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  • Volume - 1 || Issue - 1 || November 2012
    1.

    Effect of Pulsed Current Tig Welding Parameters on Mechanical Properties of J-Joint Strength of Aa6351

    Indira Rani M || R N Marpu

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 01 - 05 

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011001005

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    The rate at which automation is being introduced into welding process is astonishing and it may be expected that by the end of this century more automated machines than men in welding fabrication units will be found. To make effective use of the automated systems it is essential that a high degree of confidence be achieved in predicting the weld parameters to attain the desired mechanical strength in welded joints. Higher quality welds with fewer defects like porosity, and cracking and material properties closer to the parent metal are most required in the present manufacturing processes. The mechanical properties of the weldments of AA6351 during the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)/Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) with non-pulsed and pulsed current welding at different frequencies 3Hz and 7Hz is attempted in this work. The radiography and mechanical properties of the weldments have been examined and compared with non-pulse and pulsed current welding (PCW) at two different frequencies 3Hz and 7Hz. The mechanical properties like tensile strength, % of elongation, 0.2% yield strength of AA6351. No defects were found in the weldments of AA6351 and tensile strength of the joints was more in the case of pulsed current welding.
    Keywords: Pulsed current welding, none pulsed current welding, tensile strength, % elongation, yield strength.
    [1] R. E. Leitner, H. Mcelhinney and E. I. Pruitt, "An investigation of Pulsed Welding Variables," Welding Journal, Vol. 52, No. 9, 1973, pp. 405-410.
    [2] Kumar and Sundarajan, "Optimization of Pulsed TIG Welding Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of AA 5456 Al Alloy Weldments," Materials and Design, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1288-1297.
    [3] Kumar A and Sundarajan S, "Selection of Welding Process Parameters for the Optimum but Joint Strength of an Aluminum Alloy," Material and Manufacturing Process, Vol. 21, No. 8, 2006, pp. 789-793.
    [4] S. C. Juang and Y. S. Tarng, "Process parameter selection for optimizing the weld pool geometry in the TIG welding of stainless steel," Journal of Material Process Technology, Vol. 122, No. 1, 2002, pp. 33-37.
    [5] Balasubramanian M and Balasubramanain V, "Process Parameter Optimization of the Pulsed GTAW of Titanium Alloy," Journal of Material Science and Technology, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2008, pp. 423-426.
    [6] Senthilkumar, V. Balasubramanian and M. Y. S. Babu, "Effect of Pulsed Current GTAW Parameters on Fusion Zone Microstructure of AA6061," International Journal of Metals & Materials, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2007, pp. 345-351.
    [7] A. A. Mohamed, "Optimization of Weld Bead Dimensions in GTAW of Al-Mg Alloy," Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2001, pp. 725-736.
    [8] Effect of Pulsed Current TIG Welding Parameters on Pitting Corrosion Behavior of AA6061.
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    2.

    Enhancement of different illumination porous GaN using UV electrochemical etching

    A. Mahgoob || A. Y. Hudeish

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 06-08

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011006008

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    This article reports the properties and the behavior of GaN during the photoelectrochemical etching process using four different current densities of UV illumination. The measurements show that the porosity strongly depends on the high illumination and highly affects the surface morphology of etched samples, which has been revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Peak intensity of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the porous GaN samples was observed to be enhanced and strongly depend on the illumination. Among the samples, there is a little difference in the peak position indicating that the change of porosity has little influence on the PL peak shift, while it highly affecting the peak intensity. Raman spectra of porous GaN under different current densities of UV illumination exhibit phonon mode E2 (high), A1 (LO), A1 (TO) and E2 (low). There were slight blue shifts in E2 (high) in all samples, indicating a relaxation of stress in the porous GaN surface with respect to the underlying single crystalline epitaxial GaN. Raman and PL intensities were high for samples etched in different current densities of UV illumination.
    Keywords: illumination; GaN; UV-electrochemical etching; Porosity.
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    [3] F. K. Yam and Z. Hassan,. Materials Letters, 63, 724, 2009.
    [4] A. Ramizy, Z. Hassan and K. Omar. Sens. Actuators B, 155, 699, 2011.
    [5] F. Yam, Z. Hassan and S. Ng. Thin Solid Films, 515, 3469, 2007.
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    [7] E. Moyen, W. Wulfhekel, W. Lee, A. Leycuras, K. Nielsch, U. Gösele and M. Hanbücken,. Appl. Phys. A, 84, 369, 2006.-
    [8] X. Guo, T. Williamson and P. Bohn. Solid State Commun., 140,159, 2006.
    [9] G. Korotcenkov and B. Cho, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci., 35, 1, 2010.
    [10] F. Yam, Z. Hassan and A. Hudeish. Thin Solid Films, 515, 7337, 2007.
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    4.

    Research of elastic management strategy for cloud storage

    SHAO Bi-lin || BIAN Gen-qing || ZHU Xu-dong

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 13-17

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011013017

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    In order to sol ve those issues including limited storage capacity, high cost of storage and fault recovery in traditional HDFS, cloud storage can effectively solve these problems by using virtual resources of the IaaS based o n HDFS. But it cannot assure cloud storage to utilize virtual resources more effectively. In order to solve these problems, the paper proposes a elastic cloud storage framework based on HDFS, and introduces the thought of virtual resources management into the framework, and proposes a elastic management strategy of virtual resource allocation and scheduling based on this framework. The simulation experiment shows cloud storage can effectively improve the efficiency in the use of virtual resources.
    Keywords: HDFS; Elastic Cloud Storage; Virtual Resource; Resource Allocation and Scheduling; feedback control theory.
    [1] M. Armbrust , A. Fox, D. A. Patterson, N. Lanham, B. Trushkowsky,J.Trutna, and H. Oh. Scads: Scale-independent storage for social comput ing applicat ions. In Proc. of CIDR, 2009.
    [2] S. Ghemawat , H. Gobioff, and S.-T. Leung. The Google file system. In Proc. of SOSP, 2003.Volume 37 Issue 5, December 2003, Pages: 29-43.
    [3] Open Nebula. http://opennebula.org.
    [4] B. Sotomayor, R. Montero, I. Llorente, and I. Foster. Capacity Leasing in Cloud Systems using the Open Nebula Engine. In Workshop on Cloud Comput ing and its Applicat ions (CCA08),2009.
    [5] Platform: http://www.plat form.com/
    [6] X. Zhu, M. Uysal, Z. Wang, S. Singhal, A. Merchant, P. Padala, and K. Shin. What does control theory bring to systems research? SIGOPS Operat ing Systems Review, 2009, 43(1):62-69.
    [7] H. C. Lim,S. Babu, J. S. Chase, and S. S. Parekh. Automated cont rol in cloud comput ing: Challenges and opportunit ies. ACDC '09 Proceedings of the 1st workshop on Automated cont rol for datacenters and clouds. Volume: C, Issue: 09, Publisher: ACM, Pages: 13-18.

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    5.

    Multiplication another Hue And Cry

    Barun Biswas || Samar Sen Sarma || Krishnendu Basuli

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 18-21

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011018021

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    Multiplication process is not only bounded only in mathematics. It is also applied in many other fields where a sequence of summing or addition is to be applied. Multiplication is nothing but a sequence of addition performed repeatedly. Our basic approach is to consider as many bits of multiplier as possible so that the total number of partial product. In this paper we tried to implement such a technique where we can consider more than one two bits(compared to Booth's process of multiplication) of the multiplier to decrease the total number of partial product with the other operation like addition, shift and complement.
    Keywords: Partial product, Shift operation, Complement operation, Booth's process of multiplication, Shift and add, repeated addition, Divide and conquer,
    [1] A. Booth, "A signed binary multiplication technique," Q. J. Me& Appl. March., vol. 4, pp. 236-240, 19.51.
    [2] Alfred V. Aho, John E. Hopcroft, Jeffrey D. Ullmant "The design and analysis of computer algorithm" Pearson, 1974.
    [3] Booth Multiplication Algorithm Abenet Getahun Fall 2003 CSCI 401
    [4] John P. Hayes "Computer architecture and organization", Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1988.
    [5] M. Morris Mano "Computer System Architecture", Third Addition, Prentice Hall, 1993.
    [6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplication, visited at 12 nov. 2012
    [7] William D.Anderson, Roberts Loyd Morris, John Miller "Designing with TTL integrated circuit", McGraw-Hill, 1971
    [8] "TTL data book for design Engineer", 2nd edition, Texas instrument Inc, 1981
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    6.

    Evaluation Of Microstructural Paramaters Of The Synthesised Γ-Teo2 Nanocrystals Using Xrd Principles

    A.Sinthiya

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 22-29

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011022029

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    The synthesised γ-TeO2nanocrystalshave been indexed in orthorhombic system with lattice energy 81.21 eV. Strain is caused by the presence of dislocations. This has possibility to have dislocations in nanoscale has little significance. The X-ray peak profile study provides peak broadening and asymmetric peak shapes and to understand the micro structural parameters for crystallite size and strain. Present work deals with systematic application of Hall-Williamson method for crystallite size estimation, and the modified Williamson-Hall plot and the modified Warren-Averbach methods yielded physically well justified data for particle size and dislocation densities. The reflections {020}{151} and {002} have the same peak breadth and reflections while {120}{101}{200} and {122} have more or less same peak breadth. The successful application of the new procedures have indicated that even in nanocrystalline particles dislocations are present.
    Keywords: Lattice energy, Micro structural parameters, Crystal size and strain, Nanocrystalline particles dislocations.
    [1]. Vogel .E.M.; Weber .M.J.;Krol.D.M.;Phys. Chem. Glasses, 1991, 32,pp 231.
    [2]. Rehani et al., Crystallite size estimation by XRD principles, Indian J. Pure&Appl.Phys., Feb2006 , 44,pp 157-161.
    [3]. T.Ungar, Strain broadening caused by dislocations, Copyright (C) JCPDS- International center for diffraction data 1997.
    [4]. Michael B. Kerber et al., Rev.Adv.Mater.Sci. 2005, 10,pp 427-433.
    [5]. T.Ungar, Material Science and Engineering ,2001 , A309-310,pp 14-22.
    [6]. M.A.Wahab,Solid State Physics, Second edition (2010), Narosa publishing House, New Delhi, pp 36.
    [7]. M.Wilkens et al.,Phys.Stat.Sol.,1970, A2, pp 359.
    [8]. M.Wilkens, In: Fundamental Aspects of Dislocation theory, Vol II, ed. By J.A Simmons,R. de lt and R.Bullough [Nat. Bur. Stand. (US) Spec. Publ. No. 317, Washington D.C., 1970], pp. 1195.
    [9]. M.Wilkens et al.,Phys. Stat.Sol. , 1987, A 104, ppK1.
    [10]. T.Ungarand G. Tichy et al., Phys.Stat.Sol.,1999, (a) 171,pp 425.
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    7.

    Synthesis of Furfural from Lignocellulosic Biomass as Agricultural Residues: A Review

    V.U.AMBALKAR || MOHD. I. TALIB

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 30-36

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011030036

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    Husk is the waste product of deseeded sunflower head as agro wastes. The annual production of Sunflower Husk in India is 1.8 million metric ton and this amount is predicted to increase in the future. The high fiber content and low protein and energy content of sunflower hulls reduce their nutritional value. So it is not used as animal feed. In last decades, corncobs used as the raw material for synthesis of furfural using acid hydrolysis method. Autoclave or pressure digester is used as batch rector for synthesis of furfural from corncobs. The presence of mild oxidizing agents seems not to affect the yield of furfural but the presence of catalyst affect the yield of furfural. This study is performed by experimentally using a tubing-bomb reactor system by using olive stones as feed. The maximum furfural yield obtained is 50% to 65%. The supercritical carbon dioxide Extraction experiment showed that increasing temperature, pressure, CO2 flow rate and sulfuric acid concentration and decreasing ratio of liquid to solid would improve furfural yield. This study suggested that the furfural production by acid hydrolysis of sorghum straw with phosphoric acid at 1340C giving furfural yield 0.1336 g furfural/g initial dry matter. Sugar cane bagasse by steam explosion method in a stainless steel reactor produces xylose which is then converted into furfural. This experimental study has give idea about the yields of furfural which depend on pentoses content in pistachio green hulls (PGH). One of the approaches is the conversion of rice husk to furfural, as an intermediate product in synthesizing chemical products such as nylons, lubricants and solvents, adhesives, medicines, and plastics. This study revealed a good yield of the furfural from rice husk which have been confirmed by the various tests including infrared spectrophotometric scans.
    Keywords: Sunflower Husk, Furfural, acid hydrolysis, Biomass.
    [1]. Sarvamangala R. Patil A. Dayanand ,Production of pectinase from deseeded sunflower head by Aspergillusniger in submerged and solid-state conditions, Bioresource Technology 97, 2054–2058,2006.
    [2]. E. Eklund, A. Hatakka, A. Mustranta, and P. Nybergh, Eur. J. Appl. Microbiol. 2, 143, 1975.
    [3]. D. G. Dorrell in J. F. Carter, ed., Sunflower Science and Technology, American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison Wis., pp. 407–440,1978.
    [4]. H. D. Mansilla, J. Baezu, S. Urzua, G. Muturana, J. Villasenor, and N. Duran," Acid-catalysed hydrolysis of rice hull: evaluation of furfural production", Bioresource Technology, 66,189-193,1998.
    [5]. Salim S.A.L.Showiman, Furfural from some edible plants Grown in Saudi Arabia, J.King Saud Univ., Vol.10,119-125,1998.
    [6]. F.A.Forge, journal of Industrial Engg. Chem., 13, P.N.1024-1025, 1921.
    [7]. Frederick B. LaForge, journal of Industrial Engg. Chem., 16,P.N. 130,1924.
    [8]. Frederick B. LaForge and Gerald H. Mains, journal of Industrial Engg. Chem. p.n. 823-829, vol.15, No.8,1923.
    [9]. Khudzir Ismail & Abdul Rahim Atan , Preparation of furfural by hydrolysis of rick husk, Research report of Institut Teknologi MARA,1995.
    [10]. S. Abad, J. L. Alonso, V. Santos & J. C. Paraj, Furfural From Wood In Catalyzed Acetic Acid Media: A Mathematical Assessment, Bioresource Technology 62 , 115-122,1997.
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    8.

    Determining possible optimal values of required flow, nozzle diameter, and wetted area for linear traveling laterals

    Mohammad Valipour

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 37- 43

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011037043

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    Special benefits of linear traveling systems into the other sprinkler irrigation systems include resolve problems related to the runoff and lack of irrigation in corners of the field (center pivot systems), has led to the popularity of these systems. More detailed design of linear traveling irrigation systems, while raising the water use efficiency (WUE) can be considered a step to development sustainable agriculture. In this paper, using PivNoz software (USDA-ARS-NWISRL) values of required flow, nozzle diameter, and wetted area for linear traveling laterals optimized. The most changes to reach to the optimal values were related to the required flow 56% caused by the system gross capacity changes, then wetted area 49% due to the nozzled length changes, and then required flow 43% caused by the nozzle spacing. However, nozzle diameter was the only parameter that its values not remained constant for changes of system design factors.
    Keywords: linear traveling system, sprinkler irrigation, sustainable agriculture, water use efficiency.
    [1]. Amir I., M. Farbman, J. Dag, Analysis of labor to operate linear move irrigation machines, Agricultural Systems, 22 (2), 127–140. (1986). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-521X(86)90056-9
    [2]. Amir I., M.J. McFarland, D.L. Reddell, Energy analysis of lateral move irrigation machines, Energy in Agriculture, 5 (4): 325–337. (1986). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-5826(86)90031-8
    [3]. Anwar, A.A., ADJUSTED FACTOR Ga FOR PIPELINES WITH MULTIPLE OUTLETS AND OUTFLOW, JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 1999, pp. 355-359. (1999). http://colleges.ksu.edu.sa/Papers/Papers/GaFactorforPipelines.pdf
    [4]. Chávez J.L., F.J. Pierce and R.G. Evans, Compensating inherent linear move water application errors using a variable rate irrigation system, Irrigation Science, 28 (3): 203-210. (2010). DOI: 10.1007/s00271-009-0188-6
    [5]. Chávez J.L., F.J. Pierce, T.V. Elliott, R.G. Evans, Y. Kim and W.M. Iversen, A remote irrigation monitoring and control system (RIMCS) for continuous move systems. Part B: field testing and results, Precision Agriculture, 11 (1): 11-26. (2010). DOI: 10.1007/s11119-009-9110-8
    [6]. Dogan E., H. Kirnak and Z. Dogan, Effect of varying the distance of collectors below a sprinkler head and travel speed on measurements of mean water depth and uniformity for a linear move irrigation sprinkler system, Biosystems Engineering, 99 (2): 190–195. (2008). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2007.10.018
    [7]. Evans R.G., J. LaRue, K.C. Stone and B.A. King, Adoption of site-specific variable rate sprinkler irrigation systems, Irrigation Science, (2012). DOI: 10.1007/s00271-012-0365-x
    [8]. Hanson B.R., D.L. Lancaster, D.A. Goldhamer, Evaluating continuous-move sprinkler machines using time-series statistics, Agricultural Water Management, 12 (1–2): 87–97. (1986). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3774(86)90008-9
    [9]. Kale; R.V. R.P., Singh and P.S. Mahar, Optimal Design of Pressurized Irrigation Subunit, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 134(2), pp. 137–146. (2008). DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2008)134:2(137)
    [10]. Kamey B. and T. Podmore, Performance of Stationary Gun Irrigation Systems, J. Irrig. Drain Eng., 110 (1): 75–87. (1984). DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1984)110:1(75).
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    9.

    Construction of Operating Characteristics Curve for Acceptance Sampling Plan by Using MATLAB Software.

    Sanjay T. Purkar || A.I.Khandwawala

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 44- 48

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011044048

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    This paper reveals that too many procedures yield too many rather different solutions, thus confusing the user in choosing a plan. In this paper a procedure is developed to draw an O.C.Curve by using hypergometrical distribution method. The research problems under consideration are relationships between sampling risks and other elements inbuilt in a single acceptance sampling plan. Two levels of quality are considered: first, average quality level desired by the consumer AQL and, second, quality level called lot tolerance percent defective LTPD, or the worst level of quality that the consumer may tolerate. The producer's risk α is the risk of incorrect rejection is the risk that the sampling plan will fail to verify an acceptable lot's quality set by AQL and, thus, reject it. The probability of acceptance a lot with LTPD quality is the consumer's risk β or the risk of incorrect accepting. Operating characteristic (OC) curve describes how well an acceptance plan discriminates between good and bad lots. Acceptance sampling plan consists of a sample size n, and the maximum number of defective items that can be found in the sample c. The OC curve pertains to a specific plan, i.e. to a combination of the sample size n and the acceptance criterion or level c. Moreover, some fundamental considerations concerning sampling inspection and process control lead to the conclusion that acceptance sampling was introduced many years ago might be replaced by efficient computerized sampling control tools.
    Keywords: Statistical quality control, decision making, acceptance sampling plan, consumer's risk, producer's risk, acceptable quality level, lot tolerance percent defective.
    [1] Anderson, M.A.; Greenberg, B.S. & Stokes, S.L. (2001). "Acceptance sampling with rectification when inspection errors are present." Journal of Quality Technology, Volume, 33(4), Pages, 493-505.
    [2] Suresh, K.K and Ramkumar, T. B. (1996) "Selection of a sampling plan indexed with maximum allowable average out going quality". Journal of Applied Statistics, Volume 23 (6), Pages, 13-19.
    [4] William G. Ferrell, Jr. and Aman Chhoker,(2010) "Design of economically optimal acceptance sampling plans with inspection error "Journal of computers & Operations Research, Volume 29,Issue 10,Pages, 1283-1300.
    [5] Govindaraju a; K. Subramani.(2010) "Selection of a tightened-normal-tightened system for given values of the acceptable quality level and limiting quality level" Journal of Applied Statistics, Volume 119,No 2 Pages, 241–250.
    [6] Roberto da costa Quinino;Linda Lee Ho;Emilio Suyama.(2003) "Deign of economically optimal zero defect acceptance sampling with rectification when diagnosis errors are present". Online ISSN 1678-5142, Volume 25, Pages, 103-109.
    [7] SanjayPurkar;A.I.Khandwawala;Govind Maheshwari(2011) Design of a Double Acceptance Sampling Plan to Minimize a Consumer's Risk Considering an O.C. Curve; A Case Study. International Journal on Emerging Technologies 2(1): 114-118(2011) ISSN : 0975-8364 Pages, 114-118.
    [8] Sanjay purkar; A.I.Khandwawala (2011) "Behavior of Operating Characteristic Curve Under The Change In Acceptance Number And Sample Size". Proceedings of the 1st National Conference on Emerging Trends in Mechanical Engineering and Technology,Jagatguru Dattatray College Of Technology, Indore , Madhya Pradesh, India. Pages, 24-25.
    [9] SanjayPurkar;A.I.Khandwawala;Govind Maheshwari (2011) "Design of Single Sampling Plan for Acceptance of Non Confirming Lots".(2011) Proc. of the 4th National Conference on Emerging Trends in Mechanical Engineering, G. H. Patel College of Engineering & Technology, V.V.Nagar,Gujarat, India.ISBN: 978‐81‐909376‐3‐4.Pages, 151-156.
    [10] Sanjay Purkar; P.L.Verma (2009) "Consumer Protection by Dodge-Romig Method, a Case Study at Bosch Ltd." Proceedings of the 4th National Conference on Emerging Trends in Mechanical Engineering and Technology, Swami Vivekanand College of Engineering Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India. Pages, 141-147.
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    10.

    Environmental Impact Assessment and Management: Protecting Ecological - Green Country; a Study on INDIA

    Mr. Ajoy Debbarma

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 49-56

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011049056

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    In developing country has a huge impact on anthropogenic and natural ecosystems. Pollution sources, material waste, electricity uses, increase with the expansion of city and cause contamination of water, air and soil. The absence of green environmental planning and management strategies has resulted in greater concern for feature country development. The main objective of this paper is to study initiative environmental impact and management on urban area in India. Therefore Environmental Impact assessment and Management Systems provides a framework for achieving this goal and would help firms integrate environmental values into their business operations and reduce liabilities. India aims to establish a sustainable country that demonstrates our corporate and community commitment to the environment and reflects our responsibility to feature generations.
    Keywords: Environmental evaluations, Environmental impact assessment (EIA); Management strategies, Auditing; Follow-up.
    [1]. Matthew Cashmore, The Role Of Science In Environmental Impact Assessment: Process And Procedure Versus Purpose In The Development Of Theory. Environmental Impact Assessment Review24 (2004) 403–426
    [2]. A.K.M. Rafique Ahammed, Bronte Merrick Nixon, Environmental Impact Monitoring In the Eia Process of South Australia. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 26 (2006) 426– 447
    [3]. Arnold Tukker, Life Cycle Assessment as A Tool In Environmental Impact Assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 20 (2000) 435–456
    [4]. Earth Link And Advanced Resources Development. Environmental Impact Assessment. Catholic Near East Welfare Association, , March 2004
    [5]. Ciaran O'faircheallaigh, Environmental Agreements, Eia Follow-Up and Aboriginal Participation In Environmental Management: The Canadian Experience. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 27 (2007) 319–342
    [6]. Habib M. Alshuwaikhat, Strategic Environmental Assessment Can Help Solve Environmental Impact Assessment Failures In Developing Countries. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 25 (2005) 307–317
    [7]. Stephen Connelly, Tim Richardson, Value-Driven Sea: Time For An Environmental Justice Perspective. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 25 (2005) 391–409
    [8]. David Annandale, John Baileya, Ely Ouanob, Warren Evans, Peter Kingb. The Potential Role of Strategic Environmental Assessment In The Activities Of Multi-Lateral Development Banks. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 21 (2001) 407–429
    [9]. Che Xiuzhen, Shang Jincheng, Wang Jinhu. Strategic Environmental Assessment and Its Development In China. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 22 (2002) 101–109
    [10]. Jane Turnbull, Environmental Impact Assessment In The Fijian State Sector. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 23 (2003) 73–89
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    11.

    Dielectric, Magnetic, Electric and Structural Properties of Ni0.2-Cox-Zn0.8-X Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized By Sol-Gel Auto Combustion Method

    R. B. Bhise || S. M. Rathod || A. K. Supekar

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 57-63

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011057063

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    Nickel substituted CoxZn0.8-x Fe2O4 (x=0.2, 0.5 and 0.6) ferrite were synthesized by Sol-gel auto combustion method. The powders were sintering at 400oc and 700oc for 2hrs to densify properly. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR and Magnetic properties. The XRD used to analyze phase structure and lattice parameters. The FTIR spectra confirmed that synthesis material is ferrite. Morphology of ferrite powders were investigated by using SEM. Porosity of synthesis ferrite is measured. The saturation magnetization increases with increasing Co-Zn concentration. Resistivity of ferrite material is may be decreases due to vary concentration of Co and Zn. Dielectric Properties show the variation in the dielectric loss factor of Ni-Co-Zn ferrite sintered at various temperatures.
    Keywords: Nanocrystalline, Structural, Magnetization, Resistivity, Dielectric, Sol-gel Auto Combustion method.
    [1]. S. Singhal et al (2012), Str. Elt. Opt. Mag. Prop. Of Cr Subst. Co Zn nanoferrites, J. of Mol. Str., 1012, 162-167.
    [2]. B. K. Chaughale et al (2010), Prep. Char. Mag. Prop. of nanocrystalline Ni-Zn Ferrite, Sch.Res.Lib.2(2), 388-395.
    [3]. K. C. Varma et al (2011), Strl, Microstrl.,Mag. Prop. Of NiCoMn Ferite thin film, J. of Mag. and Mat.,323, 3271-3275.
    [4]. K. H. Buschow,(1995),Hnd.bk Of Mag. Mat,8,198.
    [5]. M. Stefanescu, et al (2009), Prep. of Ni Zn Micro Comp. Powd. By S-G, j of Mat. Chem. And app. Phy.,113, 342-348.
    [6]. P. K. Roy,et al (2008),Chr. of nano Cryst. Ferrite, J. of Mat. Process Tec.,197,279-283.
    [7]. Xqi, J. Zhou, et al (2002), Key Eng. Mat.,593, 224.
    [8]. R. Bhise S. Rathod, A. Supekar (2012 ), Syn. of Ni-Co-Zn ferrite nanoparticles, Int. J. of Basic and Appl. Res., 44 , 168-172.
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    12.

    Assessment Of Groundwater Potential

    C. P. Kumar

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 64-79

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011064079

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    Water balance techniques have been extensively used to make quantitative estimates of water resources and the impact of man's activities on the hydrologic cycle. On the basis of the water balance approach, it is possible to make a quantitative evaluation of water resources and its dynamic behaviour under the influence of man's activities. In this paper, an attempt has been made to describe the methodologies to understand and evaluate the various recharge and discharge components of ground water balance equation and to establish the recharge coefficient with a view to work out the ground water potential of an area.
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    [5]. Johnson, A. I., 1967. "Specific Yield - Compilation of Specific Yields for Various Materials", Water Supply Paper, U.S.G.S., 1962-D, 74 p.
    [6]. Karanth, K. R., 1987. "Groundwater Assessment, Development and Management", Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, pp. 576-657.
    [7]. Kumar, C. P. and P. V. Seethapathi, 1988. "Effect of Additional Surface Irrigation Supply on Groundwater Regime in Upper Ganga Canal Command Area, Part I - Groundwater Balance", National Institute of Hydrology, Case Study Report No. CS-10 (Secret/Restricted), 1987-88.
    [8]. Kumar, C. P. and P. V. Seethapathi, 2002. "Assessment of Natural Groundwater Recharge in Upper Ganga Canal Command Area", Journal of Applied Hydrology, Association of Hydrologists of India, Vol. XV, No. 4, October 2002, pp. 13-20.
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    13.

    Employee Absenteeism: A Study at Titan Industry Limited, Bangalore

    Dr. Renuka Rathod || Mr. Basavanth Reddy

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 80-84

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011080084

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    Absenteeism Is One Of Major Human Problem Of Indian Industries. The Study Entitled "Employee Absenteeism: A Study At Titan Industry Limited, Bangalore" Is Concerned With The Issues, Causatives, And Remedial Measures Related To Absenteeism. The Research Helps The Organization To Know Their Current Practices Regarding Absenteeism In Titan Industry. It Suggests Ideas To Improve The Business In A Better Prospect And Result In Organizational Development.
    Keywords: Brief Introduction, Causatives and Remedial Measures on Absenteeism.
    N/A
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    14

    Behavior of Transmission Probability in a Single Rectangular Potential Barrier at Constant Barrier Height–Barrier Width Product

    Rupam Goswami || Basab Das

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 85-94

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/011085094

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    The application of Time Independent Schrodinger's Wave Equation to understand the behavior of a particle in a single rectangular potential barrier in one dimension has remained as one of the fundamental theories of potential barrier problems in quantum physics. This work chiefly focuses on the transmission of a particle, basically an electron, in such a barrier from a different perspective- behavior of transmission probability at constant barrier height (energy)-barrier width product. Three basic cases of relationship between energy of the particle and barrier potential energy have been discussed: energy of particle greater than barrier energy, energy of particle equal to barrier energy and energy of particle less than barrier energy, where appropriate approximations have been utilized to calculate the transmission probability in each case. The results have led to major observations: if the energy of barrier is scaled by a constant and its width is scaled by the same constant such that the barrier height-barrier width product always remains constant, then for a particular value of particle energy, the transmission probability remains constant for the first and third case whereas in the second case, the transmission probability reduces with decreasing energy and vice versa.
    Keywords: Barrier height-barrier width product, rectangular potential barrier, scaling parameter, Schrodinger's Wave Equation, transmission probability.
    [1] David J. Griffiths, Time Independent Schrodinger Wave Equation, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, 2 (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1994) 20-74.
    [2] Donald A. Neaman, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, Semiconductor Device and Physics: Basic Principles, 2 (New York: McGraw Hill, 2003) 24-55.
    [3] Dinesh Prasad Joshi and Ram Sahai Srivastava, A model of electrical conduction in polycrystalline silicon, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 7(31), 1984, 920-927.
    [4] Stephen M. Ramey and David K. Ferry, Threshold voltage calculation in ultrathin-film SOI MOSFETs using the effective potential, IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, 2(3), 2003, 121-125.
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    15

    Actionable Knowledge Discovery using Multi-Step Mining

    1DharaniK || Kalpana Gudikandula

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 95-100

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/0110950100

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    Data mining is a process of obtaining trends or patterns in historical data. Such trends form business intelligence that in turn leads to taking well informed decisions. However, data mining with a single technique does not yield actionable knowledge. This is because enterprises have huge databases and heterogeneous in nature. They also have complex data and mining such data needs multi-step mining instead of single step mining. When multiple approaches are involved, they provide business intelligence in all aspects. That kind of information can lead to actionable knowledge. Recently data mining has got tremendous usage in the real world. The drawback of existing approaches is that insufficient business intelligence in case of huge enterprises. This paper presents the combination of existing works and algorithms. We work on multiple data sources, multiple methods and multiple features. The combined patterns thus obtained from complex business data provide actionable knowledge. A prototype application has been built to test the efficiency of the proposed framework which combines multiple data sources, multiple methods and multiple features in mining process. The empirical results revealed that the proposed approach is effective and can be used in the real world.
    Keywords: Data mining, actionable knowledge discovery, multi-method mining, multi-feature mining, multi-source mining.
    [1]. Longbing Cao, Senior Member, IEEE, Huaifeng Zhang, Member, IEEE, Yanchang Zhao, Member, IEEE, Dan Luo, and Chengqi Zhang, Senior Member, IEEE. Combined Mining: Discovering Informative Knowledge in Complex Data. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS—PART B: CYBERNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 3, JUNE 2011
    [2]. H. Zhang, Y. Zhao, L. Cao, and C. Zhang, ―Combined association rule mining,‖ in Proc. PAKDD, 2008, pp. 1069–1074.
    [3]. Y. Zhao, H. Zhang, L. Cao, C. Zhang, and H. Bohlscheid, ―Combined pattern mining: From learned rules to actionable knowledge,‖ in Proc. AI, 2008, pp. 393–403.
    [4]. J. Pei, J. Han, B. Mortazavi-Asl, J. Wang, H. Pinto, Q. Chen, U. Dayal, and M.-C. Hsu, ―Mining sequential patterns by pattern-growth: The PrefixSpan approach,‖ IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1424–1440, Nov. 2004.
    [5]. J. Wang and G. Karypis, ―HARMONY: Efficiently mining the best rules for classification,‖ in Proc. SDM, 2005, pp. 205–216.
    [6]. G. Dong and J. Li, ―Efficient mining of emerging patterns: Discovering trends and differences,‖ in Proc. KDD, 1999, pp. 43–52.
    [7]. W. Fan, K. Zhang, J. Gao, X. Yan, J. Han, P. Yu, and O. Verscheure, ―Direct mining of discriminative and essential graphical and itemset features via model-based search tree,‖ in Proc. KDD, 2008, pp. 230–238.
    [8]. Y. Zhao, C. Zhang, and L. Cao, Eds., Post-Mining of Association Rules: Techniques for Effective Knowledge Extraction. Hershey, PA: Inf. Sci.Ref., 2009.
    [9]. B. Liu, W. Hsu, and Y. Ma, ―Pruning and summarizing the discovered associations,‖ in Proc. KDD, 1999, pp. 125–134.
    [10]. K. K. R. Hewawasam, K. Premaratne, and M.-L. Shyu, ―Rule mining and classification in a situation assessment application: A belief-theoretic approach for handling data imperfections,‖ IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern.B, Cybern., vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1446–1459, Dec. 2007.
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    16.

    High Time Resolution Observation of Solar Radio of A Group Type III And U Burst Associated of Solar Flares Event

    Z. S. Hamidi || N. N. M. Shariff || C. Monstein

     

    The Int. J. Eng. and Sci.,Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2012, pp. 101-103

    Paper Index :: :09.1913/01101010103

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    The results of high time resolution of solar flare type III and U burst at National Space Centre, Sg Lang, Selangor, Malaysia have been reported. We selected data in the meter - wave region solar radio spectral observations of the 2012 March 9th flare. During that period, a strong M 7.9 solar flare was recorded from solar Active Region 1429. It is clearly seen an inverted type occurs between 310 MHz till 384 MHz within 1 second. The group of type III burst also occurred before type U. During this period, M6 solar flare occurred in the active region AR 1429 starting at 03:32 UT and ending at 05:00 UT, with the peak at 04:12 UT. There is also a halo of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) produced shortly after, and is expected to deliver a glancing blow to the earth's magnetic field sometime March 16th. In conclusion, we believed that the behavior of type III should be critically understood in order to predict the formation of type U burst. This also approve that the CALLISTO system possible to detect a radio burst signal at a precise time.
    Keywords: Solar burst, U burst, III burst, CALLISTO, solar flare.
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    [2] Zheleznyakov, 1969. Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets, Pergamon Press, New York.
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    [9] Benz, A.O., Grigis, P.C., Csillaghy, A., Saint-Hilaire, P., 2005, "Survey on Solar X-ray Flares and Associated Coherent Radio Emissions", Solar Phys., 226, 121–142.
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