore local government area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select eighty (80) tomato farmers in the study area. Primary data were collected with the aid of well structured questionnaires for 2011/2012 cropping season. Descriptive statistics, gross margin and net income analysis were the analytical tools employed. The result shows that majority (88,75%) of the respondents were male, married (82%) who are in their active age of their life. The level of education was very low as most of them (50%) had only first living certificate, with little farming experience. The result of the profitability analysis revealed a gross margin and net income of N125,500 and N105,012.91 respectively and a net return of 67 kobo to every naira invested. The analysis indicated that dry season tomato production is a profitable venture in the study area. The analysis further identified inadequate farm credit, lack of good storage and processing facilities and inadequate extension services as the main problems faced by farmers. The study therefore, recommends that farmers should be encouraged to form cooperative societies so as to enable them obtain loans from commercial banks and agricultural and rural cooperative bank, at regulated interest rates. Government should ensure efficient extension services in the study area by organizing workshops, training and make provision to facilitate their work and provide adequate storage facilities.
    Keywords: Data, Fufore; Irrigation; Production; Storage; Tomato
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Usman, J.and Bakari, U.M.},
    title = {Profitability of Dry Season Tomato Production in fufore Local Government areao Adamawa State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {113-117},
    month = {November}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 29039
    Paper Title :: On The Use of an Almost Unbiased Ratio Estimator in the Two-Phase Sampling Scheme
    Author Name :: Olusegun Alfred O
    Page Number :: 118-123
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02110101180123
    There has been an extensive use of auxiliary information in ratio estimation for estimating population parameters in forestry. Tree heights, measured during forest inventory programs is an important component required for determining a forest site's productivity. We consider the problem of obtaining precise estimates of the mean height of trees in a finite population. Using simple random sampling without replacement, data on the total height of Tectona grandis (THT), the study variate and its diameter-at-breast height (DBH), which is the auxiliary information were obtained via the two-phase sampling approach at the Oluwa Forest Reserve, Ondo State, Nigeria. The estimators considered in this study are the unbiased estimator, the usual ratio estimator, the Bahl and Tuteja (1991) estimator and the almost unbiased (AU) estimator. The Bias and the mean square error (MSE) of these estimators were then obtained to the first degree of approximation, using the Taylor's linearization method as described by Wolter (2007). The inequality which expresses the relationship obtained from a direct comparison of the MSE of estimators, an observation of findings,indicate that AU ratio estimator has the highest percent relative gain in efficiency.
    Keywords: Auxiliary Information,Mean Square Error, Ratio Estimator, Tectona grandis, Two-Phase Sampling
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Olusegun Alfred O.},
    title = {On The Use of an Almost Unbiased Ratio Estimator in the Two-Phase Sampling Scheme},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {118-123},
    month = {November}

    }
     
    Paper Id :: 28059
    Paper Title :: In Vivo Anti-Trypanosomal Activity of Ethanolic Root Extract of Carissa Spinarum (Wild Karanda) In Mice Infected With Trypanosoma brucei brucei Spp
    Author Name :: Onotu. C.S|| Jingfa. Y. E|| Benjamin. J.E|| Kugu. B. A1 , Andrew. T|| Okoh. K. E.
    Page Number :: 124-128
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02110101240128
    Carissa Spinarum plant used for treatment of joints, muscle & chest pains by the massai people in Kenya is also implicated as cancer & antiviral supplement for HIV treatment in Tanzania. Acute toxicity and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) using four (4) microorganism (proteus, e.coli, staphylococcus aureus spp & enterobacter spp) of ethanolic leaf extract was evaluated in mice. Phytochemical analysis of the extract was carried out while evaluation for in vivo anti-trypanosomal activity against federa strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei across a four days suppressive, curative effect against established infection and prophylactic models of anti-trypanosomal studies were also established. The median lethal dose of the extract was determined to be ≥ 100mg ∕ kg body weight. The extract (12.5, 25, 50mg / kg) exerted some dose dependent suppressive effects at the different levels of infections tested, with no significant curative effects recorded. However, further antitrypanosomal property can be explored for the management of trypanosomiasis
    Keywords: Carissa spinarum, antitrypanosomal, albino mice, trypanosome brucei brucei,
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Onotu. C.S, Jingfa. Y. E, Benjamin. J.E, Kugu. B. A , Andrew. T, Okoh. K. E.},
    title = {In Vivo Anti-Trypanosomal Activity of Ethanolic Root Extract of Carissa Spinarum (Wild Karanda) In Mice Infected With Trypanosoma brucei brucei Spp},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {124-128},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 27140
    Paper Title :: Microcontroller Based Green House Control Device
    Author Name :: Alausa Dele W.S|| Keshinro Kazeem Kolawole.
    Page Number :: 129-135
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02110101290135
    MICROCONTROLLER BASED Green House control device is used in the automatic control and monitoring of Equipments and quantities such as screening installations, heating, cooling, lighting, temperature, soil Moisture level and other quantities/conditions in a Green House, with effective monitoring of all quantities therein, hence eliminating need for Human monitoring. With an enhanceable feature it integrates and automates by turning ON or OFF all monitoring devices in the house as well as provides suggestions for remedies when the need arises. This is due to the MCU technology that can be easily modified and re-modified with portability. There is also an alarm circuit to call the attention of the Supervisor. This study focuses on determining the effectiveness and functionality of green house control device..
    Keywords: green house, heating, radiation, temperature, watering, ventilation
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Alausa Dele W.S, Keshinro Kazeem Kolawole.},
    title = {Microcontroller Based Green House Control Device},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {129-135},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 26156
    Paper Title :: Assessment of Static Water Level Dynamics in parts of the Eastern Niger Delta
    Author Name :: S.A Ngah || H.O Nwankwoala
    Page Number :: 136-141
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02110101360141
    The maximum static water level in the study area occurs around Ulakwo, at 18.2 meters below ground surface and Erema, 15.24 meters below ground surface in the northern parts of the study area. Values of static water level decrease in the central parts to 3.7m, 3.23m and 2.3m for Omoku, Bodo and Abonema respectively. The value approaches near surface in the southern parts and near the coast, 0.34m at Abissa, 0.69m at Brass and zero at Akassa. Artesian conditions prevail in places where a thick clay sequence completely seals the underlying sandy aquifer over a long lateral distance with sufficient confining pressure as in the very deep wells at Bonny or in the perched aquifers in the clayey southern parts of the study area like Abam Ama, Old GRA and Iva Valley, Port Harcourt. The static water level map clearly shows that the major regional direction of groundwater flow is from north to south. Changes in groundwater flow directions which occur at some places in the southeast, northwest and northeast, generally serve localized discharge areas. The resultant flow path eventually joins and feeds the major regional north-south flow direction. This flow pattern (local and regional) is generally consistent with the geology and stratigraphy of the area.
    Keywords: Static water level, aquifers, groundwater flow, Niger Delta
    @article{key:article,
    author = {S.A Ngah and H.O Nwankwoala},
    title = {Assessment of Static Water Level Dynamics in parts of the Eastern Niger Delta},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {136-141},
    month = {November}

    Volume 2 || Issue 11 || versions 2 || November 2013
    Paper Id :: 210087
    Paper Title :: The Optimization, Design and Economics of Industrial NSC Oxidative Pressure Leaching Of Complex Sulfide Concentrates
    Author Name :: Dr. Corby G. Anderson
    Page Number :: 01-16
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02110201016
    Nitrogen Species Catalyzed (NSC) pressure leaching of complex sulfide concentrates has been carried out. This entailed performance of bench scale test work on a representative composite sample to ascertain indicative recoveries and identify lead deportment in the residue particularly with regards to avoidance of formation of plumbojarosite and the production of lead sulfide. A major equipment list including materials of construction, equipment size and power requirements was also provided. Detailed block flow diagrams showing each unit process were provided along with basic testing mass balances. Finally, order of magnitude CAPEX and OPEX was ascertained to +/-30%.In summary, industrial NSC pressure leaching was effective in leaching silver, zinc, copper, nickel and cobalt well over 90 % to solution from the complex sulfide concentrates. The NSC treated concentrate composite residue sample was produced as lead oxide and lead sulfide in the DOE testing. In the subsequent locked cycle NSC work, this was optimized to produce only lead sulfide leached residue suitable for conventional smelting.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Corby G. Anderson},
    title = {The Optimization, Design and Economics of Industrial NSC Oxidative Pressure Leaching Of Complex Sulfide Concentrates},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {01-16},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 211013
    Paper Title :: Effect of Vowel-To-Vowel Coarticulation of Disyllabic Sequences in Chinese
    Author Name :: Maolin Wang|| Wei Xiong
    Page Number :: 17-22
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021102017022
    In this study, the Vowel-to-Vowel (V-to-V) coarticulatory effect in the Vowel-Consonant-Vowel (VCV) sequences is investigated. The stimuli are in the form of C1V1.C2V2, which is designed for V1 to affect V2. The subjects are twelve native speakers of standard Chinese, and the F2 onset value, as well as the F2 delta value, is analyzed. Results show that, due to long temporal separation between vowels for the aspirated stops relative to the unaspirated ones, the effect of aspiration is obvious, and in the contexts of aspirated stops, the effect of place of articulation is restrained.
    Keywords: Coarticulation, formant, speech, stop, vowel
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Maolin Wang, Wei Xiong},
    title = {Effect of Vowel-To-Vowel Coarticulation of Disyllabic Sequences in Chinese},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {17-22},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 211001
    Paper Title :: A Singular Value Decomposition and Wavelet Based Robust Watermarking Scheme
    Author Name :: N.Tirumala|| B.Veeresh Kumar|| T.Sravanthi
    Page Number :: 23-26
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021102023026
    This paper presents a robust watermarking technique using discrete wavelet transform and Singular Value Decomposition. In proposed method the blue channel of the color host image is selected for embedding watermark because it is more resistant to changes compared to red and green channels, for embedding watermark singular values are used. In this the watermark is embedded into singular values of the host image. They embedded the singular values of the watermark image into the singular values of the host image. The blue channel is decomposed into n levels using discrete wavelet transform because this is an invertible transform and has the property of exact reconstruction and smoothness. This method is shown to be robust against many signal processing operations as well as geometrical attacks.
    Keywords: Attacks, Copyright Protection, Digital Image Watermarking, Discrete Wavelets Transform, Robust Watermarking, Singular Value Decomposition
    @article{key:article,
    author = {N.Tirumala, B.Veeresh Kumar and T.Sravanthi},
    title = {A Singular Value Decomposition and Wavelet Based Robust Watermarking Scheme},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {23-26},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 210105
    Paper Title :: IN-VIVO QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF Dambu-nama TREATED WITH SOME HURDLES
    Author Name :: Eke, M.O|| Ariahu, C.C|| Igyor, M.A
    Page Number :: 27-31
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021102027031
    A study was conducted to assess the protein quality of beef based Dambu-nama "A shredded dried Nigeria meat product" by IN-VIVO studies using Swiss Strain Albino rats. Four hurdles were used in the preparation of three samples namely; Citric acid at 0.1 (B), 0.2 (D) and 0.3 (G) % levels of concentration, Salt at 2.0%, Sugar at 4.0% and All spices (ginger, garlic, onions, hot pepper, sweet pepper and magi cube) was added at 2.0% and 4.0% respectively and a control (AB) which was not treated with any hurdles. Result showed that the proximate composition of the test diets B, D, G, AB, BD and CD (Casein diet) , varied significantly at (P≤0.05). All diets recorded positive weight gain except BD (Basal diet) that was negative. The Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Protein Utilization (PU), Net Protein Ratio (NPR) and Apparent digestibility (AD) values varied significantly (P≤0.05) in all diets. Faecal nitrogen, liver nitrogen and carcasses nitrogen also varied significantly in all at P≤0.05. Rats fed basal diet (BD) recorded a negative PER (-2.26) while those fed on 0.3% citric acid (G) have a value of 2.32and those fed on 0.2% 0.1% citric acid (D and B) have a PER value of 2.34 and 2.40 respectively and the control (AB) which was untreated have a lower PER value of 2.18. This implies that the use of citric acid significantly increase the protein quality of dambu-nama and may as well increase the shelf-stability due to the reduction of the activity of micro-organisms
    Keywords: Dambu-nama, In-vivo, Albino Rats, Hurdles, Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER)
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Eke, M.O ; Ariahu, C.C and Igyor, M.A,
    title = {IN-VIVO QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF Dambu-nama TREATED WITH SOME HURDLES},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {27-31},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 211004
    Paper Title :: Environmental Impact of Tombia Bridge Construction Across Nun River In Central Niger Delta, Nigeria
    Author Name :: E.I. Seiyaboh|| I.R. Inyang || H. Gijo
    Page Number :: 32-41
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021102032041
    An assessment of some aspects of the Environmental Impact of Tombia Bridge Construction across the Nun River was carried out. The construction phase of the Tombia bridge project was observed by this study to have the potential to increase erosion, turbidity, conductivity, sediment deposition and accumulation levels around and downstream of the project site. The test results showed high turbidity values of 64 NTU in the Bridge Station and 8 – 18 NTU recorded at the downstream and upstream stations of the Bridge. Phosphate values of 0.12 – 0.14mg/l recorded at the Bridge stations were higher than the 0.06 – 0.09mg/l in the other stations. Nitrate values of 4.12 – 4.15mg/l recorded at the Bridge stations were also comparatively higher than 0.5mg/l in the other stations. These results were indicative of influence of Bridge construction on turbidity, phosphate and nitrate levels. Therefore, bridge construction activities within the channel of the Nun River would impose adverse effects on the water quality. The bridge construction activities also have the potential to cause a temporary increase in suspended sediments. Aquatic habitat will be disturbed in the vicinity of the construction area. Aquatic life uses of this portion of the Nun River will be negatively impacted. The bridge structure itself was observed during this study to cause a constant upwelling of sediments around the bridge location and is confirmed by very high turbidity values of 64NTU recorded in the area and downstream of the bridge location. The distribution of particle size fractions shows a high proportion of sand particles at the Bridge stations; indicative of higher energy environment. Sediments in the study area were generally acidic (ranging from 4.21 –5.61): acidic sediments can have an adverse effect on fisheries distribution and other benthic organisms. Available Phosphate values of 2.71 – 17.24mg/l and Nitrate values of 3.11 – 13.4mg/l recorded in this study were higher than those in other studies. Bridge construction activities within the cannel of the Nun River would have adverse effect on the sediment quality.
    Keywords: Environmental Impact, Tombia Bridge, Nun River, Central Niger Delta
    @article{key:article,
    author = {E.I. Seiyaboh, I.R. Inyang And H. Gijo},
    title = {Environmental Impact of Tombia Bridge Construction Across Nun River In Central Niger Delta, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {32-41},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 210091
    Paper Title :: Isolation And Identification Of Food-Borne Micro Flora From Zobo (A Nigerian Drink) Prepared From The Calyces Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae)
    Author Name :: E.I Seiyaboh|| I.Y Oku|| O.M Odogbo
    Page Number :: 42-45
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021102042045
    This study was undertaken to determine the different types of food-borne micro flora associated with Zobo, a Nigerian drink prepared from the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Five (5) different categories of Zobo products were prepared and the pour plate method was used in isolating pure cultures. The identification sequence specified for single bacterial culture in the manual for identification of medical bacteria was used in identifying the isolates. Four different organisms isolated were identified as: - Micrococcus sp, Bacillus sp, Proteus sp and Escherichia sp.
    Keywords: Food-borne Micro flora, Zobo drink, Hibiscus sabdariffa
    @article{key:article,
    author = {E.I Seiyaboh,* I.Y Oku, and O.M Odogbo},
    title = {Isolation And Identification Of Food-Borne Micro Flora From Zobo (A Nigerian Drink) Prepared From The Calyces Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {42-45},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 210090
    Paper Title :: Bacteriological Spoilage of Zobo Drink Prepared From Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae)
    Author Name :: E.I Seiyaboh|| I.Y Oku || O.M Odogbo
    Page Number :: 46-51
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021102046051
    This study was undertaken to detect the bacteriological spoilage of zobo drink prepared from the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa using sugar, pineapple flavour and spices - Ginger (Zingiber officinalis), Black pepper (Piper guineense). The pH of the various products was analyzed over a six days period. The pH was found to reduce as the days went by due to bacterial activity, with product 2 having the lowest pH due to its high nutritive value. The effect of spices was noticed as they prevented bacterial activity. The bacterial count of the products varied from 8.1x104 to 2.5x106cfu/ml on the first day of storage. The change in colour and aroma of the products stored for 3 days was studied. In all the products, the colour was bright red on the 1st & 2nd day and on the 3rd day it became dark red. Product 1&2 had a berry like aroma on the 1st & 2nd day and on the 3rd day it became sour, Product 4&5 had spicy odour on the 1st & 2nd day and on the 3rd day it became off odour, Product 5 had a fruit odour on the 1st & 2nd day and on the 3rd day it became sour. The organisms isolated from the zobo products were:-Micrococcus, Bacillus, Proteus & Escherichia species. The results suggest that zobo drink if not properly processed is very susceptible to microbial deterioration due to its high nutrient content. It was found to have a shelf-life of 2days after which it became undesirable when stored at ambient temperature
    Keywords: Bacteriological Spoilage, Zobo drink, Hibiscus sabdariffa
    @article{key:article,
    author = {E.I Seiyaboh, I.Y Oku and O.M Odogbo},
    title = {Bacteriological Spoilage of Zobo Drink Prepared From Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {46-51},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 29087
    Paper Title :: Hydropower Resources as Target of Terrorism: Case Study of Selected Water Bodies In Northern Nigeria
    Author Name :: S.Mohammed A. Al Amin
    Page Number :: 52-61
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021102052061
    Energy demand is a major issue facing both the developed and developing nations and is always at the front bunning of government policy at all levels. Part of the current consideration by governments in terms of energy security is the factor of supply stability and infrastructural safety; especially in the wake of post September 11 attacks on the United States. As the level of terrorism is increasing, so is with the attention to energy security. This paper is therefore on attempt to analyze a sector of Nigeria's energy source-Hydropower, within the current security challenge facing the northern part of the country. After a through background on the issues surrounding hydro-terrorism at the global level. The paper had explored the Nigeria's hydropower asset and actimately assessed its vulnerability to insurgent attacks of especially the Boko Haram terrorist that dominated the study area. The evaluation consist of target attractiveness, vulnerability assessment, Risk assessment and the assessment of consequences which were evaluated on the four major river-basins that hold over 90% of the hydropower resources in the region. The study indicated the highest risks on the Hadeja-Jama'are and Kamadugu Yobe basins. This was attributed to their geographical locations, socio-economy of the residents and porocity of the boarders that warrants the smuggle of small arms and light weapons. Recommendations were made on both physical and small measures to safeguard the hydropower assets involved.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mohammed A. Al Amin},
    title = {Hydropower Resources as Target of Terrorism: Case Study of Selected Water Bodies In Northern Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {52-61},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 211028
    Paper Title :: Finger Knuckle Print Recognition Techniques-A Survey
    Author Name :: Esther Rani P || Shanmugalakshmi R
    Page Number :: 62-69
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021102062069
    Biometric traits are now highly explored by researchers to establish a system that can be used to accurately identify a person. Personal identification based on biometric features is becoming more popular these days because it is more reliable than traditional methods and has got numerous applications. The performance of such a system depends on the biometric characteristic that is utilized. Many traits like fingerprint face iris, palm vein, DNA and many others have been used for personal identification. One new biometric trait that has attracted researchers in the recent years is the finger knuckle print. The finger knuckle print refers to the inherent skin patterns that are formed at the joints in the finger back surface. Recently it has been found that the finger knuckle print is highly rich in textures and can be used to uniquely identify a person. Hand based biometrics have the advantage of higher user acceptability and this new trait has an added advantage of not getting easily damaged. This paper presents some of the methods used by the researchers for acquisition and techniques used for recognition systems based on finger knuckle print. Most of the researchers have made use of the database containing 7920 samples collected from 660 individuals that is publicly made available by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Performance comparison of the different techniques proposed in the literature is also presented.
    Keywords: Biometrics, finger knuckle print, features, recognition system.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Esther Rani P , Shanmugalakshmi R},
    title = {Finger Knuckle Print Recognition Techniques-A Survey},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {62-69},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 23178
    Paper Title :: Conversion of Kitchen Waste into Biogas
    Author Name :: Ogur, E. O. || Mbatia, S.
    Page Number :: 70-76
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021102070076
    Facing energy crisis and climate change, the world is in need of a green, efficient, carbon- neutral energy source to replace fossil fuels. The search for energy alternatives involving locally available and renewable resource is one of the main concern of governments, scientists, and business people worldwide. Biogas, formed by anaerobic digestion of organic materials, makes sustainable, reliable and renewable energy possible. There is potential for biogas production from kitchen waste, and at the same time the waste themselves can be treated to minimize the environmental impact and provide nutrient rich organic fertilizer. The study's main objective was to design an anaerobic digester which utilizes food waste to generate biogas for use in Kabete Technical Training Institute's (KTTI) kitchen. The institute's main source of energy was mainly wood fuel, supplemented with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) which is very expensive. The amount of waste generated from the kitchen was found to be of sufficient quantity to generate enough biogas for use in the kitchen hence the level of biogas production would in turn mean that this technology could be a viable investment for the institute to make.
    Keywords: Biogas, organic waste, anaerobic, aerobic, organic fertilizer
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ogur, E. O. and Mbatia, S. },
    title = {Conversion of Kitchen Waste into Biogas},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {70-76},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 23151
    Paper Title :: The Role of Computer Technology in Mechanical Engineering Education in Kenyan Universities
    Author Name :: Ogur, E. O|| Ogola, W. O
    Page Number :: 77-81
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021102077081
    This paper examines the extent of exposure of mechanical engineering students in two Kenyan universities and colleges of technology to engineering computer application programmes. In view of this, a survey study was adopted, two research questions were raised and a null hypothesis formulated. The population of the study consisted of 225 final year engineering students from two leading Kenyan universities of technology that offer mechanical engineering education programme. The findings of the study indicate a relationship between engineering computer application programmes and engineering education programmes in Kenyan universities. The study also reveals a significant difference between the exposure of engineering students to engineering computer application programmes and the expected exposure in Kenyan universities. To address these deficiencies revealed by the study, the researcher recommended among others the expansion of the curriculum of engineering education programmes to include courses like introduction to Computer Aided Design using 3-D modelling software, introduction to programming languages like Matlab or MathCAD and introduction to finite element modelling packages for numerically solving a wide variety of mechanical engineering problems.
    Keywords: Computer aided design, programming, finite element modelling
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ogur, E. O and Ogola, W. O},
    title = {The Role of Computer Technology in Mechanical Engineering Education in Kenyan Universities},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {77-81},
    month = {November}

    Volume 2 || Issue 11 || versions 3 || November 2013 
    Paper Id :: 211011
    Paper Title :: Assessment of Water Quality of Hand-Dug Wells In Zaria LGA Of Kaduna State
    Author Name :: Samuel Yakubu
    Page Number :: 01-04
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0211030104
    This study assessed the water quality of some hand-dug wells in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from eight (8) different wells at strategic positions and determined to ascertain how safe the water is for directly human consumption without treatment. The physical and chemical parameters assessed include temperature, pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), colour, total hardness, turbidity, cupper, iron, manganese, zinc, and lead. The result revealed high variation between the WHO standard for potable water and the obtained values. The implication is that water from most wells in the study area is not in any way safe nor suitable for direct human consumption. Closeness of wells to refuse dumpsites was blamed for the increase levels of concentration of pollutants. To avoid further pollution of groundwater, the study therefore recommends that the site for well should be at least 30m away from source of contamination most especially refuse dumpsite, the surrounding environment of the existing wells should be kept clean and tidy to avoid or reduce contaminations, disinfection of wells water by chlorination and continuous monitoring to determine any change in the level of pollution at the sources.
    Keywords: water quality, pollutants, hand-dug wells, suitability
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Samuel Yakubu},
    title = {Assessment of Water Quality of Hand-Dug Wells In Zaria LGA Of Kaduna State},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {01-04},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 211012
    Paper Title :: Optimal Model of the Multi-Item Transportation With Different Trucks
    Author Name :: Gao Yunjing|| Chen Xiang|| Pi Huihuang
    Page Number :: 05-07
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/0211030507
    Aimed at the low efficiency of the road transportation, the optimal model with the maximization of the loading capacity rate and the volume capacity rate was established, which is based on the characteristic of the muti-item transportation.
    Keywords: loading of goods; muti-item; transportation; optimization
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Gao Yunjing, Chen Xiang, Pi Huihuang},
    title = {Optimal Model of the Multi-Item Transportation With Different Trucks},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {05-07},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 210106
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of Sub-Soil Geotechnical Properties for Shallow Foundation Design in Onne, Rivers State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Ngah, S.A ||Nwankwoala, H.O
    Page Number :: 08-16
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/02110308016
    This study aims at establishing the sub-soil types and profile to ascertain the engineering characteristics of the underlying soils in Onne area of Rivers State, Nigeria and recommend appropriate foundation design and construction for large scale ground and elevated water storage facilities in the area. Four borings were accomplished using a percussion rig with the aid of augers. Representative samples were analyzed in the laboratory in accordance with relevant geotechnical engineering standards. Results of the study revealed that within the maximum depth of 15m of boring, the area was found to consist of about 0.2m thick of organic topsoil followed by light brown sandy-clay underlain by a light brown to yellowish brown fine to medium grained, medium dense sand up to 15m depth of investigation. The study also reveals that superficial light brown sandy clay is suitable in quality to carry shallow or raft foundation load development and also has thickness to completely dissipate the influence of such foundations in the area. For such foundations which could be placed between 1.0m and 3.0m depth, an average allowable bearing pressure qa of100kN/m2 is recommended for the area. The size of projects in the area in terms of loading presupposes that a shallow foundation placed at a minimum of about 900mm below existing ground level may be appropriate. For such foundation and for a maximum consolidation settlement of about 60mm, an allowable bearing pressure of 100kpa is recommended
    Keywords: Sub-soils, Geotechnical Properties, foundation design, Construction, Niger Delta.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ngah, S.A And Nwankwoala, H.O},
    title = {Evaluation of Sub-Soil Geotechnical Properties for Shallow Foundation Design in Onne, Rivers State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {08-16},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 210092
    Paper Title :: ABO Incompatibility And Its Role In Neonatal Jaundice In Zaria, Kaduna State Of Nigeria
    Author Name :: Ella, E. E.||Garba, S. A. ||Ogala, W. N
    Page Number :: 17-23
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021103017023
    The blood group of mother and child assay with ABO incompatible was 5 (10%). The values Percentage Reticulocyte count, Percentage Neutrophils and Basophils were elevated in the ABO compatible group as compared with the compatible group. The severity of the jaundice as evident by the mean bilirubin levels observed for the infants with ABO incompatibility was 20.84 ± 8.1 mg/100ml. This was higher than the mean value of 16.35 ± 6.5 mg/100ml observed for the group ABO compatible group. The bilirubin levels was high in the samples of babies with blood group A or B born to mothers with blood group O with 27.1 mg/100ml for the baby with blood group B. The difference was however not statistically significant (P > 0.05). All (100%) of the cases with ABO incompatibility were Coomb's positive while only 6 (16.2%) of the ABO compatible cases were Coomb's positive. The level of maternal antibodies in the neonatal circulation was as high as 512 in both cases with over 50% of ABO incompatible group having titres of 256 and above. All (100%) of the ABO incompatible cases were hemolytic in the presence serum compliments and 4 (80%) were hemolytic even in the absence of compliments. However, in the ABO compatible cases, 56.8% were hemolytic in the presence of serum compliments while only 19% were hemolytic in the absence of compliments.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ella, E. E., Garba, S. A. , Ogala, W. N},
    title = {ABO Incompatibility And Its Role In Neonatal Jaundice In Zaria, Kaduna State Of Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {17-23},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 29090
    Paper Title :: Understanding the Bidding Process and Procedures for the Procurement of Goods Work and Services
    Author Name :: Gbadamosi Olaniyi Mufutau || Osho Victoria Mojisola
    Page Number :: 24-30
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021103024030
    What and how to understanding the bidding process and procedures for the procurement of goods and services is one of the most important decisions that an organization makes. It is a major cost containment strategy that is being applied across all business activities. As a result supply and contracting still sets to gain maximum advantages and reduce risk when act on sourcing activities. This paper focuses on the areas of expertise needed by those involved in the outstanding bidding an negotiations process so that the primary objectives of outsourcing and bidding process will be met. The necessary data used in this paper was collected through secondary source; include textbooks from reputable authors, journal and newspapers. The paper has offered some recommendations aimed at improving the bidding process in supply outsourcing.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Gbadamosi Olaniyi Mufutau , Osho Victoria Mojisola},
    title = {Understanding the Bidding Process and Procedures for the Procurement of Goods Work and Services},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {24-30},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 210011
    Paper Title :: The Roles Of Supply Chain Management In A Deregulation Economy
    Author Name :: Gbadamosi Olaniyi Mufutau ||Osho Victoria Mojisola
    Page Number :: 31-43
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021103031043
    This Study Is All About Appraisal Or The Roles Of Supply Chain Management On A Deregulating Economy, Also The Study Tended To Find Out The Meaning And Application Of Supply Chain Management In Our Economy Sector. The Study Discussed The In Depth Of Supply Chain Management And It Roles And Applications, Also Elucidate The Sound Opinion Of Different Scholars And Researcher On Purchasing And Supply Chain Management Field. A Quite Number Of Authorities On Supply Chain Management At The Chartered Institute Of Purchasing And Supply Management Nigerian (CIPSMN) Were Also Cited, The Like Of ALIYU M.J Abdul Mamman, The Foreign Authority Cited Were The Like Of Lyson C.K., Gattorna, Lamer Lee And Burt, Strauss G., Osstreft. F And Smith). This Study Recommends An Ideal Structure Of Supply Chain Management For Better Understanding F The Position Of Supply Chain Management Within The Scope Of The Best Practice
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Gbadamosi Olaniyi Mufutau ,Osho Victoria Mojisola},
    title = {The Roles Of Supply Chain Management In A Deregulation Economy},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {31-43},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 210098
    Paper Title :: Mechatronics – A New Trend In Machine Control
    Author Name :: Emmanuel I. Igweonu|| Ikenna U. Mbabuike|| And Kalu K. Okwara
    Page Number :: 44-53
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021103044053
    Mechatronics has now become a relatively new trend in the design of systems, devices and products aimed at achieving an optimal balance between basic mechanical structures and its overall control. In fact, the mechatronic idea would rightly be adjudged to be a product of persistency, innovativeness and excellence. This paper describes a laboratory theory-proving-system (TPS-3920) mechatronic command set; the system's programming method and language, and a chosen example. The TPS-3920 system is accompanied with the SES-LATHE software.
    Keywords: Mechatronics, Engineering, Machine Tool, G & M-Code Program
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Emmanuel I. Igweonu And Ikenna U. Mbabuike And Kalu K. Okwara},
    title = {Mechatronics – A New Trend In Machine Control},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {44-53},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 210093
    Paper Title :: Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among Female Students attending a Selected University Health Services in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Ella , ,E. E.,||Shenge, H. ||Ajoge, H. O.
    Page Number :: 54-57
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021103054057
    The study area was the Health Services Sickbay of a tertiary institution in Zaria attended by staff and students as well as a population living within the academic community. However, the study population was limited to all the female students attending the within a period of six months who gave their consent to be enlisted in the study. Staff and non- students attending the health facility were excluded. Similarly approval for the study was obtained from the Authorities of the Health Centre. A total of 92 female students were analyzed and of this number, 26 representing 28.26% were seropositive. In respect to age distribution, it was found that 78 of the 92 students sampled were in the 18-23 age range where 23 (29.49%) of the 78 female students within the 18 – 23 age range were seropositive while 3(25%) out of the 12 female students in the 24-29 age range were seropositive. A prevalence of 28.21% (22 cases out of 78) was established for the unmarried female students to Chlamydia trachomatis IgG while the married had a prevalence of 28.57 % (4 out of 14 cases). From the result obtained in this study, it can be seen that the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis was quite high for an enclosed population of women
    Keywords: Seroprevalence, Elisa, Chlamydia trachomatis, IgG
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ella , ,E. E., ,Shenge, H. ,Ajoge, H. O.},
    title = {Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among Female Students attending a Selected University Health Services in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {54-57},
    month = {November}

    Volume 2 || Issue 11 || versions 4 || November 2013 
    Paper Id :: 211062
    Paper Title :: Performance Evaluation of a Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine with Jatropha as Fuel
    Author Name :: R. Ganapathi||Dr. B. Durga Prasad||B.Omprakash
    Page Number :: 01-06
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021104001006
    Increasing industrialization, growing energy demand, limited reserves of the fossil fuels and increasing environmental pollution have jointly necessitated for exploration of some substitute of conventional liquid fuels. Vegetable oils had been considered as one of the appropriate feasible substitute diesel fuel since very early. The vegetable oil based substitute fuels, popularly known as biodiesel, are commercially available in the developed world due to their distinct advantages over conventional diesel fuel. Vegetable oils present very promising alternative fuels to diesel. Properties of these oils compare favourably with characteristics required for C.I.engine fuels. The usage of vegetable oil in an engine depends on the properties of the oil. Jatropha oil properties are almost closer to diesel, particularly cetane rating and heat values. These oils are renewable and are produced easily in rural and forest areas An objective of this work aims to find out suitability of Jatropha oil in an insulated engine. An Air gap liner and PSZ coated head and valves have been used in the present study. Experimental investigations have been carried out to assess the suitability of Jatropha oil as C.I. Engine fuel. Experiments were conducted on the base engine and also in an insulated engine. A solemn attempt has been made in this research to study the usage of Bio-diesel of Jatropha oil in place of diesel so as to study the engine performance.
    Keywords: Low heat rejection, Jatropha, alternative fuel
    @article{key:article,
    author = {R. Ganapathi, Dr. B. Durga Prasad, B.Omprakash},
    title = {Performance Evaluation of a Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine with Jatropha as Fuel},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {01-06},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 211010
    Paper Title :: An assessment of groundwater potentials of the Central Area District and its environs, Federal Capital City, Abuja, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Abam, T.K.S || Ngah, S. A
    Page Number :: 07-12
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021104007012
    The movement of administrative headquarters of Nigeria from Lagos to Abuja and return to civilian rule, under the bogus presidential system of government with retinue of political aids and associates resulted in unprecedented influx of people just as commercial activities sprang up to service the large population. Satellite towns and semi urban and rural settlements emerged. Water supply projections were overshot and supply became grossly inadequate. Residents particularly in the satellite towns have to source their water supply. Surface water sources are few and distant. Groundwater became attractive as the source for domestic water supply. This paper examines the groundwater potentials of the Federal Capital City, Abuja. Although the area situates on the basement complex, the occurrence of thick regolith comprising weathered basement which overlies a highly fractured basement combines with high rainfall to create large subsurface water reservoir into which precipitation drains. The regolith receives the rainfall and transmits it to storage sites formed by deep seated interconnected fractures. Thickness of weathered basement can be as high as 70m with an average of 30m. Local communities obtain their water supply from shallow hand dug wells lined with concrete rings and motorized boreholes are constructed in the metropolis. Yield of motorized boreholes are as high as 20m3/hr – 40m3/hr and depth to water level varies from 4m – 19m. The weathered basement has excellent water yielding properties but the water level is very responsive to seasonal changes. Conjunctive use of both surface and groundwater sources will ensure uninterrupted water supply to the Federal Capital City.
    Keywords: Groundwater potentials, Federal Capital City, Nigeria
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Abam, T.K.S || Ngah, S. A},
    title = {An assessment of groundwater potentials of the Central Area District and its environs, Federal Capital City, Abuja, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {07-12},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 210063
    Paper Title :: Evaluation of the Hepatoprotective Efficacy of Moringa Oleifera Seed Oil on Ccl4-Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Albino Rats
    Author Name :: Olatosin TM||Akinduko DS||Uche CZ
    Page Number :: 13-18
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021104013018
    Studies have shown that certain parts of Moringa oleifera Lam plant, such as its leaves, roots, flowers, and seeds possess antihepatotoxic activity. Also in recent times, there has been a surge in local demand for Moringa seed oil, largely due to its reportedly high medicinal potential. The study was aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa seed oil against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. Using the intragastric tube, Moringa seed oil (2mL/kg body weight) was administered orally on the CCl4-intoxicated Wistar rats. Antihepatotoxic effects of Moringa seed oil was evaluated by assaying for the activities of liver marker enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT) (EC 2.6.1.2), aspartate transaminase (AST) (EC 2.6.1.1), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (EC 3.1.3.1) in serum. Histopathology of liver sections was also examined...
    Keywords: CCl4, Hepatoprotective, Liver injury, Moringa oleifera seed oil, Recovery
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Olatosin TM, Akinduko DS, Uche CZ},
    title = {Evaluation of the Hepatoprotective Efficacy of Moringa Oleifera Seed Oil on Ccl4-Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Albino Rats},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {13-18},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 210110
    Paper Title :: Investigating The Effects Of Selected Heavy Metals On Topsoil At The Vicinities Of Two Automobile Mechanic Villages, Owerri Municipal,Nigeria
    Author Name :: Okoro , A.C|| Chukwuma, G.O||Chukwuma, E. C||Nwachukwu , P.C || Ezeh, K.A
    Page Number :: 19-26
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021104019026
    The increased persistence of farming activities within mechanic villages poses health risk to the consumers of these agricultural produce. Studies on heavy metal contamination of top soils at the vicinities of two auto-mechanic villages was aimed at determining the concentrations of heavy metals, at the top soils of Nekede and Orji automobile mechanic villages located at Owerri municipal, Nigeria. The Soil samples were analyzed for selected heavy metals contamination namely: Cd, Cu, Pb and Cr. Soil samples were obtained in triplicates at the top soil 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60cm depths. The Overall, values of Cd, Cu, Pb and Cr in the workshop soil samples ranged from 8.83 to 18.67; 191.00 to 590.00; 693.33 to 2917.30 and 5.42 to 26.82 mg.kg-1respectively; they decreased with an increase in depth in the two auto-mechanic villages when compared to the established intervention, target and allowable limits set for soils in Nigeria and some countries, the contamination of top soils at the two automobile mechanic villages were clearly higher in most cases. The soil pH was slightly acidic and alkaline ranging from 5.24 to 7.27. For soil particle size, the distribution of sand fraction was highest followed by clay and then silt. The recommendations of the study included enacting laws prohibiting indiscriminate dumping of refuse at the workshops; execution of some form of phyto-remediation measures at the villages; strict and the enforcement of other environmental protection regulations as it affects farming within mechanic villages to arrest the ongoing buildup of these metals at the top soils in those locations.
    Keywords: CCl4, Soil, Contamination, Heavy Metal, Automobile mechanic, Nigeria
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Okoro , A.C and Chukwuma, G.O,and Chukwuma, E. C, and Nwachukwu , P.C and Ezeh, K.A},
    title = {Investigating The Effects Of Selected Heavy Metals On Topsoil At The Vicinities Of Two Automobile Mechanic Villages, Owerri Municipal,Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {19-26},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 211060
    Paper Title :: Computer Aided Diagnosis for liver Cancer Feature Extraction
    Author Name :: Ms.Vincey Jeba Malar.V
    Page Number :: 27-30
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021104027030
    Liver Cancer is one of the most difficult cancer to cure and the number of deaths that it causes generally increasing. The signs and the symptoms of the liver cancer are not known, till the cancer is in its advanced stage. So, early detection is the main problem. If it is detected earlier then it can be helpful for the Medical treatment to limit the danger, but it is a challenging task due to the Cancer cell structure. Interpretation of Medical image is often difficult and time consuming, even for the experienced Physicians. Most traditional medical diagnosis systems founded needs huge quantity of training data and takes long processing time. Focused on the solution to these problems, a Medical Diagnosis System based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) can be presented. This paperdescribes a computer aided diagnosis system for liver cancer feature extraction at an early stage from the chest CT images.
    Keywords: CT image, Segmentation, Morphological operation, Feature Extraction
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ms.Vincey Jeba Malar.V},
    title = {Computer Aided Diagnosis for liver Cancer Feature Extraction},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {27-30},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 211044
    Paper Title :: Socio-Economic Impact Study of Jamuna Kotma Coal Field Region Anuppur District MP
    Author Name :: Dr. Manisha Garg||Arun R Joshie ||Dr.Sandhya Choudhary
    Page Number :: 31-34
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021104031034
    The present paper makes a realistic attempt to examine the socio economic impact rendered by the mining operations carried out in the Jamuna Kotma Coal Field Region in the district of Anuppur, Madhya Pradesh (India). Based on the participatory field methods used with the impacted population and Kendall's ranking coefficient method, the study area has been categorized into different socio-economic development regions that may indicate the impact of ongoing mining activities in the area. Regional disparities in the levels of development have become a major concern for any type of spatial planning development. This is a multi dimensional phenomenon which is governed by several factors an area In order to reduce or eliminate such regional disparities it is essential to pay attention to the regions of low development because population and society are dynamic factors of region .The villages that are highly developed in terms of their social, economic and demographic factors can also show significant growth and development in terms of optimum land use and agricultural efficiency.
    n
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. Manisha Garg, Arun R Joshie, Dr.Sandhya Choudhary},
    title = {Socio-Economic Impact Study of Jamuna Kotma Coal Field Region Anuppur District MP},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {31-34},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 211008
    Paper Title :: Traffic Count on Ikorodu-Sagamu Road as an Index for Traffic Flow in Ikorodu
    Author Name :: Engr. Muritala Ashola ADIGUN
    Page Number :: 35-42
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021104035042
    Consequence of the importance of road in national development and the fact that roads with larger traffic volume are usually given priority by government because of their economic implication, the traffic flow along Ikorodu-Sagamu Road was investigated using traffic count. The traffic count took place from Monday 17th to Sunday 23rd September, 2012. Hourly average each day were 2417, 2053, 1839, 1566, 1876, 1292 and 854 respectively. The hourly probability distributions which range between 0.05 and 0.13 were also illustrated. The result showed that the traffic volume was high in the morning for all working days except Thursday but relatively low in the afternoon for all days. The traffic volume increased again in the evening for all days. The correlation coefficients relationship amongst days indicated both positive and negative coefficients separately for the paired-days. The correlation coefficients values ranges from -0.04 to +0.92. The study detailed flow pattern along the route which can be used in planning road movement by the road users
    Keywords: Vehicles, Traffic, Index, Flow, Analysis.
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Engr. Muritala Ashola ADIGUN},
    title = {Traffic Count on Ikorodu-Sagamu Road as an Index for Traffic Flow in Ikorodu},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {35-42},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 210114
    Paper Title :: Suggestion Scheme and Workers Commitment in Nigerian Banking Industry
    Author Name :: Seth Accra Jaja|| Tarela Okpu
    Page Number :: 43-51
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021104043051
    This study examined the effect of Suggestion Scheme - a form of Employee Voice and Workers Commitment. Using Cross Sectional Survey design, a sample size of 357 workers from the banks in the South-South zone of Nigeria was used as respondents. We found that suggestion scheme had a significant positive effect on employees' continuance and normative commitment but no significant effect on employee's affective commitment. This result suggests that when organizations utilize suggestion scheme as a form of employee voice, workers will be morally obliged to remain with the organization and will stay because they would not want to lose their investment.
    Keywords: suggestion scheme, affective commitment, continuance commitment, normative commitment, employee voice
    @article{key:article,
    author = {Seth Accra Jaja, Tarela Okpu},
    title = {Computer Aided Diagnosis for liver Cancer Feature Extraction},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {43-51},
    month = {November}

    Paper Id :: 210108
    Paper Title :: Assessment of Gamma Dose Rate within Idu Industrial Area of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria
    Author Name :: James I. U|| Moses I. F|| Vandi, J. N
    Page Number :: 52-55
    Paper Index :: : 09.1913/021104052055
    The gamma dose rate within Idu Industrial Area of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja has been carried out using Atomtex 1117M Radiation Monitor. Readings were taken in twenty three different locations. Five different readings were taken at each location and the mean equivalent dose rate was used to calculate the annual equivalent dose rate. It was observed that the average dose equivalent varied from 0.106±0.001 μSv/h to 0.139±0.004 μSv/h with a mean of 0.117±0.006 μSv/h which is below the standard background radiation of 0.133 μSv/h. The study also revealed that the average annual equivalent dose rate is 0.205±0.017 mSv/y which is lower than the value of 1.0 mSv/yr averaged over five consecutive years according to the dose limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This indicates that the people living and working within the area are safe and are not exposed to high doses of radiation as a result of activities in the Idu Industrial Area.
    Keywords: Background Radiation, Dose Limit, Equivalent Dose, Industrial Area, Radiation Monitor
    @article{key:article,
    author = {James I. U, Moses I. F, Vandi, J. N},
    title = {Assessment of Gamma Dose Rate within Idu Industrial Area of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2013},
    volume = {2},
    number = {11},
    pages = {52-55},
    month = {November}