•  
    Volume 4 || Issue 10|| Version-I-October 2015
    Paper Id ::
    49044
    Paper Title :: Coupling Measures for Object Oriented Software Systems- A State-of-the-Art Review
    Author Name :: Calvins Otieno || George Okeyo || Stephen Kimani
    Page Number :: 01-10
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/041001010

    Coupling describes the interrelationship between the various functionalities in a software system. High coupling is a considered as a characteristic of poorly designed system while Low coupling is considered as a characteristic of a well-designed system. This paper presents a review of existing coupling measures and classifies them on the basis of class consideration, object considerations and static and dynamic behavior consideration.

    Keywords -Coupling, Framework, Measure, Class, Object, Object Oriented.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Calvins Otieno , George Okeyo, Stephen Kimani},
    title = {Coupling Measures for Object Oriented Software Systems- A State-of-the-Art Review.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {01-10},
    month = {October}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49059
    Paper Title :: Comparative Analysis of Deterministic and Probabilistic Approaches to Selective Harmonic Elimination in Multilevel Inverter
    Author Name :: Adeyemo, I. A.|| Abolade, R. O. || Adegbola, O. A.
    Page Number :: 11-19
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0410011019

    In this paper, both Newton Raphson iterative method and particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique are implemented for the computation of the optimal switching angles in an 11-level inverter. The switching angles are calculated offline to eliminate 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th harmonics that are more harmful and difficult to remove with filter while the fundamental output voltage is obtained as desired. Performances of the two methods are evaluated and compared in terms of speed, fundamental output voltage and total harmonic distortion (THD). Computational results are validated with MATLAB simulations, and both results are in close agreement.

    Keywords: Multilevel inverter, Selective Harmonics Elimination (SHE), Newton Raphson iterative method, PSO, THD

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Adeyemo, I. A., Abolade, R. O., Adegbola, O. A.},
    title = {Comparative Analysis of Deterministic and Probabilistic Approaches to Selective Harmonic Elimination in Multilevel Inverter},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {11-19},
    month = {October}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49041
    Paper Title :: Estimation of VOC Emission in Petroleum Refinery ETP and Comparative Analysis with Measured VOC Emission Rate
    Author Name :: Srikumar Malakar || Papita Das Saha
    Page Number :: 20-29
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0410020029

    Wastewater streams generated in petroleum refinery contains a considerable amount of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) other than oil & grease, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), inorganic compounds. The major VOCs present in refinery wastewater are 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, Benzene, Biphenyl, Cresols, Cumene, Ethylbenzene, Hexane, Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, Naphthalene, Phenol, Styrene, Toluene, Xylene, 1,3-Butadiene. In this study unit-wise wastewater generation and associated concentration of individual VOCs have been calculated for a refinery of 12 MMTPA crude processing capacity. On the basis of wastewater flow rate and VOC present in wastewater streams, the VOC emission rate has been estimated through WATER9 (version 2.0.0) software. The oil bearing units of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) are considered as VOC emitting units for prediction of unit-wise, component-wise and overall VOC emission rates. The result showed that the percentage conversion from liquid phase to vapor phase are high for 1,3-Butadiene (100%), Hexane (99.7%), Benzene (87.8%), 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (83%), Toluene (70%) and the vapor emission to atmosphere are high for Hexane (38.5%), Toluene (25.3%), 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (18%). The emission rate of BTEX was 39.9% of total VOC vapor emission. The total predicted VOC emission rates have been also compared with VOC values measured in different refineries.

    Keywords: - Effluent Treatment Plant, Petroleum Refinery, VOC, Wastewater, WATER9

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Srikumar Malakar, Papita Das Saha},
    title = {Estimation of VOC Emission in Petroleum Refinery ETP and Comparative Analysis with Measured VOC Emission Rate},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {20-29},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49056
    Paper Title :: Significance of compact layers on DSSCs performance of chemically deposited TiO2-based Dye-sensitized solar cells
    Author Name :: Vijaykumar S. Jadhav|| Sambhaji S. Bhande || Kailas K. Tehare || Sanjay L Gaikwad || Rajaram S. Mane
    Page Number :: 30-34
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0410030034

    We report on beneficial effects of compact TiO2 blocking layers on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated using chemically deposited TiO2 nanorice structures. In presence of compact layers, short circuit current density was improved to 11.5 mA/cm2. The investigation of charge transfer kinetics in the system showed that charge transfer resistance reduced considerably in presence of compact layers indicating effective coupling and good contact between the layers.

    Keywords: -Compact layers; Structural Elucidation; Electrical properties; Electrodeposition

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Vijaykumar S. Jadhav, Sambhaji S. Bhande, Kailas K. Tehare, Sanjay L Gaikwad, Rajaram S. Mane },
    title = {Significance of compact layers on DSSCs performance of chemically deposited TiO2-based Dye-sensitized solar cells},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {30-34},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    48046
    Paper Title :: The changes of Economic Structure of Baubau City Southeast Sulawesi Province
    Author Name :: Wali Aya Rumbia || Muh. Syarif || Baheri || Rostin
    Page Number :: 35-41
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0410035041

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes of the economic structure of Baubau City in Southeast Sulawesi Province. This research used quantitative approach and secondary data sourced from Biro Pusat Statistik (BPS) to obtain a factual description of the normal pattern of changes in the economic structure of Baubau City in Southeast Sulawesi province. Used the shift share analysis for three main sectors consists of primary, secondary and tertiary sector of Baubau City Southeast Sulawesi province. And for the Time series data begin from 2002 to 2013. The Results showed that there has been a change in the economic structure of Baubau City in Southeast Sulawesi Province. The pattern of changes in the economic structure did not follow the normal pattern, that begin from the primary sector to the secondary sector and then to the tertiary sector. The economic structure of Baubau shifted from the primary sector to the tertiary sector was not through the secondary sector. The average contribution of the primary sector in 2002-2013 amounted to 9.65 percent, the secondary sector amounted to 25.54 percent and the tertiary sector amounted to 64.8 percent. The contribution of the secondary sector was low compared to the tertiary sector, but it was competitively. Therefore the government policy was needed to encourage the development of the tertiary sector.

    Keywords: -Economic structure

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Wali Aya Rumbia1 Muh. Syarif, Baheri, Rostin },
    title = {The changes of Economic Structure of Baubau City Southeast Sulawesi Province},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {35-41},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    48036
    Paper Title :: Spectral Depth Estimate of subsurface Structures over Parts of Offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Emujakporue, G.|| Ofoha C. C.
    Page Number :: 42-53
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0410042053

    Two dimensional spectral depth analysis of the aeromagnetic data covering longtitude 3030I to 4030IE and latitude 4030I to 50 00 N; corresponding to parts of offshore Niger Delta was carried out to investigate the thickness to the sedimentary cover. The total magnetic intensity (TMI) data on a scale of 1:384463 were digitized in grid of 1km x 1km spacing and values of the TMI, X, Y were picked at the intersection of the grid nodes. This was implemented in ArcGIS 9.3 software and the xyz data was saved as MS Excel file format. The magnetic data was separated into 39 windows of 15km x 10km using MS Excel sheet for spectral depth analysis, the data was then imported into the Microcal OriginPro8 software for Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to be performed on each window. The result reveals two major magnetic anomaly source depths: D1 and D2; with D1 and D2 representing the deep-seated and shallow sources respectively. Areas with deep lying magnetic bodies have sedimentary thickness ranging from 5600 m to 13636 m and with an average depth of 9466 m whereas shallow anomalous bodies have the thickness of the sediment to ranges from 1250 m to 3684 m but with an average depth of 2467 m. The 9466 m representing the depth to basement suggest enough sedimentary thickness within the area of study. Hydrocarbon accumulation, and perhaps exploration, will probably be high provided other conditions are favorable.

    Keywords: -Aeromagnetic data, offshore Niger Delta, sedimentary thickness, Spectral depth analysis, basement relief

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Emujakporue, G. , Ofoha C. C. },
    title = {Spectral Depth Estimate of subsurface Structures over Parts of Offshore Niger Delta, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {42-53},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49084
    Paper Title :: A Real Application on Economic Design of Control Charts with R-edcc Package
    Author Name :: Sündüs DA
    Page Number :: 54-65
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0410054065

    Control charts are the most popular process monitoring tools to detect changes in the product quality. Some design parameters should be determined to create a control chart. These parameters are sample size, sampling interval, and control limits. Selecting of these parameters economically is prominent topic and called the economic design of control charts. The purpose of the economic design is to combine parameters for minimizing production costs. Economic design of process control charts has been investigated by many researchers for sixty decades. Different models are developed for economic design of control charts by many researchers to minimize the cost function. In recent years, researchers focus on software for economically detecting the design parameters. Majority of the applications made up in recent years are carried out using MATLAB, C, SAS etc. Zu and Park first developed a software package in R which is named as edcc for the economical design of control charts in 2013. This paper presents a economic design of the control charts in a real production process using R edcc package. In this study, a pharmaceutical production process is handled. This study aims to show how the control charts design economically on a real life problem

    Keywords: -Control charts, Economic design, Pharmaceutical sector, Real application, R-edcc

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Sündüs DA },
    title = {A Real Application on Economic Design of Control Charts with R-edcc Package},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {54-65},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    4805
    Paper Title :: Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control (PID) Of A Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (Cstr)
    Author Name :: Ojiabo T. Kenechukwu || Igbokwe P.K.,
    Page Number :: 66-73
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0410066073

    Simulation is a very important tool especially now that computations speed of computer increase exponentially every day. With simulation, one will be exposed to the knowledge of various pieces of equipment. Simulation on mathematical model has several advantages over real experiment, this include; affordability, less time consuming, knowledge of non available equipments. This work deals on proportional integral derivative (PID) control of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for virtual experiment. Non isothermal CSTR and different control modes were used in this work. Values were chosen at steady state and dynamic point. Results of this work showed the stability of the non isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor at different tuning point and disturbances. This work serves as a teaching aid for chemical engineering student.

    Keywords: -CSTR, PID, Simulation, MATLAB and Laboratory Experiment.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ojiabo T. Kenechukwu , Igbokwe P.K., },
    title = {Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control (PID) Of A Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (Cstr)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {66-73},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49065
    Paper Title :: Design and Analysis Aircraft Nose and Nose Landing Gear
    Author Name :: Rajesh A || Abhay B T
    Page Number :: 74-80
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0410074080

    Tri-cycle arrangement landing gear is extensively used as it is simple; convenient both structurally as well as aerodynamically. Though it is advantageous over other configuration is has its own draw backs. Factors like its weight drag, sudden application of load, acoustics, fatigue etc tend to slow down its performance and life. Among main landing gear and nose landing gear; the former carries about 85% of total weight of aircraft and latter carries around 12-15% of weight. The nose landing gear is also a source of noise and its effect is prominent when compared to main landing gear. In this project the executive jet aircraft are studied thoroughly and a nose landing gear similar to those of executive jets is modeled using CATIA. The same geometry is imported to ANSYS ICEM and flow on the body is analyzed for different angle of attack. Pressure variation, temperature, density and velocity distribution around the body is noted and then Coefficient for Lift and Drag are plotted against angle of attack for obtained results. It is also important to check the strength and stiffness of designed landing gear. Hence using ANSYS APDL and Explicit; Static structural and Impact test has been carried out for designed geometry. Stress distribution and deformation was noted for two distinct materials such as steel and aluminum alloy and primary results of acoustics has been compared with the available data

    Keywords: -Angle of attack, Deformation, Flow over body, Coefficient of lift, Coefficient of drag Impact landing, Nose landing gear, Stress distribution, acoustics.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Rajesh A, Abhay B T },
    title = {Design and Analysis Aircraft Nose and Nose Landing Gear},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {74-80},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49040
    Paper Title :: The influence of the type and the thickness of the window layer on the electric parameters of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cell
    Author Name :: A. K. Ehemba || M. Dieng || D. Diallo || I. Wade || M. Socé
    Page Number :: 81-86
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0410081086

    In this paper we study the influence of the window layer on the electric parameters of the solar cell. We carry out the simulation of a solar cell of type window layer / transmitter layer (CdS) / absorber (CuInGaSe2).We vary the nature of the window layer by using intrinsic Zinc Oxide (i-ZnO), the Zinc Oxide doped N (n-ZnO), the Tin Dioxide (SnO2) and the Indium Transparent Oxide (ITO). A variation of the thickness of each one of these windows layers enable us to study the behavior of the macroscopic electric parameters (Voc, Jsc, FF, η) and external quantum efficiency EQE. A solar cell efficiency of about 16.6% is obtained with the n-ZnO, which makes it the best candidate. The SnO2 also allow us to reach a significant external quantum efficiency of about 93.85% for a thickness of 0.01μm only.

    Keywords: -external quantum efficiency EQE, ITO, i-ZnO, macroscopic electric parameters, n-ZnO, SnO2, solar cell, window layer.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {A. K. Ehemba, M. Dieng,3D. Diallo, I. Wade, M. Socé},
    title = {The influence of the type and the thickness of the window layer on the electric parameters of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cell},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {81-86},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Volume 4 || Issue 10|| Version-II-October 2015
    Paper Id ::
    48027
    Paper Title :: Mild Steel Corrosion Inhibition in H2SO4 Using Ethanol Extract of Vernonia Amygdalina
    Author Name :: Achebe C.H. || Ilogebe A. B || Chukwuneke J. L. || Azaka O. A.|| Ugwuegbu D. C.
    Page Number :: 01-09
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/041020109

    The study of inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in 1M H2SO4 medium using ethanol extract of vernonia amygdalina was carried out using weight loss, and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that ethanol extract of vernonia amygdalina inhibited corrosion of mild steel. The inhibition efficiency ranged from 83.91% to 89.11%, 81.09 % to 85.00%, 81.08% to 84.90% and 77.45% to 79.66% at 303, 313, 323 and 333K respectively. The inhibition efficiency of the extract increased as the concentration of the extract increases but decreased as temperature and time of immersion increases. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed that ethanol extract of vernonia amygdalina inhibited the corrosion of mild steel by forming a protective film

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Achebe C.H., Ilogebe A. B, Chukwuneke J. L., Azaka O. A., Ugwuegbu D. C.},
    title = {Mild Steel Corrosion Inhibition in H2SO4 Using Ethanol Extract of Vernonia Amygdalina},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {01-09},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49025
    Paper Title :: Media as a Tool for Empowering the Rural Populace of Zimbabwe towards Understanding Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (Zim Asset)
    Author Name :: Miss Sithokozile Sibanda || Prof Onias Mafa
    Page Number :: 10-16
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04102010016

    In 2013 the government of Zimbabwe embarked on an economic growth and wealth creation plan known as the Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (Zim Asset). This is supposed to be an inclusive plan benefiting all Zimbabweans. However, people living in rural areas may not be aware of Zim Asset due to a hiatus in information on this plan in rural areas. The study explored how media can be used to sensitise people in rural areas about Zim Asset. The research was informed by a constructivist philosophy which argues that knowledge and meaning are generated from an interaction between researchers and participants. A qualitative research methodology was employed for the study as it is appropriate when one does not need manipulate the behavior of those involved in the study. A case study research design was used as it enabled a detailed and contextual understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. Participants were selected through purposive sampling because of the need to identify data rich sources. Interviews and Focus Group Discussions were used for data generation. The trustworthiness of the data was established through triangulation of data sources and data generation techniques, recording of interviews and Focus Group Discussions proceedings, transcribing and member checking. data analysis we used thematic content analysis. Major findings were that media have the potential to educate people living in Zimbabwe's about Zim Asset. However, for this ideal to be realized, a number of challenges and policy issues need to be addressed.

    Keywords: -Media, Zim Asset, Empowerment, Rural Populace..

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Miss Sithokozile Sibanda ,Prof Onias Mafa},
    title = {Media as a Tool for Empowering the Rural Populace of Zimbabwe towards Understanding Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (Zim Asset)},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {10-*16},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49026
    Paper Title :: Re-thinking the Research-Based Higher Degrees Programme in Open and Distant Learning (ODL).
    Author Name :: Onias Mafa ||Esther Mafa
    Page Number :: 17-24
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04102017024

    In this paper we study the influence of the window layer on the electric parameters of the solar cell. We carry out the simulation of a solar cell of type window layer / transmitter layer (CdS) / absorber (CuInGaSe2).We vary the nature of the window layer by using intrinsic Zinc Oxide (i-ZnO), the Zinc Oxide doped N (n-ZnO), the Tin Dioxide (SnO2) and the Indium Transparent Oxide (ITO). A variation of the thickness of each one of these windows layers enable us to study the behavior of the macroscopic electric parameters (Voc, Jsc, FF, η) and external quantum efficiency EQE. A solar cell efficiency of about 16.6% is obtained with the n-ZnO, which makes it the best candidate. The SnO2 also allow us to reach a significant external quantum efficiency of about 93.85% for a thickness of 0.01μm only.

    Keywords: -external quantum efficiency EQE, ITO, i-ZnO, macroscopic electric parameters, n-ZnO, SnO2, solar cell, window layer.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Onias Mafa,Esther Mafa},
    title = {Re-thinking the Research-Based Higher Degrees Programme in Open and Distant Learning (ODL).},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {17-24},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49066
    Paper Title :: BIODIVERSITY OF FRESHWATER INSECTS: A REVIEW
    Author Name :: Anjana Choudhary || Janak Ahi
    Page Number :: 25-31
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04102025031

    Aquatic insects may considered model organisms in analyzing the structure and function of the freshwater ecosystem because of their high abundance, high birth rate with short generation time, large biomass and rapid colonization of freshwater habitats. Aquatic insects are found associated with water for most part of their life cycle, any change in their number and composition in the population at a given time and space may indicate a change in the water quality. They also act as an indicator of trophic structure, water quality and eutrophication of the aquatic ecosystems.

     

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Anjana Choudhary , Janak Ahi},
    title = {BIODIVERSITY OF FRESHWATER INSECTS: A REVIEW},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {25-31},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    410013
    Paper Title :: Poverty Alleviation through Community Empowerment Based Farming Ponds in Coastal Areas Southeast Sulawesi
    Author Name :: Abd Aziz Muthalib || Ahmad Muhlis Nuryadi ||La Ode Almana
    Page Number :: 32-40
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04102032040

    This study aims to: (1) determine the causes of poverty fish farmers in coastal areas of Southeast Sulawesi, (2) know the problems faced by fish farmers of the people in increasing production and income, (3) determine the most dominant factor affecting the production ponds, ( 4) determine the fight against poverty, (5) find out how fish farmers models of empowerment of the people. The results showed that: (1). The factors that cause poverty of poor people in coastal areas of Southeast Sulawesi is the helplessness of society, low levels of education, lifestyle consumption, and low entrepreneurial spirit. (2) The problems still faced by fish farmers of the people in increasing production and revenues include low skills fish farmers , lack of capital, lack of knowledge farmers, poor quality seeds, lack of business assistance, and limited market access. (3) The most dominant factor affecting seed production is a traditional embankment, which bararti that more seeds are spread higher levels of production are achieved. (4) Efforts to reduce poverty in coastal areas of Southeast Sulawesi can be done through community empowerment programs, counseling and training. (5) The model of community empowerment can be done through training, business assistance, aid access to capital and government assistance.

    Keywords: -poverty, empowerment, fish farmers, coastal areas

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Abd Aziz Muthalib, Ahmad Muhlis Nuryadi, La Ode Almana},
    title = {Poverty Alleviation through Community Empowerment Based Farming Ponds in Coastal Areas Southeast Sulawesi},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {32-40},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    410014
    Paper Title :: The Study of Satisfaction Level towards Tourism Digital of Thailand Tourism Information Seeking and Domestic Travel Decision of Tourists
    Author Name :: Siri Chaengcheau
    Page Number :: 41-52
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04102041052

    Recent improvements in data communication can empower new features in various industries. Tou rism can also profit from real-time data communication to attack problems of data untimeliness, which is one of main problems existing in tourism industry in Thailand. Hence, this study is aimed at developing application an active tourism information acquisition system under market strategy plan . Our strategy is created from customer needs through the 4P model, from which we found that two key issues, e.g. (1) incentive by gamification marketing and (2) highly increasing up-to-date data, can influence travelers to visit certain places. Our work uses technology acceptance survey from 420 travelers. We have found the actual factor that affect user adoption and inspire user to make the travel happens. When the users accept and use the system, the tourism information will be collected and updated in the system continually. The paper demonstrates that applying acquisition system with tourism sector can be used to improve the system in the same domain to actually support business by responding to the travelers' demands decisively.

    Keywords: -acquisition systems, gamification, 4P, Technology acceptance model, Tourism information.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Siri Chaengcheau},
    title = {The Study of Satisfaction Level towards Tourism Digital of Thailand Tourism Information Seeking and Domestic Travel Decision of Tourists},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {41-52},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49039
    Paper Title :: Environmental Degradation and Global Warming Challenges for Building Construction Profession
    Author Name :: Ajetomobi Oludare Olayinka , Olanrewaju Sharafadeen Babatunde Owolabi
    Page Number :: 53-57
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04102053057

    This study examined the challenges posed by environmental degradation and global warming on then building construction profession. Environmental degradation is manifested in form of water pollution and flooding while global warming will likely result in an increase in the amount of waste exchanged among the ocean, increase in atmospheric temperature which increases rates of evaporation leading to a situation of drier soils, decline in air quality due to abundance of air pollutants. Data for the study were collected through well-structured questionnaire administered to building industry professionals. Data collected were analyzed using percentages. The findings reveal that desert regions ranked first (81.82%), forest ranked second with agreed percentage of 80.91 and lakes, streams, wetlands ranked third with agreed percentage of 77.27. These were followed by rising temperatures (73.64%). Both plant and animal species are sensitive to climate and it ranked first with disagreed percentage of 48.18.Unrestrained human activities all over the world have contributed to environmental destruction and ecological crisis which are threats to the construction industry. The building construction professional is required to be responsible for minimizing the effects of these challenges on construction work by taking appropriate steps in the investigation of soil tests, designing suitable foundations and retaining walls and ensuring that specifications are strictly followed so as to ensure that the structure withstands the adverse effect of the environmental degradation and global warning.

    Keywords: -Environment, degradation, global, building construction, profession, greenhouse.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Ajetomobi Oludare Olayinka , Olanrewaju Sharafadeen Babatunde Owolabi},
    title = {Environmental Degradation and Global Warming Challenges for Building Construction Profession},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {53-57},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    4706
    Paper Title :: Impact of Household Storage Tanks and Practices on Quality of Rainwater Stored in Central Gonja District, Ghana
    Author Name :: Issaka, R. Z|| Abdallah, M. H || Abiwu, N
    Page Number :: 58-66
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04102058066

    The containers for storing rainwater and storage practices can be a source of contamination to the water stored and this has become a major concern. This study focused on the impact of household storage tank and practices on the quality of rainwater stored in Central Gonja District of northern Ghana. A baseline study was conducted in households to know the types of storage tanks and sanitation practices in the study area. Sixty-three (63) rainwater samples were collected from plastic, metal and concrete tanks within three (3) months of storage including water from entry points of the tanks. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, nitrate, iron, and faecal coliform. The results showed that plastic and concrete tanks were generally within WHO recommendations for drinking water for most of the parameters measured except for faecal coliform. The results also showed that faecal contamination of rainwater stored was the result poor storage and sanitation practices on the part of households. The results also showed that the type of storage material has direct impact more on the physico-chemical quality of rainwater stored and care must be taken in the use of metal tanks for rainwater storage

    Keywords: -Rainwater, plastic, metal, concrete, storage

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Issaka, R. Z. Abdallah, M. H. and Abiwu, N.},
    title = {Impact of Household Storage Tanks and Practices on Quality of Rainwater Stored in Central Gonja District, Ghana.},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {58-66},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49032
    Paper Title :: QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF COST EFFICIENCY OF SOLAR POWERED LED LAMPS
    Author Name :: Siddharth Gopujkar || Anudeep Padmanabhan
    Page Number :: 67-69
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04102067069

    Solar energy is the radiant light and heat from the Sun which is available all over the Earth, albeit in varying amounts depending on the location.The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined!(1) This very fact and the fact that non-renewable sources of energy are causing global warming and are depleting has lead to an increase in the importance given to solar energy (as it is the largest of all renewable energy sources). However, people are skeptical of turning to solar energy due to the high capital cost. Similar is the case with LEDs. LED lights have high energy saving potential. A 60 W LED light provides enough light for substituting a 500 W halogen. But owing to the high initial costs, not everyone is inclined towards taking the energy efficient step. The authors of this paper used a combination of an LED light run on solar power to substitute a halogen run on electricity. We carried out this experiment in a company where we were working as interns. The halogen was being used to light up the storage area of the company during the dark. This paper deals with the energy saved and the number of years needed to break-even with the initial cost. The objective is to give the masses an idea of the cost and energy saving potential of the same.

    Keywords: -solar, renewable, LED, energy saving

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Siddharth Gopujkar, Anudeep Padmanabhan},
    title = {QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF COST EFFICIENCY OF SOLAR POWERED LED LAMPS},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {58-66},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Volume 4 || Issue 10|| Version-III-October 2015
    Paper Id ::
    43043
    Paper Title :: ASSESSMENT OF SORGHUM STORAGE METHODS IN MADAGALI AND GANYE AREAS OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
    Author Name :: Mahai, S || Jamala, G.Y || Mada, D.A || Medugu, I.A.
    Page Number :: 01-06
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/041030106

    The research was conducted to assess the methods of sorghum storage in Madagali and Ganye local Government areas of Adamawa state, Nigeria. A total of one hundred (100) respondents were selected using purposive and random sampling techniques. Descriptive statistics, such frequency distribution and percentages were used to analyze the data. The results of the characteristics distribution of the respondents are presented in Table 1. Concerning the decision of the farmers to store sorghum, majority of the respondents (96%) indicated that they do store sorghum grains after harvest, while few of them (4%) maintained that they do not practice any form of storage. A reasonable number of the respondents (62%) stored the grains as threshed grains while 38% stored it unthreshed. Few numbers of the respondents (2%) indicated that they usually stored their produce for the period of more than five years. 59% of the respondents pointed out that they use to store the grains without using any herbs. When asked about the type of storage facilities used, 51% of the respondents indicate that they prefer storing the grains in bags, while 21% and 19% uses granary and rhombus respectively. 68% of the respondents show that they use mud and grasses in constructing the storage structure and 21% revealed that they make use of cements and zincs. Most of the rural farmers in the study areas (51%) agreed that they can only build storage structure that can contain 1-10 bags (0.08-0.8 tons) of the threshed grains, while 4% of the respondents said that their storage structure can contain more than 100 bags (8 tons). According to the farmers, the storage structure can last between 1 to 5 years. The result of this study shows that sorghum grains are mostly stored traditionally using the available local construction materials. Nevertheless, some farmers preferred the use of poly bags than granary and rhombus. An important issue here is how to support these poor rural farmers to improve on methods of storing sorghum grains in order to minimize postharvest losses to the minimal level.

    Keywords: -Sorghum, Assessment, Storage, Granary, Rhombus, Grains

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mahai, S; Jamala, G.Y; Mada, D.A and Medugu, I.A.},
    title = {ASSESSMENT OF SORGHUM STORAGE METHODS IN MADAGALI AND GANYE AREAS OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {01-06},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    410031
    Paper Title :: Analysis and Forecasting Of the Production Quantity in a Manufacturing Industry Using Historical Data
    Author Name :: Okolie Paul Chukwulozie || Azaka Onyemazuwa Andrew || Okoli Ndubuisi Celestine || Sinebe Jude Ebieladoh
    Page Number :: 07-17
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/0410307017

    This research work focused on the use of forecasting techniques to model and analyze the production of plastic products in Loius carter plastic industry. Production yield data were collected from the company covering a period of three years. The applied forecasting models were used to forecast the results of the future production of the products. The applied models developed using weighted moving average method, winters model and Double exponential smoothing model show that Y1 (10litres bucket) product was to be produced for 13997.6, 15854 and 10206.5 units respectively for the month of January 2014, while for the February 2014, weighted moving average method, winters model and Double exponential smoothing model show that Y1 product was to be produced for 8554.12, 15024.1 and 9791.2 units respectively. These methods were applied on the products for monthly yield of the product types investigated. From the results, the decrease in trend showed a continuous decrease in their future production output on the product Y1. The seasonal influences were analyzed based on months using the production data of the case study company. Time series decomposition analyses were also used to study the seasonality and trend in the five products investigated.

    Keywords: -time series, forecasting, moving average, winters, double exponential, production quantity

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Okolie Paul Chukwulozie, Azaka Onyemazuwa Andrew, Okoli Ndubuisi Celestine, Sinebe Jude Ebieladoh},
    title = {Analysis and Forecasting Of the Production Quantity in a Manufacturing Industry Using Historical Data},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {07-17},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    410038
    Paper Title :: Heat and Mass Transfer On Unsteady Mhd Free Convection Flow Of Second Grade Fluid Past An Infinite Rotating Vertical Plate
    Author Name :: Dr. G. KATHYAYANI|| D.M. Praveen Babu
    Page Number :: 18-28
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04103018028

    We consider the unsteady MHD free convection flow of an incompressible electrically conducting second grade fluid bounded by an infinite vertical porous surface in the presence of heat source and chemical reaction in a rotating. The flow through porous medium is governed by Brinkman's model for the momentum equation. In the undisturbed state, both the plate and fluid in porous medium are in solid body rotation with the same angular velocity about normal to the infinite vertical plane surface. The vertical surface is subjected to the uniform constant suction perpendicular to it and the temperature on the surface varies with time about a non-zero constant mean while the temperature of free stream is taken to be constant. The exact solutions for the velocity, temperature and concentration are obtained making use of perturbation technique. The velocity expression consists steady state and oscillatory state. It reveals that, the steady part of the velocity field has three layer characters while the oscillatory part of the fluid field exhibits a multi layer character. The influence of various flow parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration is analysed graphically, and computational results for the skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also obtained in the tabular forms.

    Keywords: -Heat and mass transfer, MHD flows, infinite vertical plates, porous medium, rotating channels, second grade fluids.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Dr. G. KATHYAYANI, D.M. Praveen Babu},
    title = {Heat and Mass Transfer On Unsteady Mhd Free Convection Flow Of Second Grade Fluid Past An Infinite Rotating Vertical Plate},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {18-28},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49030
    Paper Title :: Analysis of engine piston and piston ring using CATIA and ANSYS for attaining higher Efficiency
    Author Name :: SANDEEP JAIN|| NAVNEET KHARE || DEEPAK SAHU
    Page Number :: 29-35
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04103029035

    In this present work a piston and piston ring are designed for a single cylinder four stroke petrol engine using CATIA V5R20 software. Complete design is imported to ANSYS 14.5 software and then analysis is performed. Three different materials have been selected for structural and thermal analysis of piston. For piston ring two different materials are selected and structural and thermal analysis is performed using ANSYS 14.5 software. Results are shown and a comparison is made to find the most suited design.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {SANDEEP JAIN,NAVNEET KHARE, DEEPAK SAHU},
    title = {Analysis of engine piston and piston ring using CATIA and ANSYS for attaining higher Efficiency},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {29-35},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49027
    Paper Title :: A numerical Technique Finite Volume Method for Solving Diffusion 2D Problem
    Author Name :: Mohammed Hasnat || Nourddine Kaid ||Mohammed Bensafi|| Abdellah Belkacem
    Page Number :: 36-41
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04103036041

    In this paper, a numerical finite volume technique was used to solve transient partial differential equations for heat transfer in two dimensions with the boundary condition of mixed Dirichlet (constant, not constant) in a rectangular field. We explained the procedures step by step, for the digital solution we used our Fortran code and a line by line TDMA solver for algebraic equations. Finally, the numerical results are compared with the exact solution

    Keywords: -Conduction, Dirichlet boundary condition, finite volume method, heat transfer, TDMA

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mohammed Hasnat, Nourddine Kaid, Mohammed Bensafi, Abdellah Belkacem},
    title = {A numerical Technique Finite Volume Method for Solving Diffusion 2D Problem},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {36-41},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49053
    Paper Title :: Analysis and Optimization of connecting rod by using PRO-E and ANSYS
    Author Name :: S.JAI KUMAR || P.V.S. Krishna Sandeep || MD. Usman Khan || Tushar Murty
    Page Number :: 42-47
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04103042047

    Connecting rod is the important part of an IC Engine. It transmits motion of piston to crank shaft and converts translating motion of piston into rotary motion and vice versa. From application point of view it is necessary that connecting rod must be light in weight and having good strength under fatigue or reverse loading. For this purpose generally material of connecting rod is carbon steel or aluminum alloy. In this work we take connecting rod of a Mahindra Jeep CJ-340 and change its material from Al360 to PEEK. The modeling of the connecting rod is done on Pro-E wildfire 4.0 and analysis work is done on ANSYS 14.5. The parameters like Von mises stress, Von mises strain and displacement was obtained from ANSYS software which shows reduction in weight and improvement in strength

    Keywords: -Connecting Rod, Optimization, Pro-E, ANSYS

    @article{key:article,
    author = {S.JAI KUMAR, P.V.S. Krishna Sandeep, MD. Usman Khan, Tushar Murty},
    title = {Analysis and Optimization of connecting rod by using PRO-E and ANSYS},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {42-47},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    49012
    Paper Title :: Comparison of Carbon Monoxide Concentrations with Set Standards: A case study of Port-Harcourtmetropolis, Nigeria
    Author Name :: Robert, James J.
    Page Number :: 48-54
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04103048054

    This study is concerned with the measurement of carbon monoxide (CO)concentrations in air at some selected traffic junctions in Port-Harcourt metropolis. TSI portable digital gas detector was employed in measuring the CO concentration in part per million. Port Harcourt is located at the coastal region of Nigeria. Its geographical coordinates are 4047' 21'' North, 60 59' 55''East and 15.83metres above sea level. Seven sampling points were selected for the study. The weekly mean for the period (March/June, 2015) ranged between 36.07±2.6ppm and 14.3±0.7ppm. This shows that the measured weekly mean CO concentrations of all the sampling sites for the periods under study are higher than Nigeria Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA, 10ppm), World Health Organization (WHO, 10ppm), and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 9ppm) set limits. This means, every person within this environment (traffic congested junctions) are being exposed on daily basis to this poisonous gas (carbon monoxide). Exposure to high levels of CO has long been known to adversely affect central nervous system (CNS), with symptoms following acute CO poisoning including headache, dizziness, cognitive difficulties, lack of concentration, and death. Hence the need to introduce effective control measures ; such as charges on old vehicles that give out thick smoke, good road network, efficient transport system, and the use of alternative source of fuel.

    Keywords: -Comparison, Carbon monoxide Concentration, SetStandards, Case Study.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Robert, James J.},
    title = {Comparison of Carbon Monoxide Concentrations with Set Standards: A case study of Port-Harcourtmetropolis, Nigeria},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {48-54},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    410039
    Paper Title :: Green City Concept– As New Paradigm in Urban Planning
    Author Name :: Mrs.Pankaja M.S || Dr H.N. Nagendra
    Page Number :: 55-60
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04103055060

    As towns and cities are growing at an alarming rate, with an increasing trend of urbanization, which in turn increases greater demand for urban infrastructure and urban land for accommodating the future urban growth and development. At the same time these aspects became a very significant component to redefine their planning approach by the concerned authorities of the city, such as the urban local bodies like City Corporation which are taking care of urban growth and development in most of the compactly developed areas of the city or town. The urban areas beyond local body's jurisdiction are generally taken care by urban planning and development authorities to accommodate future urban growth and development with a comprehensive approach through proper urban planning processes. In spite of the comprehensive approach in urban planning most of the urban problems remained as irresolvable and becoming beyond the control of planners which in-turn bring down both quality of life and the natural environment. On the other hand a green city planning concept, not a new concept, but it is a new approach in the urban planning processes to overcome existing inabilities in handling the urban problems which were treated as complex and un-resolvable to make urban planning more sustainable without damaging the urban ecology and environment.

    Keywords: -Ecology; Environment; Green City Concept; Urban Planning

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Mrs.Pankaja M.S, , Dr H.N. Nagendra,},
    title = {Green City Concept– As New Paradigm in Urban Planning},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {55-60},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    410045
    Paper Title :: Factors affecting the decision making of Entrepreneurs on selection Logistics Services in Thailand
    Author Name :: Harichaya Nawakitrangsan
    Page Number :: 61-65
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04103061065

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the entrepreneur's decision of the logistics service application, and to find out the guideline of improvement and devilment efficiency of logistics service entrepreneur serve the need of the customer.The research methodology consist of 400 entrepreneurs which were selected as random sampling, the sample of the study. The questionnaire was the instrument of the study for collecting date. The percentage, mean, standard deviation, F-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson relationship coefficient were used as the statistical analysis. The statistical package was used as the statistical analysis from the collected questionnaire. The result of the study found that the different character of organization effected to the different entrepreneur's decision of logistics service application. The marketing mixed factor effected to the different entrepreneur's decision of logistics service application. The opinion in various factors related to the different entrepreneur's decision of logistics service application

    Keywords: -Investigate, entrepreneur, Marketing mixed factor, logistics service application.

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Harichaya Nawakitrangsan},
    title = {Factors affecting the decision making of Entrepreneurs on selection Logistics Services in Thailand},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {61-65},
    month = {Ocober}
    }
    Paper Id ::
    410044
    Paper Title :: The investment decision making in long term equity fund (LTF) of Thai investors in Bangkok
    Author Name :: Tidaporn Tanakul
    Page Number :: 66-70
    Paper Index :: 09.1913/04103066070

    The objective of this research paper is to study deciding factors to invest in Long Term Equity Funds (LTF) amongst investors in Bangkok. This study looks at influential demographics on the decision to invest in Long Term Equity Funds of investors in Bangkok and studies the relationship between the factors which consist of yield on investment, taxes, present incentives of saving and investment, knowledge and interest of investment and distributing agents, with the impact on Bangkok investors' decision to buy Long Term Equity Funds. Research findings found that the demographic of questionnaire respondents which comprised age, average income per month and LTF investment experience varied, whereby the decision to invest in LTFs also differed with a statistical significance of 0.05. Factors which influenced the decision to invest in Long Term Equity Funds amongst investors in Bangkok which had the most positive correlation were those related to tax and current savings and investment incentives. The sample group said that purchasing LTFs could help reduce the burden on personal income taxes and future savings. This was followed by the factor on yield upon investments for Long Term Equity Investment Funds, which had a mid-level positive correlation, as well as the factor on knowledge and interest in investments and distributing agencies, which also had a mid-level positive correlation on the decision to purchase LTFs

    Keywords: -Investment, Long Term Equity Fund (LTF), yield on investment, tax, knowledge and interest in investment

    @article{key:article,
    author = {Tidaporn Tanakul},
    title = {The investment decision making in long term equity fund (LTF) of Thai investors in Bangkok},
    journal = {The International Journal of Engineering and Science},
    year = {2015},
    volume = {4},
    number = {10},
    pages = {66-70},
    month = {Ocober}
    }